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Unidad 3

Objectives
What is the Weather Like? Functions Objectives Use the subjunctive to give recommendations Talking about the weather Giving advice and recommendations Use adjectives to describe the weather

What is the Weather Like in the United States?

Because The United States is such a big country, it has a wide range of different climates and weather. Much of the country experiences the four seasons; winter, spring, summer, and autumn. Most of the states in the north get quite a bit of snow in the winter. Though a snowy landscape can be an impressive sight, it brings with it consequences which affect the way a society functions. For example, it is necessary to put salt on the roadways so that cars do not slip and slide on icy roads. In addition, it is recommended that people use special tires on their cars for further protection against this hazard. Snow storms called blizzards, occur quite often in the northeastern portion of the country and may shutdown schools and businesses temporarily. The snow, however, provides wonderful entertainment for people, especially children, who love to make snowmen, get into snowball fights, go sledding, go skiing, and go ice- skating.

What is the Weather Like in the United States?

Spring follows winter and it is a pretty time when the leaves on the trees start growing and the flowers start budding. It is also the season that brings forth a lot of rain. The weather is usually mild and very enjoyable. In more rural areas, one can see the return of certain animals, which had been sheltered during the winter.

What is the Weather Like in the United States?

Summer is the hottest time of year. The days are longer and sunnier and people often head outdoors for recreation. People flock to the parks and the countryside to practice sports, go hiking, and swimming. It is a great American pastime to have outdoor cookouts with different meats and vegetables simmering on the grill. It still rains quite a bit in the summer, too, so thunderstorms sometimes do spoil plans.

What is the Weather Like in the United States?

Autumn comes after summer, which is a special time in the United States. In autumn, also called the fall, children return to school after their long summer vacation. The American diet also changes at this time because it is the time of harvest and some of the vegetables harvested at this time are staples of American cuisine. Among these are: pumpkins, squash, cranberries, apples, yams and corn.In the fall, the weather starts to cool down once again. This cooling period may be accompanied by strong gusts of wind and cloudy skies. However, the most striking feature of autumn is the color of the leaves on the trees. These turn into breathtaking shades of red, orange, yellow, and brown. Soon, these leaves will begin to fall to the ground signaling the coming winter and yet another cycle in the seasons.

The Weather
The Weather in the United States changes a great deal from season to season, therefore, forecasters and people in general use a variety of words to describe what the weather is like. Many of these words are adjectives and they are created by adding the suffix 'y to nouns such as:

snow

snowy

cloud

cloudy

wind

windy

rain

rainy

The Weather
Nouns ending in e, like ice or breeze, drop the e and add y: breeze ice breezy icy

3-letter words that have a consonant-vowel-consonant combination double the second consonant before adding the sufix 'y: fog mud sun mug Other adjectives used for describing the temperature include: Freezing Icy Cold Cool Warm Hot foggy muddy sunny muggy

Practice
Choose an adjective from the list to complete the following descriptions of the weather: warm snowy cloudy sunny breezy icy freezing muddy cool

1. It rained so much that all the roads turned 2. roads are a risk of the long winters in Canada.

3. In the Caribbean the weather is commonly 4.

and humid.

skies and thunderstorms are typical during the summer in South Florida. and extremely cold. rooftops and snowy hills.

5. We had to wear special clothes to protect us against the wind. It was 6. Sights of Christmas in the Northern hemisphere usually include 7. Yesterday was 8. Polar bears can resist but today it is very cold.

temperatures thanks to their insulating coat of fur and body fat.

The Subjunctive
The subjunctive describes a situation or necessity that results from someone's desire or a condition in nature, like the weather. The subjunctive is formed as follows: Introduced by an expression like: It is necessary It is important Simple form of verb wear use Rest of sentence warm clothes during winter sunblock lotion at the beach headlights for driving in the fog boots and raincoats Salted. windows and doors during a hurricane.

subject you people

It is essential

that

Your father

turn on

It is advisable It is recommended It is better

children roads

wear be

we

shut

Model sentences:
It is important that your father turn on the lights when driving in the fog.
(simple form)

It is essential that people shut windows and doors during a hurricane.


(simple form)

The Subjunctive in Negative Form


To make a negative sentence with the Subjunctive, simply add not before the verb in simple form:

When it is rainy, it is advisable that you use an umbrella. (simple form)

When it is windy, it is advisable that you not use an umbrella. (simple form)

Pronunciation
A. Stress Patterns and final -y [i] sounds. As we saw in English 1 Week the final -y sound in English words sound very similar to the Spanish 'i' , i.e. in 'silbar' , 'ciclo', 'simple' etc. The -y in words related to weather: Listen to and repeat the following words which end with -y. Note the stress pattern is always " 0 o " 0o windy 0o cloudy 0o breezy 0o muggy 0o icy 0o sunny 0o rainy 0o stormy

Pronunciation
B:Two and three syllable stress patterns for common words. Unlike Spanish, the English language depends a lot on stress for communication.

