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Week 4: Nomadic Migrations (2000 BCE)

Theme of ecological changes and disaster occurring simultaneously. -Both natural and human causes: climate change, humans settling into densely populated cities and domesticating plants and animals. -In Egypt, Nile river stops overflowing causing crops to die, Old Kingdom collapses. -Mesopotamia experiences severe droughts, salt level changes, too much cultivation of crops, and Euphrates river changing directions. -Indus Valley also experiences massive drought, causing Harappan civilazations to decline. -East Asia has documentation of the sun dimming leaving them with cold summers, heavy floods and to top it off, a severe drought. Movement of nomadic peoples -Pastoral nomads: people herding flocks of animals with perpetual motion across large territories. -Transhumant herders: nomads who stick in a much smaller area, involved with urban centers. -Nomadic peoples moving around to find water and a place to settle. This was a difficult task because of the severe climate changes. -Both nomadic groups involved in introducing wheeled vehicles and war chariots. Territorial States -Includes Egypt, Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, China. -Egypt: Middle Kingdom from 2040-1640 BCE is resettled by pastoral peoples after a century of drought and Nile river returns to normal flow of water. New Kingdom Egypt (1550-1069 BCE) has flourishing trade routes, expansion across multiple other territories using war chariots. Rulers include: Tutankhamen, Akhenaten and Nefertiti, Ramses II, Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut reigns and expands Egypt without much warfare but her son Thutmosis III reigned during the first ever recorded battle using chariots at the Battle of Megiddo (1469 BCE). -Mesopotamia: Also resettled by pastoral peoples after severe drought. Old Babylonian Kingdom founded around 2000 BCE. Hammurabi serves as 6th king to Old Babylonia, creates legal code to give himself more power. -Hammurabi Code of Law (1750 BCE): Lays out legal code describing over 300 crimes and their punishments, says that the kingdoms most important aspect is family, and divides civilization into 3 classes: free, dependent, and slave. -Epic of Gilgamesh (1830 BCE): Gilgamesh was a Mesopotamian legend. The epic story describes his failed quest for immortality and his denial that he his human and will die. Sidekick is Enkidu. This is a primary source. -Indus Valley: Also settled by pastoral nomads, but was not immediately settled into large territorial states. Instead, these people ventured into the fertile Indus River basin singing chants known as Rig Veda. The Vedic Peoples are known for dwelling in forests for years at a time to discover lifes purpose. Aryans meant respected ones. Had Indo-European language groups. -China: Was settled over time because of an increasing population and village conflicts. Needed more centralized forms of control. Copied chariot design to fight invading peoples, used bronze and did a lot of metal working, pottery, built walls around their territories. Shang state acted as a huge part of bronze age, using bronze to make weapons,

vessels. Oracle bones were important and seen as a way to predict the future. Microsocieties -Minoans: Palace of Knossos on Crete covered more than 6 acres. Not much of a religious culture but did worship a female deity. Had a lot of regional diversity even though it was a small settlement. Palace Culture. Linear A language. -Mycenaeans: More war oriented. A lot of pictures containing war horses and chariots. Migrated to Greece through gradual movement (took about 250 years) and brought with them their metal working, Indo-European language, and their horse chariots. Had a lot of wealth. Their expansion led to a slight decline in the Minoan culture. Both cultures declined though after invasions from other peoples. Fortress Culture. Linear B language. Other terms -Decalogue: The Ten Commandments. Dont commit adultery, dont steal, dont murder, no other gods before me, etc. -Uluburun Shipwreck: 1325 BCE. Transporting copper and tin among many other materials that were being traded. Considered part of Bronze Age. Wrecked near the shore of Uluburun. -Primary source: A first-hand account of an event. -Ancient secondary source: Interprets or analyzes a primary source. Examples include a history textbook, a magazine examining previous findings.

Week 5: Characteristics of Empires (1250-350 BCE)

Recognize the different empires on a map of Eurasia -Persian Empire, Assyrian Empire, Shang Dynasty, Zhou Empire, Vedic peoples. (Persians overthrow the Assyrians, Zhou overthrows Shang) Centralized versus Decentralized -Centralized: More of a political and military organization of the empire. More focused on politics and military strength. Examples: Assyrians, Persians, Shang Dynasty -Decentralized: More sharing of culture and trade. Not very focused on strict laws or building an army. Example: Vedic peoples Centralized-Assyrians, Persians, Zhou Empire (not sure if Zhou is centralized but I asked my TA. When he emails me back ill let you know) Assyrians (934-609 BCE) -Centralized Empire -Rulers: Ashurnasipul, Sennacherib, Shalmaneser. -Focus on strict government of territory and having strong defensive/offensive military. -Succeeded by Persians Persians -Take over Assyrian Empire and borrow ideas from them -Also borrow ideas from Elamites and Babylonians -Founded by Cyrus, solidified by Darius -Tribute bases, military and tax officials, satraps, spies -Had a caste system: 1. Priests, Nobles, Warriors 2. Scribes, Bureaucrats, Merchants 3. Artisans 4. Peasants -Ride, shoot, tell the truth is what their motto was -Dualistic culture, monotheistic -Zoroastrianism

