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CNG by ship Technology status and challenges Ketil Firing Hanssen, Dr. Senior Research Engineer, DNV

CNG by ship

Technology status and challenges

Ketil Firing Hanssen, Dr. Senior Research Engineer, DNV Research

OG21/Demo 2000 Workshop Offshore Gas Solutions February 17-18, 2005

Hanssen, Dr. Senior Research Engineer, DNV Research OG21/Demo 2000 Workshop Offshore Gas Solutions February 17-18, 2005
Ocean Transport Pressure System 1968 • CNG at 80 bar and -60 0 C •

Ocean Transport Pressure System 1968

Ocean Transport Pressure System 1968 • CNG at 80 bar and -60 0 C • Approved

• CNG at 80 bar and -60 0 C

• Approved by USCG

• Prototype built and tested in New Jersey, but not found to be commercial

80 bar and -60 0 C • Approved by USCG • Prototype built and tested in
Saga / Moss Rosenberg CNG Design 1976 • CNG carrier capable of carrying a mixture

Saga / Moss Rosenberg CNG Design 1976

Saga / Moss Rosenberg CNG Design 1976 • CNG carrier capable of carrying a mixture of

• CNG carrier capable of carrying a mixture of gas and oil at 100 bar

• Idea conceived by Saga Petroleum in 1976

• Concept drawings developed by Saga and Moss Rosenberg yard of Norway

• Loading directly from sub- sea wells using well pressure for loading and water for discharging the cargo.

• 18,000 m 3 in 280 bottles

sub- sea wells using well pressure for loading and water for discharging the cargo. • 18,000
Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (1) • Many concepts proposed - most are based on transportation

Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (1)

• Many concepts proposed - most are based on transportation in “pipeline” pressure vessels

– EnerSea (steel, vertical pipes, 130 bar, -29°C)

– Coselle (Williams) (steel, coiled, 275 bar, ambient)

– Knutsen (steel, vertical pipes, 250 bar, ambient)

– CETech: (Statoil, Teekay, Höegh) (steel, horizontal pipes, 200-250 bar, ambient)

– TransCanada (wrapped steel liner)

– Trans Ocean Gas (composite)

(steel, horizontal pipes, 200-250 bar, ambient) – TransCanada (wrapped steel liner) – Trans Ocean Gas (composite)
Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (2) Enersea Williams (Coselle) Knutsen OAS

Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (2)

Enersea
Enersea
Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (2) Enersea Williams (Coselle) Knutsen OAS

Williams (Coselle)

Knutsen OAS
Knutsen OAS
Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (2) Enersea Williams (Coselle) Knutsen OAS
Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (3) CETech TransCanada Pipeline Ltd. Trans Ocean Gas

Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (3)

CETech
CETech
TransCanada Pipeline Ltd.
TransCanada
Pipeline Ltd.
Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (3) CETech TransCanada Pipeline Ltd. Trans Ocean Gas

Trans Ocean Gas

Modern CNG Carrier Concepts (3) CETech TransCanada Pipeline Ltd. Trans Ocean Gas
Trends in CNG Technology • Lower transport temperatures to attain higher densities • Higher strength

Trends in CNG Technology

• Lower transport temperatures to attain higher densities

• Higher strength steel

• Lighter weight materials

• Wrapped steel pipes with nylon or carbon fibers

• Composite pressure vessels

steel • Lighter weight materials • Wrapped steel pipes with nylon or carbon fibers • Composite
CNG Transport Advantages • Less permanent assets • Adds flexibility : - market location -

CNG Transport Advantages

• Less permanent assets

• Adds flexibility :

- market location

- gas field location

- reservoir size

- production profile

• Handles both dry and rich gas

• Gas processing requirements

are less than for LNG

CAPEX distribution

100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % Flexible 40 %
100 %
90
%
80
%
70
%
60
%
50
%
Flexible
40
%
Permanent
30
%
20
%
10
%
0%
Pipeline
LNG
CNG

• CNG is more energy efficient than a LNG transport:

energy loss 5-8% vs. 15%

% 20 % 10 % 0% Pipeline LNG CNG • CNG is more energy efficient than
Marine transportation alternatives 5 Pipeline LNG 4 3 CNG 2 Stranded 1 1 2 3

Marine transportation alternatives

5 Pipeline LNG 4 3 CNG 2 Stranded 1 1 2 3 4 5 Production
5
Pipeline
LNG
4
3
CNG
2
Stranded
1
1
2
3
4
5
Production Volume (mill. MT/y)

Distance to Market (kNM)

5 Pipeline LNG 4 3 CNG 2 Stranded 1 1 2 3 4 5 Production Volume
Prospective Projects- Eastern Hemisphere Source: Zeus Development Corporation, 2002

Prospective Projects- Eastern Hemisphere

Source: Zeus Development Corporation, 2002
Source: Zeus Development Corporation, 2002
Prospective Projects- Western Hemisphere Source: Zeus Development Corporation, 2002

Prospective Projects- Western Hemisphere

Prospective Projects- Western Hemisphere Source: Zeus Development Corporation, 2002

Source: Zeus Development Corporation, 2002

Prospective Projects- Western Hemisphere Source: Zeus Development Corporation, 2002

DNV rules for CNG carriers

DNV rules for CNG carriers • Issued January 2003 • Burst design and material selection based

• Issued January 2003

• Burst design and material selection based on DNV offshore pipeline standard, DNV-OS-F101 :

– Used for most deepwater offshore pipelines today

– Used for most proposed CNG concepts

• Based on Formal Safety Assessment principles (QRA)

• Based on passage in the International Gas Code on equivalent safety level as LNG

• Higher material utilization factors

– Reduced weight and material costs

– Increased production requirements to achieve equivalent overall safety level

– Reduced weight and material costs – Increased production requirements to achieve equivalent overall safety level
DNV pipeline rules, DNV-OS-F101 • Most modern & used offshore pipeline standard in the world.