The word 'permit' for example can mean two things: a noun meaning a document giving the person with the document permission to do something if the stress is on the first syllable 'per.mit . It can be a verb giving the person permission to do something (no document involved). The pronunciation would be on the second syllable: per'mit. Notice the stress patterns on these words 0oo 'actually (in fact, in reality) 0o 'slowly o0o ex'actly

Practice
Listen carefully to the following commonly used words in English and indicate the stress patterns 1) 0 o o or you hear. 2) 0 o 3) o 0 o

1. rapidly 2. remotely 3. quickly 4. hopefully 5. precisely 6. really! 7. totally 8. frankly 9. unkindly 10. certainly

11. slowly 12. happily 13. hopefully 14. unlikely 15. sweetly 16. completely 17. nicely 18. entirely 19. exactly 20. rudely

Index

Objectives Vocabulary Reading

Objectives

Practice

What is the Weather Like in the United States? What is the Weather Like in the United States? What is the Weather Like in the United States? What is the Weather Like in the United States? Practice

Vocabulary

The Weather The Weather Practice

Grammar Vocabulary Grammar Vocabulary

The Subjunctive

Practice

The Subjunctive in Negative Form

Practice

Pronunciation Stress Patterns


Stress Patterns Practice

Objectives
What is the Weather Like? Functions Objectives

Use the subjunctive to give recommendations Talking about the weather Giving advice and recommendations Use adjectives to describe the weather

What is the Weather Like in the United States?


Because The United States is such a big country, it has a wide range of different climates and weather. Much of the country experiences the four seasons; winter, spring, summer, and autumn. Most of the states in the north get quite a bit of snow in the winter. Though a snowy landscape can be an impressive sight, it brings with it consequences which affect the way a society functions. For example, it is necessary to put salt on the roadways so that cars do not slip and slide on icy roads. In addition, it is recommended that people use special tires on their cars for further protection against this hazard. Snow storms called blizzards, occur quite often in the northeastern portion of the country and may shutdown schools and businesses temporarily. The snow, however, provides wonderful entertainment for people, especially children, who love to make snowmen, get into snowball fights, go sledding, go skiing, and go ice- skating.

What is the Weather Like in the United States?

Spring follows winter and it is a pretty time when the leaves on the trees start growing and the flowers start budding. It is also the season that brings forth a lot of rain. The weather is usually mild and very enjoyable. In more rural areas, one can see the return of certain animals, which had been sheltered during the winter.

What is the Weather Like in the United States?

Summer is the hottest time of year. The days are longer and sunnier and people often head outdoors for recreation. People flock to the parks and the countryside to practice sports, go hiking, and swimming. It is a great American pastime to have outdoor cookouts with different meats and vegetables simmering on the grill. It still rains quite a bit in the summer, too, so thunderstorms sometimes do spoil plans.

What is the Weather Like in the United States?

Autumn comes after summer, which is a special time in the United States. In autumn, also called the fall, children return to school after their long summer vacation. The American diet also changes at this time because it is the time of harvest and some of the vegetables harvested at this time are staples of American cuisine. Among these are: pumpkins, squash, cranberries, apples, yams and corn.In the fall, the weather starts to cool down once again. This cooling period may be accompanied by strong gusts of wind and cloudy skies. However, the most striking feature of autumn is the color of the leaves on the trees. These turn into breathtaking shades of red, orange, yellow, and brown. Soon, these leaves will begin to fall to the ground signaling the coming winter and yet another cycle in the seasons.

The Weather
The Weather in the United States changes a great deal from season to season, therefore, forecasters and people in general use a variety of words to describe what the weather is like. Many of these words are adjectives and they are created by adding the suffix 'y to nouns such as:

snow

snowy

cloud

cloudy

wind

windy storm stormy

rain

rainy

The Weather
Nouns ending in e, like ice or breeze, drop the e and add y: breeze ice breezy icy

3-letter words that have a consonant-vowel-consonant combination double the second consonant before adding the sufix 'y: fog mud sun mug Other adjectives used for describing the temperature include: Freezing Icy Cold Cool Warm Hot foggy muddy sunny muggy

Practice
Choose an adjective from the list to complete the following descriptions of the weather: warm snowy cloudy sunny breezy icy freezing muddy cool

1. It rained so much that all the roads turned 2. roads are a risk of the long winters in Canada. and humid.

3. In the Caribbean the weather is commonly 4.

skies and thunderstorms are typical during the summer in South Florida. and extremely cold. rooftops and snowy hills.

5. We had to wear special clothes to protect us against the wind. It was 6. Sights of Christmas in the Northern hemisphere usually include 7. Yesterday was but today it is very cold.

8. Polar bears can resist

temperatures thanks to their insulating coat of fur and body fat.

The Subjunctive
The subjunctive describes a situation or necessity that results from someone's desire or a condition in nature, like the weather. The subjunctive is formed as follows: Introduced by an expression like: It is necessary It is important Simple form of verb wear use Rest of sentence warm clothes during winter sunblock lotion at the beach headlights for driving in the fog boots and raincoats Salted. windows and doors during a hurricane.

subject you people

It is essential

that

Your father

turn on

It is advisable It is recommended It is better

children roads

wear be

we

shut

Model sentences:
It is important that your father turn on the lights when driving in the fog.
(simple form)

It is essential that people shut windows and doors during a hurricane.


(simple form)

The Subjunctive in Negative Form


To make a negative sentence with the Subjunctive, simply add not before the verb in simple form:

When it is rainy, it is advisable that you use an umbrella. (simple form)

When it is windy, it is advisable that you not use an umbrella. (simple form)

Pronunciation
A. Stress Patterns and final -y [i] sounds. As we saw in English 1 Week the final -y sound in English words sound very similar to the Spanish 'i' , i.e. in 'silbar' , 'ciclo', 'simple' etc. The -y in words related to weather: Listen to and repeat the following words which end with -y. Note the stress pattern is always " 0 o " 0o windy 0o cloudy 0o breezy 0o muggy 0o icy 0o sunny 0o rainy 0o stormy

Pronunciation
B:Two and three syllable stress patterns for common words. Unlike Spanish, the English language depends a lot on stress for communication.