-Built royal road, Qanats, Persepolis Zhou Empire (1045-771 BCE) -Overthrow the Shang using chariots and archers (people with bows and arrows) -Tribute based culture -Integrated by culture, but not quite a unified culture -Tianming (Mandate from Heaven): Zhou kings control everything under heaven, have a rigid caste system, dikes and an irrigation system is developed for Yellow River, have lunar months and solar years. -Continue metal-working from the Shang Dynasty Vedic Peoples -The Vedas: Oral Sacred Text of Vedic culture. Includes Rig Veda (about sacrifice), Sama Veda (about songs at sacrifice), Yajur Veda (Prayer book containing rituals), and Atharva Veda (charms and remedies). -Mahabharata: a major Sanskrit epic. The other major one is called the Ramayana -Upanishads: dialogues between disciple (student) and sage (a wise man). These form the ideals for the Hindu religion.

Week 6: Axial Age (1000-350 BCE)

Axial Age -Axial Age: The revolution of intelligence and religious/spiritual practices taking place across the globe in MOST but not all cultures -Karl Jaspers coins the term Axial Age to describe the simultaneous emergence of radical thinkers in Greece, Southwest Asia, India and China. Jaspers thought that these territories were not in contact with each other, but in fact they were very interconnected at this point in history. Radical Thinkers -Includes: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Confucius, Lao Tzu, Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), Zoroaster, Epicurus, Zeno (stoicism), Diogenes (cynicism), Pyrrhon (skepticism). -Socrates philosophy: He who knows he knows nothing is the wisest of all. -Plato thinks knowledge=virtue, Aristotle studies order and logic -Epicurus: -Confucius and Lao Tzu ideals clash because Confucius believes that man is more important than nature, but Master Lao thinks that nature is above all, and that you must go with the flow of things to be enlightened (this is called Wuwei). -Confucius: His students write Analects. Analects discuss: 1. Junzi-man is superior to nature 2. Ren-benevolence (desire to do good) 3. Li-rituals 4. Xiao-filial piety (respect for parents and ancestors) -Master Lao Tzu: 1. Wuwei-go with the flow of things 2. Dao-the way (to enlightenment, to end suffering) -Han Fei and Legalism: believes that after a ruler has established strict law and a punishment system, they should follow extreme wuwei (extreme withdrawal, doing nothing anymore). Buddhism -Buddhism was started by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, who was questioning the caste system during the quarreling states period and was looking for new ways to reach enlightenment.

-Four Noble Truths: 1. Suffering (dhukka) is everywhere 2. The reason people suffer is because they get too attached to things 3. Ending suffering is possible 4. Must follow eight fold path to end suffering -Eight fold path: Must be followed to end suffering and attain enlightenment. 1. Speech 2. Action 3. Livelihood 4. Effort 5. Mindfulness 6. Concentration 7. Understanding 8. Thought -Theravada Buddhism believes that only male monks can be enlightened. They practice very strict rituals to reach enlightenment. -Mahayana Buddhism believes that anyone can be enlightened. It is a less strict version of Theravada Buddhism. -Ashoka was a harsh ruler/conqueror who established a very centralized capital at Pataliputra, but experience radical changes after finding Buddhism. Africa and Ethno-geographical Zones -Africas Nile River is still central and important for civilization -Developments of civs and settlement patterns are influences by climate changes such as droughts or floods -Ethno-geographical zones: Sahara desert being expanded in population, Sahel, Sudan Savanna, African Rainforests. These regions were all being gradually expanded and influenced by the Axial Age. Other Regions (around 1000 BCE) Meroe Kingdom -Located in Nubia -Linked Egypt with Sub-Saharan Africa region -Influences from Egypt -Were heavily involved with trade -CANNOT be defined by Axial Age Nok -Located in modern-day Nigeria -Skipped Bronze Age, instead they were very good at iron-smelting -Terra cotta figurines that may have represented fertility -CANNOT be defined by the Axial Age because they did not have radical thinkers or a revolution of religion Chavin (1400-200 BCE) -Located in Meso-America -Did not use wheels or animals to haul their goods, but later on they used llamas. -Their society and their crops grew down the slant of a mountainside. -Did not involve themselves in a lot of a trade, only a limited amount -Cults focused on wild animals as spiritual forces -CANNOT be defined by Axial Age Olmecs (1500-400 BCE) -Located in Meso-America -Loose organization of villages but shared common language and gods -Farmed squash, maize, beans and cacao -Built religious centers, possible had human sacrifice -Later on, they had a caste system -Their decline was very quick but no one knows why

