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The development of ameloblast occurs in five main stages :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pre secretory Secretory Transition Maturation Post maturation

Pre secretory Stage Diffrentiation of preameloblast. Formation and subsequent resorption of basal lamina. Here occurs the differentiation of the preameloblast into enamel forming cells ameloblast. The dental papillary cells at the same time differentiate into odontoblast. Once the odontoblast have formed the membrane performitina degenerates as the first layer of dentine matrix is laid down. The pre- ameloblast releases the enzymes that degrade the basal lamina by exocytosis and their resolution and degradation produces endocytosis . The nucleus is at the end of cell adjacent to stellate reticulum. The pre-ameloblast are joined at the stellate reticulum by desmosomes forming proximal terminal end. Pre ameloblast 40 mm. Secretory Stage The mature secretory ameloblast is 35-50 m, long and 5-10 m wide and contains a proximally placed nucleus in the supraclear region. There are numerous organelles in secretory stage. The basic enamel matrix proteins are assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum and carried by glycosylation and sulphation take place before packaging into electron dense secretory granules. The secretory granules are carried along the microtubulation and secreted by merocrine process. After the initial secretion the secretory end of the ameloblast becomes pyramidal in shape forming so called tomes process. All the secretion and modification of the matrix occurs via Tomes process. The shape of Tomes process is responsible for the prismatic structure of enamel. As the ameloblast shifts from the

presecretory to the secretory stage there occurs the aggregation of vesicle at the distal end of ameloblast. The materials of the vesicle indicates the organic matrix. The first formed crystals are thin needle like and much smaller than mature crystal . During developmental enamel crystals are seen to align perpendicular to the distal surface of ameloblast . Active secretion and mineralization will be going at the cusp tips while at the cervical loop the cells will be differentiating into ameloblast and odontoblast. At the bell stage also the formation of enamel knot . Resorption of internal enamel epithelium its basal lamina . Epithelial mesenchymal interaction. Transition Stage Ameloblast shorten in length as the signals mark the onset of transition phase . Enamel secretion stops and much and much of the amelogenesis is removed. The number of ameloblast is reduced by as much as 50% by apoptosis. In the remaining ameloblast the organelles are associated with protein synthesis. Reformation of ameloblast basal lamina. The ameloblast forms a basal lamina over the immature enamel attacking themselves to it by hemidesmosomes. Cessation of matrix secretion occurs and continued degradation of matrix . Such breakdown is severely enzymatic and commences soon after the secretion of enamel matrix occurs and continues throughout the secretory stage of enamel formation. MATURATION STAGE Once the entire thickness of enamel has formed it is structurally complete it thereby mineralizes 30% of that of the erupted tooth. During maturation the enamel crystals increases in width and thickness. Maturation involves removal of water and mainly the amelogenesis type enamel protein. The addition of ca and phosphate ions increases the size of enamel crystallizes from 1.5 mm to 2.5mm. Organic matrix is removed and protein content becomes less than 1% leaving behind small peptide and amino acids. The tomes process is lost and the organic content is reduced . The remaining organelles can gate at the distal end of the cell where the plasma membrane. Ameloblast becomes ended in contrast to smooth ended ameloblast initially absence of striated border.

Modulation between the two forms occurs upto 5-7 times during maturation. The modulation may alternate between resorptive and secretory phases .Thus ,initially formed protein resin ,low mineral tissue modifies into hardest biological tissue protein. POST MATURATION STAGE Once the maturation of enamel is complete ,the ameloblast becomes flattened except at the areas of deep fissure when they remain columner. The other layer of enamel merges with the outer dental follicle . Enamel organ degenerate and enamel coverings establish. During eruption ,reduced enamel epithelium protects the enamel surface. Once the tooth has erupted in the oral cavity , the surface layer shows mineralization through interaction with saliva.