The word 'permit' for example can mean two things: a noun meaning a document giving the person with the document permission to do something if the stress is on the first syllable 'per.mit . It can be a verb giving the person permission to do something (no document involved). The pronunciation would be on the second syllable: per'mit. Notice the stress patterns on these words 0oo 'actually (in fact, in reality) 0o 'slowly o0o ex'actly

Practice
Listen carefully to the following commonly used words in English and indicate the stress patterns 1) 0 o o or you hear. 2) 0 o 3) o 0 o

1. rapidly 2. remotely 3. quickly 4. hopefully 5. precisely 6. really! 7. totally 8. frankly 9. unkindly 10. certainly

11. slowly 12. happily 13. hopefully 14. unlikely 15. sweetly 16. completely 17. nicely 18. entirely 19. exactly 20. rudely

Index

Objectives Vocabulary Reading

Objectives

Practice

What is the Weather Like in the United States? What is the Weather Like in the United States? What is the Weather Like in the United States? What is the Weather Like in the United States? Practice

Vocabulary

The Weather The Weather Practice

Grammar Vocabulary Grammar Vocabulary

The Subjunctive

Practice

The Subjunctive in Negative Form

Practice

Pronunciation Stress Patterns


Stress Patterns Practice

UNIDAD 4

Index

Objectives Vocabulary Reading Vocabulary

Objectives

Practice

How much does it weigh?

Practice Practice Practice

Grammar

Comparative Adjectives Comparative Adjectives

Vocabulary Grammar Vocabulary

Practice

Comparative Adjectives

Practice

Pronunciation Review of Unvoiced and Voiced Consonant Sounds


The consonant sounds [ The unvoiced consonant [ Interlude about Final [s] Practice ] and [ ] ].

The voiced consonant sound [ The voiced consonant sound [ Vowel sound [a ] Practice

] ]

Objectives
Functions Asking information about price and length for Objectives Use comparatives related to price, dimension, size and weight

sending a package or letter Discussing several alternatives Making comparisons Use vocabulary related to the post office, its services and mailing a letter or package

How much does it weigh?


(Kevin is waiting in line at the Post Office) POSTAL WORKER: May I help you, please? KEVIN: Hi! How are you. I want to send this package to England, please. P.W. (taking the package) Do you want to send it by surface mail, first classmail or special delivery? KEVIN: How much does it cost by surface mail? P.W. It costs $2.00 per pound of weight, sir. KEVIN: How much does it weigh? P.W. (weighs the package) Let's put it on the scale and we'll know its weight. There: three pounds ten ounces, sir. That's six dollars forty five cents ($6.45) . KEVIN: Sounds good. How long does it take to get there? P.W. About one month, sir. KEVIN: That' s a long time. How about first class mail? P.W. That's $8.00 per pound that's 3lb 10oz times 8 that's er...(he enters the amount on the calculator) $25.10, sir.

KEVIN: And how long does it take? P.W. About a week, sir. KEVIN: O.K. I'll send it first class mail. P.W. Can I help you with anything else sir? Do you need stamps? KEVIN: Yes, O.K. give me a book of ten stamps. P.W. That's twenty eight dollars eighty cents, sir. Thank you, sir.

Practice
TYPE Surface Mail First Class Special Delivery LAT. AM. $1.50 per lb $3.00 $10.00 EUROPE $2.00 per lb $8.00 $12.00 ASIA $3.00 per lb $10.00 $14.00 OCEANIA $4.00 per lb $12.00 $16.00

Fill in the details of the following dialogues from information from the chart.

KEVIN: How much does it cost to send this package to Venezuela by surface mail? POSTAL WORKER: How much does it weigh? KEVIN: It weighs 4 lb. dollars, sir. PW. That's MITCHELL: How much does it cost to send a 5lb package to Australia? ? PW. By MITCHELL: No, not by surface mail, first class mail. , sir. PW. That's $ MARY: How much does it to send a 2lb package to Paris?

PW A 2 lb package to Paris? By surface mail, 1st class or special delivery? MARY: Special delivery. PW That's $ dollars, miss.

Practice

Select the right word/words to complete the following sentences. Possible choices : First class mail Surface mail Special delivery weight weigh

1.

is more expensive than other kinds of delivery ? of the package.

2.How much does this package 3. The price depends on the 4. 5.

takes shorter than regular mail. is good for short distances and is less expensive than other services.

A note about weigh and weight: The word weigh is a verb while the word weight is a noun: I.e. A heavy object weighs more than a light object, because its weight is higher. (verb) (noun)

Comparative Adjectives
Adjectives modify nouns, they describe how things are (animate and inanimate). In the specific context of mailing a letter or package, four kinds of adjectives come in handy. These are: Adjectives describing size large bulky oversized small undersized Adjectives describing dimension deep tall wide Adjectives describing price Cheap inexpensive moderate reasonable expensive Adjectives describing weight light heavy

Comparative Adjectives
When you make comparisons using these adjectives you must use their comparative forms. Let's review how comparative forms are made: Short adjectives: add er I.e. This package is larger than this other. Short adjectives ending in y: drop (eliminate) the y and add: ier I.e. This package is heavier than this other.