DNV pipeline rules, DNV-OS-F101

DNV pipeline rules, DNV-OS-F101 • Most modern & used offshore pipeline standard in the world. •

Most modern & used offshore pipeline standard in the world.

Enabled the Blue Stream pipeline at 2200m water depth

Applied to potential project at 3500m water depth

world. • Enabled the Blue Stream pipeline at 2200m water depth • Applied to potential project

DNV rules for CNG carriers

DNV rules for CNG carriers • To launch the first project, flag state, export and import

• To launch the first project, flag state, export and import states must accept the DNV CNG rules

• This includes accepting rules based on Formal Safety Assessment philosophy with less reliance on experience (IMO MSC 72/16 Annex 1)

• Future revision of the IGC code when experience is gained

RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF

RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SHIPS SPECIAL SERVICE AND TYPE ADDITIONAL CLASS Compressed Natural Gas Carriers PART

SHIPS

SPECIAL SERVICE AND TYPE ADDITIONAL CLASS

Compressed Natural Gas Carriers PART 5 CHAPTER 15

January 2003

Det Norske Veritas

SERVICE AND TYPE ADDITIONAL CLASS Compressed Natural Gas Carriers PART 5 CHAPTER 15 January 2003 Det
CNG Challenges

CNG Challenges

CNG Challenges
CNG Challenges
Economy – cost drivers • Cost of containment system – > 50% of CAPEX –

Economy – cost drivers

• Cost of containment system

– > 50% of CAPEX

– Steel prices soaring

• Installation complexity

• Temperature control

of containment system – > 50% of CAPEX – Steel prices soaring • Installation complexity •
Cargo capacity Gas capacity, 140000 cbm cargo tanks 70000 60000 LNG 50000 CNG -30°C 40000

Cargo capacity

Gas capacity, 140000 cbm cargo tanks

70000 60000 LNG 50000 CNG -30°C 40000 30000 20000 10000 CNG 15°C 0 0 50
70000
60000
LNG
50000
CNG -30°C
40000
30000
20000
10000
CNG 15°C
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
Capasity (tonnes)

Basis: 95% methane, 5% C2-C3

Pressure (bar)

20000 10000 CNG 15°C 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Capasity (tonnes) Basis: 95% methane,

Cargo temp.

Cargo temp. Temperature profile During loading/discharge, no active heat control will result in a large ∆

Temperature profile

During loading/discharge, no active heat control will result in a large T in the tanks

P = 250 bar

∆T = 50 - 60°C Loading Transport loaded Discharge Transport ballast
∆T = 50 - 60°C
Loading
Transport loaded
Discharge
Transport ballast
∆ P = 250 bar ∆T = 50 - 60°C Loading Transport loaded Discharge Transport ballast
∆ P = 250 bar ∆T = 50 - 60°C Loading Transport loaded Discharge Transport ballast
∆ P = 250 bar ∆T = 50 - 60°C Loading Transport loaded Discharge Transport ballast
∆ P = 250 bar ∆T = 50 - 60°C Loading Transport loaded Discharge Transport ballast

Time

∆ T in the tanks ∆ P = 250 bar ∆T = 50 - 60°C Loading
Temperature control Action Economical penalty Active heating/cooling Reduced ∆ T Increased CAPEX/OPEX Higher energy

Temperature control

Action

Economical penalty

Active heating/cooling Reduced T

Increased CAPEX/OPEX Higher energy consumption

Novel materials, e.g. high quality steel or composites Low temperature

Increased CAPEX Higher material cost

Constant pressure “Liquid push”

Increased CAPEX/OPEX More complex system

No action High max. temperature

Lower cargo capacity

“Liquid push” Increased CAPEX/OPEX More c omplex system No action High max. temperature Lower cargo capacity
CNG operation & logistics Loading site • Production rate • Loading rate • Storage •

CNG operation & logistics

Loading site

• Production rate

• Loading rate

• Storage

• Waiting time

Transport • Service speed • Distance • Congestion
Transport
• Service speed
• Distance
• Congestion

Receiving terminal

• Discharge rate

• Storage

• Waiting time

• Discharge rate • Storage • Waiting time Number of ships Cargo capacity • Operating pressure
Number of ships
Number
of ships

Cargo capacity

• Operating pressure

• Return heel cargo

• Temperature

• Tank volume

Docking

• Draft limitations

• Inspection:

•Accessibility

•Extent

cargo • Temperature • Tank volume Docking • Draft limitations • Inspection: •Accessibility •Extent
cargo • Temperature • Tank volume Docking • Draft limitations • Inspection: •Accessibility •Extent
Project risk • Regulatory acceptance (IMO, shelf state) • Business alliances • Taking offshore technology

Project risk

• Regulatory acceptance (IMO, shelf state)

• Business alliances

• Taking offshore technology to shipping

• Technical maturity

• Manufacturer availability

• Dry dock availability

• Construction time

• Complexity of installation

• “Rather fast 2nd that number 1”

• Dry dock availability • Construction time • Complexity of installation • “Rather fast 2nd that
Conclusions • What is the current status for CNG as a marine gas transport solution?

Conclusions

• What is the current status for CNG as a marine gas transport solution?

– Several concepts close to commercialization – who will be the first mover?

• What are the main challenges for the CNG technology?

– Containment system

– Operation & logistics

– Industry conservatism

main challenges for the CNG technology? – Containment system – Operation & logistics – Industry conservatism