12/11/11
Course Notes (Fall 2011)
GPGN 303: Section 3 Introduction to Electrical Methods
Yaoguo Li Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines
(For class use only, do not distribute!)
Outline
• Introduction
– Electrical conductivity
– Electrical current in conductive media
– Charge accumulation
• Middle gradient mapping
– Apparent resistivity
• Vertical electrical sounding
– Survey configuration
– interpretation
• 2D and 3D imaging
– Array and survey geometry
– Inversion
• Induced polarization
1
12/11/11
• Conventional geophysical methods:
– Gravity
– Magnetics
– DC resistivity/Induced polarization
– Electromagnetic induction (EM)
– Ground penetrating radar (GPR)
– Seismic
2
12/11/11
1. Introduction: Basic concept of electrical method
• Inject direct current into conductive ground. • Measure the voltage produced on the surface or in boreholes. • Always involves four electrodes.
Different components of “the model”
• Energy source: batteries or generator
• Field: electric field / electrical current
• Material property: electrical conductivity (resistivity)
• Interaction: conductivity changes the flow of electrical current (*)
• Altered field: different electrical field distribution
• Data: voltage measured on the surface or in the boreholes.
3
12/11/11
Conceptual model
• Given the above configuration:
• One would measure higher voltages over a resistive body and lower voltages over a more conductive body (to be discussed soon). • The voltage “senses” the change in resistivity or conductivity.
Historical Development
• The first S.P. survey conducted in 1820 by Fox in England.
– S.P. over a massive sulfide body
• Schlumberger brothers in 1920’s
– 1D sounding and borehole logging
• 1940’s and 50’s: multiple position & multiple offset used in mineral exploration • 1950: Induced Polarization (IP) for disseminated sulfides
4
12/11/11
Electrical Conductivity
• Ohm’s Law: R = V/I • Resistance = Voltage/Current • Voltage is directly related to resistivity: Voltage increases when resistance increases.
Crosssection area: A
L
Length:
Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity
• Express in current density (j) in terms of electric field (E) and material property (resistivity !).
• Conductivity is the more fundamental quantity
5
12/11/11
Factors affecting rock conductivities
• Porosity
• Permeability (pore connectivity)
• Fluid saturation
• Electrical conductivity of the fluid
6
12/11/11
(Ward, 1990)
7
12/11/11
8
12/11/11
Summary
• Current density does not change across the interface. • The electric field is discontinuous across the interface. • The only field generator of static electric field is electrical charges
– There must be accumulation of the electrical charges at the interface.
This leads to the only conclusion:
There must be charges accumulating on the interface!
9
12/11/11
The questions are then:
• What is the sign of the charge and how much is there?
• Let’s approximate the charges locally as an infinite sheet
with surface charge density,
electrical field normal to the interface.
, which produces an
• The normal field is given by
• Such that the total normal components are given by
Surface density of charges on the interface
10
12/11/11
11
12/11/11
How does the current flow?
Combining the two boundary conditions to derive the angle of current flow with respect to the normal vector
i.e., current bends towards normal when entering resistive medium, and away from normal when entering conductve medium!
12
12/11/11
Key Points:
charges accumulate and current flow
Case 
Charge 
Electrical current 
Conductive to 
Bends towards 