Longer adjectives: use the word more before the adjective I.e. First class mail is more expensive than surface mail. Note: in a setence, when the second term of the comparison (second object being compared) is included, you must use the word than. Let's look at the previous examples again: This package is larger than this other. This package is heavier than this other. First class mail is more expensive than surface mail.

Practice

Provide the comparative form of the following adjectives:

Bulky Small Inexpensive Deep Tall Wide Cheap Reasonable

Comparative Adjectives
Sometimes when you compare you use the word less. This happens when the second object you are comparing has a given attribute in a lesser degree. The word less is used for all adjectives, short and long, and when you use it, the adjective remains intact. Look at the following examples: Bulky Expensive Tall Wide Cheap Reasonable less bulky less expensive less tall less wide less cheap less reasonable

Practice

Fill in the blank with the correct comparative of the adjective in parenthesis. (+) indicates more and (-) indicates less. Remember that shorter adjectives add er/ier when they are used to indicate more: Example: small (+) smaller

1. Air mail is (expensive +) 2.This package is (heavy +) mail it. 3.This box is (wide -)

than surface mail. than I thought. It will be very expensive to

than the toy. It won't fit. We need a wider box.

4.This receptacle is for (light +)

parcels, letters and postcards only. than

5.The mailman could not deliver the package, it was way (tall +) the space in the mailbox. 6.This envelope is (small +) one. 7. Mailing a package in the U.S. is (expensive -) countries. 8. It will not fit! We need a (deep +) box.

than the letter. We need to buy a larger

than it is in other

Review of Unvoiced and Voiced Consonant Sounds


As we learned in English 1 there are consonant sounds are almost the same as Spanish consonant sounds and some which differ. In the following review list the unvoiced sounds on the left have the same articulation as its voiced 'twin' in the right column: UNVOICED VOICED

[f] [k] [p] [t] [ ]

fan [faen] kill [kil] pet [p t] tent [t nt] cheap [ p]

[v] [g] [b] [d] [ ]

van [vaen] gill [g l] bet [b t] dent [d nt] jeep [ i:p]

As you pronounce the letters in the left column and those on the right, you should feel your vocal chords vibrate (touch your throat lightly as you pronounce each sound).

The consonant sounds [

] and [

].

These unvoiced and voiced sounds are very common in English and must be learned. The tongue is placed between the teeth and air from the lungs is forced over the top part of the tongue. The lower jaw is then opened slightly and the [ ] and/or [ ] is pronounced. The unvoiced [0] sound is not found in spoken Latin American Spanish but is quite common in Iberian Spanish in c before the vowels i and e. [ inta] , [ entro], cinta, centro and the z before any vowel sound: [ ara'go a] Zaragoza, [' ero] zero, [' ulu] Zulu, etc. This is the LAST voiceless consonant sound we will study all other consonant sounds in English which we have not studied m, n, l etc. are ALL VOICED.

The unvoiced consonant [ ]


Initial thin thank think thick thrifty three Medial method something anything birthday nothing healthy Final bath mouth month teeth path breath

thoughts thief

author wealthy

truth lath

Interlude about Final [s]


In English 1 week 10, we stated that the final voiceless [s] only followed the voiceless consonants [f], [k], [p], [t] (Frank Pritchett or Frank Prescott). Here we will look at the [ ] sound which is mainly followed by voiceless [s] in FRACTIONS.

Fractions are expressed, as in Spanish, with a cardinal number written above a line with an ordinal number below it i.e. 1/16th (one sixteenth)- you will notice the [ ] 'th' sound on the ordinal number). With more than one digit this must be pluralized i.e. 3/16ths (three sixteenths). The [ ] -s sound is EXTREMELY difficult for a Spanish speaker to pronounce and must be practiced constantly. The [ ] is the only sound besides [f] , [k], [p] and [t] which is followed by a voiceless [s].

Practice
Repeat the following fractions after the recording 13 5 10ths 4 7ths 8
15ths

24ths 5 8ths 17
64ths

18 27ths 8 17ths

6 29ths

The voiced consonant sound [ ]


This sound is heard in Spanish as an inter-vocalic 'd' sound as in 'nada','enfado' 'lodo' etc. initial that these this those then they them there medial father mother brother other another although neither either final breathe teethe smooth soothe

The voiced consonant sound [ ]


*NOTE: There are not many words that begin with the [ ] sound in English. The the definite article 'the' however is very common as well as all the words in this first column and MUST be pronounced correctly.

My mother hates this weather.

Those clothes are for cold weather.

My brother is not bothered by the weather.

This is nice smooth leather.

Vowel sound [a ]

This sound is common in Spanish sounding like the 'au' in Claudia, claudicar , augurio etc. In English it is spelled in several ways. Pronounce the following words after your instructor INITIAL out ounce hour outage outing ours ouch MEDIAL house about stout clown noun drown frown FINAL now how cow sow chow bough allow

Practice
Fill in the blanks with the correct word with the [a ] sound. Check the list in the red book.

1. A big animal which produces milk. 2. A funny man at a circus. 3. 60 minutes. 4. Not later! 5. In and . ! at this moment!

6. It's not yours, it's 7. that hurts!!!

8. People live in this place.

Index

Objectives Vocabulary Reading Vocabulary

Objectives

Practice

How much does it weigh?