-Had figurines and large head figurines -CANNOT be defined by Axial Age

Week 7: Alexander the Great, Hellenism, The Silk Road

Recognize major empires and basic land and sea trade routes on map 6-3 -Page 230-231 Alexander the Great -Shaped by his father, Philip II. His father ruled Macedon, located right above Greece. Philip II conquered almost all of the land surrounding Macedon, including almost all of Greece with the exception of Sparta, Thrace, Tribalia, Dardania, Illyria. -Because his father conquered everything, Alex was upset because he did not get to do anything himself. So when his father was assassinated, Alex became the ruler of Macedon and the other lands his dad conquered, and decided to conquer the Persian Empire and the rest of the land east of Macedon. -Alexander was such a genius when it came to setting up his military to attack and conquer a territory that our U.S. military still studies his ways today. -Four most famous battles: Granicus, Issus, Gaugamela, Hydapses. -Died in Babylon when he was 33 in 323 BCE. He is believed to have died from excessive alcohol abuse, war injuries, and depression. -Overall, Alexander conquered Egypt, Persian Empire, Bactria, Parthia, Babylon, and more. -When he died, his generals Ptolemy, Antigony and Saleucid decided to take over his territory and split it into kingdoms controlled by them. -Alexander gave rise to Hellenism because without him conquering so many lands, the lands would not be unified enough to eventually share the same culture. Hellenism -Hellenism is a Greek culture that was very widespread and absorbed by a lot of different regions across the territories conquered by Alexander and even territories that were not. -Hellenism consists of a shared language called koine. It carries an element of entertainment meaning that the regions who were Hellenistic liked to put on plays and music. It shared art, education, philosophical and religious influence. -Gave rise to cosmopolitan (multi-ethnic) cities such as Alexandria (Egypt) Iskandaria in Iraq and Kandahar in Afghanistan. -Since Hellenism spread across such a big piece of land, there were distant rulers, meaning that a ruler tried to rule a country from thousands of miles away. This did not work well. Example of this is Judaism. They did not want to become Hellenistic, so they revolted against Saleucid. -Cons of Hellenism: more widespread slavery, kidnappings, war captives, mining, revolts. -Egypt serves as a case study (specific example) of Hellenistic culture because the city was built by people who migrated here from all over the land, they taxed for revenue, worshipped their ruler, maintained local institutions (something Alexander did a lot), arts and sciences thrives, and they had updated their religion (Isis). Mauryan Empire -Post-Alexander. -Chandragupta Maurya took control of the Indus Valley.

-His grandson Ashoka took place as ruler. Was very violent and brutal. -After finding Buddhism, he gives up his violence. -He builds stupas, which were dome shaped monuments (buildings) that he said were ruled by dharma (meaning Buddhist teachings, your dharma is your destiny, your true self), and each monument held a relic of the Buddha, such as a piece of clothing or hair, meant to honor the Buddha. -Ashokan Edicts: These are inscriptions written by Ashoka that describe the spread of Buddhism and represent Buddhism. There are 33 inscriptions. Bactria -Alexander married daughter of a Bactrian Chief named Roxana to prove that he wanted to unify distant cultures -He made Bactria a center of operations for his military -Served as a connection from South Asia to Greek Mediterranean -Traded Elephants with Greeks because Greeks found these animals fascinating -Were a Hellenistic kingdom that broke off from Saleucid (one of Alexanders generals) Kushan Dynasty -Acted as a middle man for the silk road trades that were happening all the time. -Linked China and Mediterranean and adopted Hellenism. Parthia -Also acted as a middle man for trade on the silk road. -Future enemies of Rome. Im not too sure what else to write on here about the Kushans and the Parthians. In class all she said was what I wrote. There is a section in the book about them on pages 223-224 if you want to read it really quick. Silk Roads -These roads flourished because of Hellenism. -Parthia and Kushans act as the facilitators and tax traders. -These roads were built from old AND new roads. -Cons of Silk Road: some ideas or goods were distorted along the way. Example: Theravada Buddhism is a very strict form of Buddhism, and as it got passed along the Silk Road, it became less and less strict, forming Mahayana Buddhism. -Another example of the cons is spices. One culture may know how to use a spice, and when they send it off for trade, if the information about the spice does not get passed on, the culture receiving it will not know how to use it. Caravan Cities -Cities that were strategically placed along or at the ends of major trade routes where large trading groups could get together. -Some of these cities displayed items of Greek Hellenistic culture that were available to admire. -These became very important for the trading groups because it allowed groups from all over the land to combine into a common distance spot. Periplus -The Periplus (it means sailing around) is a book that contained advice, information and maps about sea trade routes and sailing for trade. -Compiled from people who have already experienced things and wanted other sailors to know them to prevent issues and make trading overseas safer and more efficient.

-The map were created because regions were starting to trade overseas and needed to map out where they were going. Mahayana Buddhism -Was a little more popular because everyone could be enlightened. -Was not as rigid or strict as Theravada Buddhism. -Believed to be evolved on the Silk Roads because of a distortion of Buddhist ideas.