Resistive 
the normal 

Resistive to 
Bends away 

Conductive 
from the normal 
(Burger, 1992)
13
12/11/11
Current flowing in and around conductivity anomalies
Current channels into
a conductor
Current flows around
a resistor
Arrowed lines are current flow; dashed lines are supposed to be equipotential lines.
Equivalent charges at the source point:
14
12/11/11
at the source location!
spreads out on the surface!
Misealamasse method
An illustration of the role of charge accumulation in DC resistivity method
15
12/11/11
1. Misealamasse method
– Direct application of charge accumulation
– Charge an inplace conductive body, creating charges on the surface of the body as current flows outwards.
– Measure the potential at the surface.
– Similar to gravity, except in this case you are measuring potential.
Schematics of a misealamasse survey
16
12/11/11
Conceptual summary of DC resistivity method
• We inject electrical current into the ground (source and field)
• Electrical charges accumulate on the interfaces between regions with different electrical conductivity (physical property and interaction with the input primary field).
• Accumulated charges produce additional electric field that is superimposed on the primary field (altered field).
• We measure the resultant field (data), which carry information about the conductivity variation.
Miseálamasse surveys:
•
•
•
delineated the extent of sulfides method for correlating drill hole ore intersections guide drilling during a deep exploration program.
(Hattula and Rekola, 2000, Geophysics)
17
12/11/11
2. Middle Gradient Survey
Middle Gradient Survey
• Inject current into the ground using a pair of widely separated
A 
&B electrode, so as to create nearly horizontal priamry field 
in 
the middle. 
• As current passes through regions of varying conductivity, charges accumulate at the interfaces between regions with different conductivities.
• Measure the potential differences produced by these accumulated charges together with the primary potential.
• Rely on the fact that the horizontal component of the primary electric field is nearly constant with the central 1/3 bewteen the AB electrodes
18
12/11/11
Setup of Middle Gradient
• Measures the horizontal variation in voltage. • Use fixed electrode (A and B) positions at large separation. • Move MN around inside AB (central 1/3) • Originally: measurements only along the line passing AB • Commonly: measurements over a grid • MN electrodes are parallel to AB electrodes (important!)
Primary Field in the direction paralle to AB
19
12/11/11
20
12/11/11
• Charge accumulation & anomalous potential • Two parts of potential difference
– Primary
– Anomalous
• The anomalous potential can be either constructive or destructive to the primary field, depending on location.
– Over a conductive body: we measure a central low with two positive side lobes
– Over a resistive body: we measure a central high with two negative side lobes
21
12/11/11
X
Apparent Resistivity:
• Let’s define a quantity, “apparent resistivity”. • It should:
– Be constant over a uniform halfspace (preferred)
– have the units of resistivity
Uniform halfspace
X
22
12/11/11
Apparent Resistivity: Definition
• The apparent resistivity is the measured voltage scaled by the current and by a geometrical factor (K).
• The geometrical factor depends on the type of survey, based on the electrode and voltmeter positions. • Generally:
A few comments about the apparent resistivity
• It is a convenient quantity to work with for the following two reasons:
– It has the units of resistivity ( ! m)
– It is equal to the true value if we have a uniform halfspace
• However, apparent resistivity is NOT the primary data. Measured voltages are the primary data, which are used by most modern inversion algorithms
• In true 3D acquisition where the MN and AB electrodes are not aligned in the same direction, we may NOT be able to define an apparent resistivity, because the geometric factor is undefined (infinite).
23
12/11/11
Middle Gradient Array Over a Vertical Contact
Apparent resistivity map from a middle gradient Survey at the Ballenger Ranch, NM
Two surveys merged AB1: (20,60 ) (280,60) AB2: (40,0) (260,0) MN= 10 m
•
•
•
24
12/11/11
Utility of middle gradient surveys
• Areal mapping to characterize the lateral variation of subsurface conductivity • Has little information about the vertical variation • Often used:
– to map elongated linear features such as a vein, an intrusive dyke, or a paleochannel
– As a reconnaissance tool to locate targets for further investigation
Vertical electrical sounding (VES)
25
12/11/11
VES (Vertical Electrical Sounding)
• Used to detect the vertical variation of resistivity as a function of depth. • Designed to work in 1D environment (layer caked earth): Assumption! • Length AB increases sequentially • For each AB separation, measure the potential using a small MN separation
Schlumberger sounding
• Designed to work over 1D earth • MN located in the center between A & B
• Measure electric field
26
12/11/11
• Consider a halfspace with 2 layers of differing resistivity.
Resistivity of top layer is
and the bottom layer is
.
• At small AB, the current does not flow deep enough to significantly detect the deeper layer. Most current flows in the top of the first layer. • The potential reflects the resistivity of the top layer.
• At large AB, most of the current flows in the deeper layer. • The potential reflects the resistivity of the bottom layer.
27
12/11/11
Summary of 2layer halfspace
• Depth of investigation: on the same order as AB/2
• For small AB (L<<h):
• For large AB (L>>h):
• The apparent resistivity changes monotonically between layers (it only increases or decreases).
28
12/11/11
• Plot the apparent resistivity data as a function of AB/ 2 on a loglog plot.
Depth of current penetration