Practice Practice Practice

Grammar

Comparative Adjectives Comparative Adjectives

Vocabulary Grammar Vocabulary

Practice

Comparative Adjectives

Practice

Pronunciation Review of Unvoiced and Voiced Consonant Sounds


The consonant sounds [ The unvoiced consonant [ Interlude about Final [s] Practice ] and [ ] ].

The voiced consonant sound [ The voiced consonant sound [ Vowel sound [a ] Practice

] ]

UNIDAD 5

Index

Objectives Listening

Objectives

When we go on a trip: new words

Listening: We had a blast! Practice

Grammar

Go + gerund (ing form) Practice Practice 3 Simple Past Tense Irregular Verbs Practice 4 Practice 5

Vocabulary

Time Markers Used with Past Tense Practice 6

Pronunciation The -ED endings for REGULAR VERBS


Examples Practice 7 Practice 8 Practice 9 The voiced consonant sound [ Practice 10 ]

Objectives
Week 5: We had a blast! Functions Talking about short trips and recreational Objectives Use past tense to describe recreational activities and narrate short trips

activities Talking about past events Framing past events in time

Distinguish and use past tense forms of regular/irregular verbs in affirmative form Use vocabulary related to recreational activities Use time markers to frame past events

Reading: We had a blast!


Karen and Henry have just returned from their trip to Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Read as they tell Peter about their experience. PETER: Hey you guys! I see you got back from your trip, so tell me how it was! HENRY: It's good to see you again Pete! Oh man, it was great! We had a blast! KAREN: We sure did! However, I must say that the first few days were a bit rough. PETER: Really? What happened? KAREN: Well the first day we got to Ft. Lauderdale, we realized that we forgot to make arrangements for our stay there. HENRY: Yeah we didn't call any of the hotels before we left. We thought that we could probably find a cheap motel near the beach when we got there; but, when we arrived, everything was full! There weren't any vacancies anywhere! PETER: So what did you do? KAREN: We wandered around the beachside a little while with our backpacks. KAREN: We finally found a place near the beach and moved in. PETER: So what did you do the rest of the time you were there? KAREN: We went swimming nearly everyday and we got sunburned! HENRY: Yeah, we were out in the sun so long that we got a pretty bad sunburn! The next day we were in some pain!

PETER: That doesn't sound like it was fun. KAREN: That part wasn't, but all in all we had a great time. HENRY: We went hunting for seashells the following day, despite our sunburns! KAREN: The water was a little cold, but it felt good on our sunburns! PETER: You guys really had a good time, didn't you? I just wish I could go down to Florida where the weather isn't cold and gloomy. I would enjoy a change from this Minnesota winter!

Practice
Select True or False for the following statements

1. The first few days of Karen and Henry's trip were very comfortable. 2. They planned their trip before getting there. 3. They did not find a cheap motel and had to walk along the beach for hours. 4. They used sun-block lotion and did not get a sunburn. 5. They went hunting for wild forest animals 6. The water was somewhat cold, but it was good for their sunburns.

Go + gerund (ing form)


The combination Go + gerund (ing form) is used to refer to recreational activities, including hobbies and some sports, that people enjoy when they go on a short trip or vacation. These activities are usually outdoor and entail some contact with nature. Look at the following expressions, taken from the listening above: went swimming (past tense of go) + gerund went hunting (past tense of go) + gerund

We We

nearly everyday for seashells

Practice 3
Select the correct option.

1. We went 2. They went 3. You went 4. Mary and Laura went

in Miami. in the sea. in New York. in Las Vegas.

Simple Past Tense


Regular Verbs

The simple past is created simply by adding -ED to regular verbs. Regular verbs have the same form for both, the simple past and the past participle: Simple form Stay Carry Walk Simple Past Stayed Carried Walked Past Participle Stayed Carried Walked

(Click on the RED BOOK for a list of regular English verbs) Some regular verbs, however, require additional changes to their ending. These is how they create their simple past form: Examples: Verbs ending in e Add -d love loved live lived Examples: Verbs ending in consonant+y Drop the y and add ied Carry carried Copy copied Verbs ending in vowel + consonant (except y/w) Double the consonant before adding -ed Clap clapped Hug hugged

Irregular Verbs
Forming the past form of irregular verbs is not as easy as it is with regular verbs. What makes these verbs irregular is exactly the way in which they form their past tense and past participle forms, which, in most cases, are different. The following verbs are irregular, notice that their past tense and past participle forms are different: Simple form Come Go Do Simple Past came went did (Click on the RED BOOK for a list of regular English verbs) Past Participle come gone done

Of course, the most famous irregular verb in the English language is 'be'. This is how it forms its past tense: Singular I was You were He/she/it was Plural We were You were They were

Practice 4
Select the correct option.

1. He swam 20 miles at the beach the other day. 2. She took a taxi to 87th Street. 3. You preferred going sailing than going rafting. 4. They gave me a confirmation number for my hotel reservation. 5. The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach last week. 6. My family visited me for Christmas last year.

Practice 5
Write the correct past tense form of the following verbs:

1. She (go) 2. The flight (be)

to her friend's house on Friday. delayed for a few hours.

3. The air conditioning in our room (break) 4. They (have) 5. We (rent) 6. I (go) breakfast by the pool.

down.

a sailboat and went sailing all afternoon. rafting on the pristine South Carolina Rivers. over the fence to get to her aunt's house. from New Orleans yesterday.

