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Sound field : The ultrasound intensity along the beam is not uniform but varies due to the size

of the source that gives rise to interference effects. The face of the crystal does not vibrate uniformly under the influence of the triggering electrical pulse. The crystal acts as a mosaic of large number of tiny individual crystals, each vibrating in the same direction but slightly out of phase with its neighbors. Each element in the mosaic acts like a point source and radiates a spherical wave, outward from the plane of the crystal face. As these spherical waves with different phases encounter one another in the region near the crystal face, interference effect sets up a series of maximum and minimum intensity locations. This interference zone ends at the last maximum, at a distance N from the crystal and is known as the near field [ Fresnel zone ] of the sound beam. The location of the last maximum is the natural focus of the transducer and the sound field converges to half the source size at this location. Because of this intensity variations, echo amplitude from a constant reflector in the near zone will vary and it can be extremely difficult to accurately evaluate the size of the reflector. Testing in the near zone is limited to : Thickness measurements, Detection of defects and Sizing of large defects only. Intensity variations [ interference ] in the near zone is lesser for rectangular shaped crystals. The near field distance depends on the size and frequency of the transducer and the effective wave length in the test material. Near field for a circular element with a single operating frequency in a single medium is, 2 N = D / 4 D is element size and is effective wavelength. At distance greater than N, known as the far field of the ultrasonic beam [ Fraunhoper zone ], there are no interference effects. In this zone the sound field diverge in the shape of a cone and the sound pressure is inversely proportional to distance and follows an exponential decay curve. Half angle of divergence [ to the boundary of sound field ], - / 2 = Sin 1.22 / D In the far zone the signal from a large reflector [ larger than the beam cross section at that distance ] follows the inverse proportional law. After a distance of three near zones from the crystal, a double distant echo from a large reflector will cause the echo intensity to reduce by 6 dB. The signal from a small reflector causes greater directional change and a smaller amount of the reflected energy reaches the probe. The signal amplitude decreases to one fourth when the distance is doubled [ - 12 dB ] Beam spread decreases with increase in frequency and Crystal size. Consideration of beam spread is important when measuring the size of a discontinuity and inspecting for flaws near a sidewall or corner or small round parts, where the diverging beam may produce spurious echoes. The near field and far field effects also occur when ultrasonic waves are reflected from an interface.

Calculation for the near field length and the beam spread for a 2 MHz, 24 mm , longitudinal wave probe in steel and in water; wavelength in steel [ ] is 5.9 / 2 or 2.95 mm. wavelength in water [ ] is 1.5 / 2 or .75 mm. crystal size [ D ] is 24 mm. in steel 2 near field length, 24 / ( 4 X 2.95 ) or 48.81 mm Half 0 beam spread, Inv Sin ( 1.22 X 2.95 ) / 24 or 8.62 0 full spread, 2 X 8.62 ~ 17 . In water 2 near field length, 24 / ( 4 X .75 ) or 192 mm. Half 0 beam spread, Inv Sin ( 1.22 X .75 ) / 24 or 2.15 0 0 full spread, 2 X 2.15 or 4.30 .

K. Chatterjee, 75643

Center for NDT

P 00 Rv 02

Self study material.