• AB determines the current distribution • The current distribution determines the depth of investigation. • Depth of investigation is proportional to AB separation (not linearly, though!) • In order to have 50% of current flowing beneath a given depth, the length AB must be twice that depth. • Nominally: the depth of investigation is half AB spacing
29
12/11/11
Current distribution in a uniform halfspace
• However, the current flow depends strongly on electrical conductivity. • Less current goes to the depth when there is a more conductive surface layer: smaller depth of investigation • More current goes to the depth when there is a more resistive surface layer: greater depth of investigation
(Burger, 1992)
30
12/11/11
Practical implementation of Schlumberger Sounding
• Select a set of AB separations that increases logarithmically, so there are several values per decade • Keep the MN separation much smaller, so we effectively measuring the horizontal electric field at the midpoint between A and B • To keep the measured #V _{M}_{N} well above noise, we increase the MN separation for every half decade of AB separations. • Two AB separations are repeated using two adjacent MN separations (see next slide for example).
31
12/11/11
32
12/11/11
Depth of investigation as a function of MN spacing (in VES over 1D earth only)
• For a given AB separation, an increase in MN separation leads to decreased depth of investigation. • The reason:
– As M and N electrodes move apart, they each become closer to the current electrode A or B
– Correspondingly, the relative contribution to the measured voltage by deeper charges decrease, so the data are more sensitive to shallower conductivity.
• An endmember scenario: As MN separation approaches AB separation, the depth of investigation becomes zero.
Exapnding MN causes the curve to shift to the right!
Measurements with same AB but different MN
33
12/11/11
3Layer Cases
1.
2.
3.
4.
A:
Q:
K:
H:
34
12/11/11
Wenner array beside a dipping contact (parallel to contact)
1D Interpretation
• Curve matching by manual approach (ancient):
• comparing measured curve with precalculated curves to find a macthing one, thus the resistivities and thickness • Works for two and threelayered cases • Leastsquares solution to find the resistivities and thicknesses of a small number of layers. • Generalized nonlinear inversion to find a minimum structure function of resistivity as a function of depth.
35
12/11/11
36
12/11/11
• Theoretically:
• Uniqueness Theorem: Lange 1932 • 1D: perfect data for all AB offset and fixed MN
• Practically:
• Many similar solution exists because we have only finite number of data with measurement errors.
• Leastsquares solution (parametric inversion): find the resistivities and thicknesses so as to minimize the data misfit between observed and calculated apparent resistivities.
Parametric inversion for 1D parameters
• We assume known number of layers, and parameterize the “model” by the resistivity and thickness of each layer. • For example, a twolayered earth has three parameters:
• We can calculate the predicted apparent resistivity knowing the values of these variables and surveys geometry:
37
12/11/11
• We solve a nonlinear least squares problem to find
the values of
that would have
produced the measured apparent resistivity data. • This is done by minimizing the following data misfit function;
• Because the forward modeling is nonlinear, this is solved iteratively by starting from an initial guess for
Equivalence:
• one form of ambiguity • Pertains to the cases when
– A a thin resistive layer is sandwiched between more conductive layers: K type:
– Or: a thin conductive layer is sandwiched between resistive
layers:
H type:
• As long as the transverse resistance (K type) or the longitudinal conductance (H type) remains the same, resistivity profiles with different middle layer thickness will produce the same apparent resistivity curve within error tolerance.
Transverse resistance
Longitudinal conductance
38
12/11/11
Leyden Schlumberger Sounding Fourlayer interpretation
39
12/11/11
2D and 3D Imaging (ERT)
2D imaging of subsurface
• Multiple measurements at different surface locations with fixed array geometry: detects lateral variation of electrical conductivity • Multiple measurements at the same locations with expanding array geometry: detects vertical variation of electrical conductivity
• To detect the variation of conductivity horizontally and vertically in the surface, we require measurements at multiple locations using expanding arrays (multiple electrode offset)
• Equivalently: multiple source locations and multiple measurements for each source location
40
12/11/11
• Organize data by TXRX (current and potential) electrode locations • Plotting each datum (apparent resistivity directly below the midpoint of the array) at a pseudodepth (array separation)
41
12/11/11
Example: Dipoledipole pseudosection
Polepole
Poledipole (R)
Poledipole (L)
42
12/11/11
Polepole
Poledipole (R)
Poledipole (L)
43
12/11/11
Comments on psudosections
• Pseduosection were developed as an easy way to organize and plot the data • It has little to no correspondence to real geoelectrical sections
– Recall: each datum is affected by the entire charge accumulation associated with electrical conductivity variation in the subsurface (volumetric effect)
– Thus: CANNOT make onetoone correspondence between a given datum and a point in the subsurface
• Earlier interpretation using on pseudosection was based on matching anomaly patterns in the pseudosection with known conductivity anomalies in the subsurface
– Can be effect when the subsurface is simple (such as a single conductivity anomaly)
– Difficult when multiple anomalies or geological noise is present
Example pseudosections: Illustration of Geological Noise
Resistivity model 
Ohmm 
Resistivity model 
Ohmm 