7. The girl (jump) 8. My sister (arrive)

Time Markers Used with Past Tense


The simple past tense is used to refer to events in the past. It is usually accompanied with some expressions that indicate when things happened. These expressions are called time markers. Look at the following example: The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach last week The expression last week is a time marker. Many other words are used following last to indicate when something occurred in the past: + day of the week: Last + month + season or holiday + night, week, year last Monday, last Saturday last January, Last November last winter, last Halloween last night, last year

The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach last summer Or you can use words like: yesterday, the day/night before, the week before, a day of the week, month, year or date. The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach on Friday Or The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach in July You can also use the word ago with to indicate the amount of time that has passed since something happened: Two days ago Two days have passed

Two weeks ago

Two weeks have passed

The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach two weeks ago

The -ED endings for REGULAR VERBS


It is very important for the student to know the three principal sounds for -ED endings for regular verbs in order to pronounce them well. The three main sounds are 1) [ t ], 2) [ d ] and 3) [ Id ]. 1. The [ t ] sound follows UNVOICED consonants which are the following Listen carefully as your instructor pronounces these unvoiced sounds.

[f] [k] [p]


* verbs with a [t] ending are not included in this analysis [ ]

Fricative sounds

[s] [
[

]
]

Examples
Study the following regular verbs in the past tense and their phonetic transcription. Repeat the verbs after your instructor. stuffed kicked stamped frothed placed pushed pinched [st^ft] [k kt] [staempt] [fra t]

[ple st] [p [p nt t] t]

Practice 7
Inicate 'same' or 'different' as you hear the following sounds.

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

Practice 8
Listen to the following sentences and select verbal sound you hear.

1. We 2. They 3. They 4. They 5. I always 6. You 7. We 8. We

at the clown. the dog. the homework. the exam. my mother. the baby. our bags. the ball.

Practice 9
Indicate which of the following REGULAR verbs (in the bare infinitive form)have the [t] ending in the PAST SIMPLE (-ED) TENSE. Indicate 1) a [t] ending and 2) no [t] ending. Consult the list of voiceless endings at the beginning of this section.(Red Book)

1. wish 2. join 3. change 4. pick 5. exist

11. clap 12. rob 14. claim 15. love 16. like

6. fill 7. flip 8. watch 9. fix 10. call

17. pronounce 18. pull 19. hate 20. fish

The voiced consonant sound [

This is the LAST unfamiliar voiced consonant sound we will see in the English Language. As mentioned before all other voiced consonant sounds are very similar to their equivalent in Spanish and will not be studied in this course.The [ ] phoneme is mainly found only in parts of Argentina in words like 'llano','llamar', 'llave' or with the 'y' in 'yo', 'Yolanda' etc. Although initial [ ] is very common in French [ eim] 'j'aime' , [ a'di:] 'jadis' it does not exist in this initial position in standard English or Spanish. MEDIAL vision pleasure casual explosion usual negligee illusion Asian FINAL garage beige mirage prestige massage corsage rouge

Practice 10

Sound discrimination Listen carefully to the following sentences and indicate if you hear the first sentence or if you hear the second sentence.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Index

Objectives Listening

Objectives

When we go on a trip: new words

Listening: We had a blast! Practice

Grammar

Go + gerund (ing form) Practice Practice 3 Simple Past Tense Irregular Verbs

Practice 4 Practice 5

Vocabulary

Time Markers Used with Past Tense Practice 6

Pronunciation The -ED endings for REGULAR VERBS


Examples Practice 7 Practice 8 Practice 9 The voiced consonant sound [ Practice 10 ]

UNIDAD 6

index

Objectives Listening Vocabulary Listening Vocabulary

Objectives

Practice

How did the cricket match go?

Practice

Practice 1

More go + gerund: weekend activities Practice 2

Grammar

Negative Statements in Past Tense Practice 3

Yes/No questions in Past Tense Practice 4 Answering Yes / No questions Wh- Questions in Simple Past: Questions about the subject Questions about the predicate Practice 5 Practice 5 Practice 6

Pronunciation -ED regular verb endings with VOICED CONSONANTS


Examples Practice 7 Practice 8 Practice 9 A word about the [h] sound Past Tense Regular Verbs ending in [t] or [d] Practice 10

Objectives
What did you do over the weekend? Functions Objectives Use various types of question and answer forms in the past tense: yes/no and wh- questions and affirmative/negative answers Talking about past events in everyday colloquial English Talking about customary weekend recreational activities Use vocabulary related to weekend activities Use the past tense forms of verbs of common everyday use

Practice

Look at the Score Board from a cricket match last Saturday.

How did the cricket match go?


FRANK: How did the cricket match go on Saturday, Tom? TOM: I dont want to talk about it, we lost by 100 runs. FRANK: 100 runs! Who did you play, the local kindergarten school? TOM: (sarcastically) Ha! Ha! Very funny. We played against "amateurs" who looked more like professionals or semi/professionals to me. FRANK: Where did they get their players? TOM: Well, there were some people of Indian and Pakistani origin on their team and they were probably from first-rate teams over there. FRANK: Did you score many runs yourself? TOM: No, I was bowled out on the first ball. FRANK: What! and you are the teams top scorer! What happened? TOM: It was an old trick. The bowler came up from behind my team-mate at the other end and I couldnt see him until he threw the ball. I missed it. FRANK: What did you do about that? TOM: I protested, of course, but the official paid no attention. FRANK: Oh, come on. Youre just angry because your team lost. TOM: Angry, yes. But not because we lost. They broke the rules, not us. We didnt break the rules.

