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Chapter 15: Health, Stress, and Coping Stress Stress Reactionphysical reaction to stress consisting mainly of bodily changes

related to arousal of the autonomic nervous system. It is a mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment. Stressorcondition or event in the environment that challenges or threatens the person Threatevent or situation perceived as potentially harmful to ones well-being Pressurewhen a person must meet urgent external demands or expectations, responding near maximum capacity for long periods of time Controlwith regard to stress, the ability to exert some influence over a threat or challenge. People generally feel more stress in situations over which they have little or no control. Burnout Burnoutjob-related condition (usually in helping professions) of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion. It generally involves: emotional exhaustion a feeling of being used up cynicism (belief that human actions have selfish motivations) detachment from the job and apathetic toward work feeling of reduced personal accomplishment Appraising Stressors Primary Appraisaldeciding if a situation is relevant or irrelevant, positive, or threatening Secondary Appraisalassessing resources and deciding how to cope with a threat or challenge. A perceived lack of control is just as threatening as an actual lack of control. Threats and Frustration Problem-focused copinginvolves managing or altering the distressing situation Emotion-focused copingtrying to control ones feeling concerning a situation Frustrationnegative emotional state that occurs when one is prevented from reaching desired goals Types of Frustration External frustrationbased on conditions outside of ourselves that impede progress toward a goal Personal frustrationcaused by our own characteristics that impede progress toward a goal Reactions to Frustration Aggressionany response made with the intention of harming a person, animal, or object Displaced aggressionredirecting aggression to a target other than the source of ones frustration Scapegoatblaming a person or group for conditions they did not create; the scapegoat is a habitual target of displaced aggression Escapemay mean actually physically leaving a source of frustration (dropping out of school) or psychologically escaping (apathy) Conflictstressful condition that occurs when a person must choose between contradictory needs, desires, motives, or demands Conflicts Approach-Approach Conflictshaving to choose between two desirable or positive alternatives (choosing between a new motorcycle or a new boat) Avoidance-Avoidance Conflictsbeing forced to choose between two negative or undesirable alternatives (choosing between going to the dentist to undergo a painful procedure or suffering with tooth pain). Not choosing may be impossible or undesirable. Approach-Avoidance Conflictsbeing attracted (drawn to) and repelled by the same goal or activity; attraction keeps person in the situation, but negative aspects can cause distress. A person may feel ambivalencemixed positive and negative feelings; central characteristic of approachavoidance conflicts. Multiple Conflicts Double Approach-Avoidance Conflictseach of two alternative choices has both positive and negative qualities. Vacillationwhen one is attracted to both choices; seeing the positives and negatives of both choices and going back and forth before deciding, if deciding at all. Anxiety Anxietyfeelings of tension, uneasiness, apprehension, worry, and vulnerability and that are based on an unclear threat. We are motivated to avoid experiencing anxiety, often by making use of defense mechanisms. Learned Helplessness It is an acquired (learned) inability to overcome obstacles and avoid aversive stimuli. It is learned passivity. Occurs when events appear to be uncontrollable May feel helpless if failure is attributed to lasting, general factors

Depression It is the state of feeling despondent defined by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness. It is one of the most common mental problems in the world. Childhood depression is dramatically increasing. Some of the symptoms of depression include loss of appetite, loss of sex drive, decreased activity, excessive sleeping. How to Recognize Depression You have a consistently negative opinion of yourself. You engage in frequent self-criticism and self-blame. You place negative interpretations on events that usually would not bother you. You think that the future looks grim. You cant handle your responsibilities and feel overwhelmed. Mastery Training Mastery trainingresponses are reinforced that lead to overcoming a threat or gaining control over ones environment. It is one method to combat learned helplessness and depression. Stress and Health Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)rates the impact of various life events on the likelihood of contracting illness due to the level of stress produced by these events. Not a foolproof method of rating stress Even positive life events (getting married, having a child) are stressful People also differ in their reactions to stress Micro-stressors (hassles)minor but frequent stresses. They gradually weaken the bodys defense system, making it more likely that health problems develop. Psychosomatic Disorders Its a disorder characterized by physical symptoms resulting from psychological factors. Psychological factors contribute to actual illnesses (bodily damage) or to damaging changes in bodily functioning. Hypochondria is not an example because its about diseases that appear to be completely imaginary. Certain kinds of ulcers are not psychosomatic but bacterial. The most common psychosomatic complaints are respiratory or gastrointestinal. Others include headache and insomnia. Biofeedback It involves the use of a monitoring device to provide information to a person regarding certain physiological states such as heartbeat or skin temperature and then attempting, by thought processes such as relaxation, to modify those functions. Aids voluntary regulation of activities such as blood pressure, heart rate, and so on May help relieve muscle-tension headaches, migraine headaches, and chronic pain Cardiac Personalities Type A Personalitypersonality type with elevated risk of heart attack; characterized by time urgency, anger or hostility when frustrated, and being highly competitive. Anger may be the key factor of this behavior. Type B Personalitygenerally nonaggressive and easygoing; less prone to cardiovascular disease Hardy Personality It refers to having a personality type associated with superior stress resistance. Sense of personal commitment to self and family Feel they have control over their lives See life as a series of challenges, not threats General Adaptation Syndrome Its a series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress involving endocrine secretions. It occurs in three stages: 1. Alarm Reaction: Body resources are mobilized to cope with added stress producing an increase in heart rate, blood sugar, muscle tone, and general alertness. 2. Stage of Resistance: adrenal secretions help to repair damage and sustain the individual under continued stress. The body adjusts to stress but at a high physical cost. Resistance to other stressors is lowered. 3. Stage of Exhaustion: hormonal defenses break down (stress hormones are depleted), the bodys resources are drained. This can cause psychosomatic disease, loss of health, or complete collapse and death. Immunity

Immune systemmobilizes bodily defenses, like white blood cells, against invading microbes and other diseases Psychoneuroimmunologystudy of the relation of the nervous system, psychological factors, and immune system Stress Management It involves the use of behavioral strategies to reduce stress and improve coping skills. Progressive relaxationdeep relaxation produced throughout the body by tightening all muscles in an area and then relaxing them Guided Imageryvisualizing images that are calming, relaxing, or beneficial Avoiding Upsetting Thoughts Stress inoculationtreatment of stress reactions on a preventative basis through the rehearsal of positive coping statements to control fear and anxiety; designed to combat negative self-statements (self-critical thoughts that increase anxiety and lower performance). Coping statementsreassuring, self-enhancing statements used to stop negative self-statements Meditation Meditationquiet mental exercise designed to focus attention and interrupt flow of thoughts, worries, and analyses. Concentrative Meditationa traditional Asian form of meditation in which person, with eyes closed, focuses attention on a specific image or repeats a mantra (words or sounds repeated silently) for a period of time without mental movement. Concentrative meditation produces relaxation response and thus works to reduce stress but is considered difficult for most people as it requires dedication and practice. Relaxation Responsea protective mechanism against stress through the body reducing tension. It is the opposite of the fight or flight response.