Pseudosection

Pseudosection

• Dipoledipole; n=1,8; a=10m • Simple scenario: clear anomaly pattern and interpretable • Multiple bodies: overlapping anomalies dominated by effect of shallow conductivity variations
44
12/11/11
Interpretation of 2D DC resistivity data: Inversion
• Similar to the 1D case, we resort to inversion to quantitatively interpret the measured data by finding a simple conductivity distribution that could have produce the data 

• This is accomplished by requiring conductivity (referred to as model) to satisfy two – 

criteria: 

It must reproduce the observed potential difference data to within the error tolerance It must be simple and geologically interpretable (quantified by a model objective function) 

– 
(quantified by data misfit function, as in 1D) 

• Parameterize the conductivity by a piecewise constant 2D function, such that the number of cells is much greater than the number of data 

• Inversion finds the conductivity values in all cells 
45
12/11/11
Data misfit
• N: number of data ! _{i} is the standard of error in i’th datum
•
Model objective function
• m=ln( "): model used in inversion (log conductivity) • m _{0} is a reference model (we want the inverted model to be close to it)
Inversion solution
• Obtain the solution by Tikhonov regularization:
– where µ is the regularization parameter
– 
determines the balance between the two parts 
• We look for an optimal balance between the two components
– 
so that we fit the signal in the data, but not the noise one simple condition: data misfit equal to it expectation 
– 

• Solution obtained iteratively by starting with an initial guess
46
12/11/11
A mystery example: DC resistivity inversion
Apparent resistivity pseudosections
dipole dipole
_{I}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{s}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
m _{0} = 4000 " m
" m
47
12/11/11
Regions to which data are insensitive
Quantifying the Depth of Investigation
Invert data with two different reference models The regions that don’t change very much are considered to be resolved (investigated) The regions that change a lot with reference model are not seen by data
3D acquisition and imaging
• Most readily (approachI):
– colinear arrays along multiple lines
– Line spacing should be shorter than the maximum depth of investigation of the 2D arrays
• More effectively (approachII):
– True 3D acquisition with crossline measurements
– Distributed data acquisition: measure potential data over a portion of the 2D grid for each currentelectrode location
• Crossline acquisition analogous to crosshole acquisition
48
12/11/11
Induced Polarization (IP) Methods
Phenomenological observation of induced polarization effect
49
12/11/11
IP effect is characterized by a phase lag between the observed potential and input current in the frequency domain
Definition of chargeability
• 

• 
Primary property characterizing the IP effect in a rock unit is the chargeability # : ratio of secondary potential over total potential The secondary potential is a function of delay time, so is the chargeability 


Intrinsic chargeability (measured on rock samples) 

• 
A similar quantity, apparent chargeability can be defined for field measurements using colinear arrays 
Commonly used as IP data, but not always defined just as apparent resistivity
50
12/11/11
Relationship between apparent chargeability and intrinsic chargeabilities
• Assume the subsurface is divided into M subregions (or cells as in the DC inversion) • To the first order, apparent chargeabilities are the weighted sum of the intrinsic chargeabilities
Siegel’s (1959)
dilation equation
• The weighting factors in the equations are called IP sensitivities (see next slide) • This relationship also forms the basis for the most practical IP inversion used in interpretation.
51
12/11/11
Linear forward modeling of IP data: sensitivities
Inversion of IP data
• A twostage process • First, we invert the accompanying DC resistivity data to recover the conductivity distribution • Second, we use that conductivity to invert IP data
– use the recovered conductivity to calcuate the sensitivities in Siegel’s dilation equation
– Invert the IP data (apparent chargeabilities) using a similar approach as in the DC resistivity inversion: finding a simple intrinsic chargeability model that predicts the observed apparent chargeabilities.
– We also impose the condition that the chargeability must be positive
52
12/11/11
A mystery model  IP inversion results
Apparent chargeability pseudosections
_{I}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{a}_{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{s}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
mrad
Apparent
conductivity data
Apparent
chargeability data
53
12/11/11
DC resistivity Example: McDermott deposit
Overburden is delineated.
IP  McDermott deposit Ore body’s depth and position are located.
54
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.