Practice
Select the right word to provide a synonym for the following words. These words correspond to the underlined words in the previous reading:

1.We lost by 100 points. 2. We played against non-professional players 3.The players were from professional teams 4.Did you make many runs? 5.You are the team's best player. 6.One of my fellow players was injured

Practice 1
Select True or False

1. Tom is not happy with the result of the cricket match. 2. Tom's team didn't win. 3. The rival team had professional players. 4. Tom is a good cricket player. 5. Tom thinks the other team was dishonest. 6. Tom is very angry because his team lost. 7. The local kindergarten cricket team is better than Tom's team. 8. Tom's team lost badly.

More go + gerund: weekend activities


In Week 5 we learned to use the combination go + gerund to refer to recreational activities performed during a trip or short vacation. In every-day English, though, the verb GO is used in several combinations to talk about activities people normally do in their free time, specially on weekends:

Weekend activities a walk for + noun/noun phrase a cup of coffee drinks the park to + noun/noun phrase Go out for + noun the beach the game dinner lunch shopping gerund dancing jogging They went jogging in the morning They went out for dinner on Friday They went to the cricket match on Saturday We went for a cup of coffee in the afternoon

Practice 2
Fill in the following blanks with an activity from the list: to the beach out for lunch swimming for a cup of coffee jogging for a walk shopping to the Opera

1. We went 2. They went 3. They went 4. I went 5. We went 6. They went

in the park. in Fort Lauderdale. at 12:30 p.m. for a new pair of shoes last Saturday. yesterday! It was an excellent workout. The saw Aida, but didn't like it much.

7. The children went 8. My friends went

in the pool yesterday. in Starbuck's.

Negative Statements in Past Tense


In week 5 you learned about forming the simple past tense form of regular verbs. You also learned that irregular verbs have a different verb form for the simple past. In this week you will learn to make negative statements in the past tense. Changing from an affirmative to a negative statement in the past tense is very simple, all you have to do is use the auxiliary did + not, or its contracted form, didn't + the simple form of your verb: They broke the rules We didn't break the rules This is true with all subjects, singular and plural, and all verbs, regular and irregular: I had You came She went We liked You went They stayed except the verb to be: I was You were She/he/it was We were You were They were I wasn't You weren't He wasn't We weren't You weren't They weren't They weren't at the game on Sunday He wasn't happy about the result I wasn't home on Saturday I didn't have You didn't come She didn't go We didn't like You didn't go They didn't stay I didn't have fun at the game You didn't come to the movies She didn't go dancing on Friday We didn't like that restaurant You didn't go out for dinner They didn't stay until the end

Practice 3

Fill in the blanks to make the following sentences negative:

1. Tom's team (won) 2. The rival team (had) 3. My father (was) 4. The other team (was) 5. Mitchell (scored) 6. The children (went) 7. Tom's sister (came) 8. We (found) professional players. a good soccer player. dishonest. the winning goal. swimming in the pool all afternoon. to visit last night. bargain prices and sales at the mall!

Yes/No questions in Past Tense


To make a yes / no question, start with did, then the subject, then the simple form of your verb: Affirmative Yes/No question word order Did + subject + simple form Had Came Went Stay Did you have? Did you come? Did you go? Didyou stay? Did you have fun at the game? Did you come home late on Saturday? Did you go to the movies last weekend? Did you stay home on Friday night?

Was/were Was/were + subject Was she at home ?

No auxiliary is necessary Wereyou at the game? Take the place of the auxiliary (before the subject) Sometimes, you also have to change the subject, to do this, what you normally do is use a different noun or pronoun: The team lost the game I had fun at the game Did they lose the game? Did you have fun at the game?

Practice 4
Complete the following yes/no questions. Fill in the blanks with did + subject + simple form of the verb in parenthesis:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

(go) to the beach yesterday? (see)the tennis match on Television? (go) out for lunch at 12:00? (find) the new pair of shoes she wanted? (sleep) late on Sunday? (watch) television last night? (have) breakfast at the new cafeteria around the corner? (get) the new book they were looking for?

Yes, they went to the beach yesterday. No, I didnt. I saw the results on the news last night. No, she went out for lunch at 12:30 p.m. Yes, she did. She found a beautiful pair of shoes at The ShoeOutlet. Yes, he slept until 11 a.m. No, I didnt. I rented a movie instead. Yes, I did. I had pancakes and scrambled eggs. It was very good! No, they didnt. It was sold out.

Answering Yes / No questions


Let's take this question:

Did you go to the movies?


To answer, start with: Yes, + affirmative Or No, + negative No, I didn't go to the movies Yes, I went to the movies

A short answer is also possible, and very common when speaking: Did you go to the movies?

Yes, I did

No, I didn't

Wh- Questions in Simple Past


Wh- questions are also called information questions, and they are used to get information that you don't know. Wh-questions in the past tense are formed as follows: You can make a Wh- question to get information that is either in the subject or the predicate of your answer. Let's take the following answer:

Luis SUBJECT

talked to Gina in the garage PREDICATE

If you want to know who talked to Gina, then you're looking for information that is in the subject of your answer. But if you want to know where they talked, then your information is in the predicate of your answer. This is important because wh- questions are formed in two different ways, depending on the part of the answer (subject or predicate) where the desired information is.

Questions about the subject

To make a question about the subject, simply add who to the beginning of your yes / no question. Then remove the subject. Note: the subject becomes part of your answer. Look at the following example:

Who talked to Gina in the garage? Did Luis talk to Gina in the garage? Luis talked to Gina in the garage

Questions about the predicate


To make a Wh- question about the predicate, simply add a wh- word (what, where, when, how, how much, etc) to the beginning of your yes / no question. Note: the rest of your yes / no question disappears and becomes part of your answer. Look at the following examples:

When did you go out to dinner? Did you go out dinner? I went to dinner yesterday. Where were you on Saturday afternoon ? Were you at the mall on Saturday afternoon? I was at the mall.

Practice 5
Complete these questions. Fill in the blanks with the auxiliary did + a verb in simple form or with the verb in simple past. Read the answers carefully to get clues about what to ask.

What

you

We ate pizza. Where your parents ?

My parents went to a concert. When the game ?

The game started at five o'clock Who the most goals?

They did! Our team lost 7 to 1. What a waste!

Practice 6
Anna is talking to her friend Martha about what she did over the weekend. Fill in the blanks with the verb in parenthesis in affirmative, negative or question form. (-) indicates negative, ex. go (-) = didn't go. Anna: I (have) movies. Martha: Oh, yes? What (see) Anna: We (see) ? very funny. a great time last weekend. Let me tell you about it! On Friday night we (go) to the

a French movie with Gerard Depardieu. It (be)

Then on Saturday, I (have) (-)

to clean my room because a maid came and did it for me. At noon, I to this new Ethiopian restaurant downtown.

went out for lunch with my friends from the Gym.We (go) Martha: I know. It (open) last month. Is it any good?

Anna: Yes, very. The food is different, though ? Martha: I imagine, What (have)

Anna: Well, we (have)

a little bit of everything. We (order)

a sample dish that included different kinds

of meats, poultry and vegetables.

Martha: WOW! Sounds good! What about Sunday? Anna: Sunday was the best. My friend from Chicago (come) shopping. Then we went for dinner and then dancing until I (drop)

by surprise and (take)

me out

It was a lot of fun. We really had a blast!!!!!

-ED regular verb endings with VOICED CONSONANTS


Review of voiced consonants (unvoiced equivalent) [v] [g] [b] * the [d] is not pertinent fricatives [z] [ [ [d ] ] ] ([ ([ t ( [f] ) ([k]) ([p]) (* the [t] is not pertinent) (fricatives) ([s ]) ([ ]) ]) ])

[ m, l, w, y, n, r]

(no equivalents)

Examples
When the -ED form of a regular verb ends in a voiced consonant it is pronounced with a [d] sound. loved bagged stabbed [l^vd] [baegd] [staebd]

gazed bathed massaged judged

[geizd] [bei [mae'sa [d ^d d] d] d]

Practice 7
Indicate 'same' or 'different' when you hear these two sounds.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Practice 8
Indicate which of the verbal sounds you hear.

1. We 2. They

our friends. up the mountainside.

3. I always 4. You 5. We 6. I 7. You 8. They

them by cell phone. French in Paris. new things every day. my sore leg. the size in cms. out Swiss watches.

Practice 9
Listen to the following sounds carefully. Indicate 1) if the final sound of the regular verb -ED form is [t] or 2) if the last -ED sound is [d]

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

A word about the [h] sound


The voiceless consonant [h] has its equivalent in Spanish with various letters 'gemelas', 'gitana' (initial) 'Mexico', (medial) and 'reloj'(final). In English the final [h] sound does not exist, in that way there is no problem with final -s sounds or final past tense regular verb -ED sounds, they do not exist after [h]]. Listen carefully and pronounce these words after your instructor. INITIAL hate hit head handicap who heat happy MEDIAL behave inhibit ahead inhale apprehend adhere inherit

Past Tense Regular Verbs ending in [t] or [d]


If the final consonant sound of a past tense regular verb is [t] or [d] the -ED sound is pronounced [id]. EXAMPLE: ended = [' nd d] hated = [' heit d]

Listen carefully to your instructor and repeat the following past tense regular verb forms. All of these past tense regular verbs end in [t] or [d] in the bare infinitive: i.e. want -ed end- ed, etc 1. counted 2. suspended 3. contracted 4. decided 6. extracted 7. divided 8. invaded 9. united 11. inhibited 12. loaded 13. apprehended 14. avoided 16. invited 17. exploded 18. extradited 19. exploited

5. facilitated

10. excited

15. extended

20. compensated

Practice 10
Review of -ED past tense regular verb endings 1) [t], 2) [d] , 3) [Id]. The following regular verbs are written in the bare infinitive (the infinitive without the 'to' marker). Your instructor will read the past tense of these verbs. Mark 1) if you hear the [t] sound of the verb ending, 2) if you hear the [d] sound and 3) if you hear the [Id] sound.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

index

Objectives Listening

Objectives

Practice

How did the cricket match go?

Vocabulary Listening Vocabulary

Practice

Practice 1

More go + gerund: weekend activities Practice 2

Grammar

Negative Statements in Past Tense Practice 3 Yes/No questions in Past Tense Practice 4 Answering Yes / No questions Wh- Questions in Simple Past: Questions about the subject Questions about the predicate Practice 5 Practice 5 Practice 6

Pronunciation -ED regular verb endings with VOICED CONSONANTS


Examples Practice 7 Practice 8 Practice 9 A word about the [h] sound Past Tense Regular Verbs ending in [t] or [d] Practice 10