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Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE BSS, rel.

RG20(BSS), operating documentation, issue 01

Feature description

BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode


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The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This documentation is intended for the use of Nokia Siemens Networks customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be used, reproduced, modified or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Siemens Networks. The documentation has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Siemens Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this documentation concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products are given "as is" and all liability arising in connection with such hardware or software products shall be defined conclusively and finally in a separate agreement between Nokia Siemens Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Siemens Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Siemens Networks will, if deemed necessary by Nokia Siemens Networks, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Siemens Networks will correct errors in this documentation as soon as possible. IN NO EVENT WILL Nokia Siemens Networks BE LIABLE FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENTATION OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY LOSSES, SUCH AS BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY OR DATA,THAT MAY ARISE FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION IN IT. This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyrights and other intellectual property rights according to the applicable laws. The wave logo is a trademark of Nokia Siemens Networks Oy. Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Siemens is a registered trademark of Siemens AG. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright Nokia Siemens Networks 2010. All rights reserved

Important Notice on Product Safety


Elevated voltages are inevitably present at specific points in this electrical equipment. Some of the parts may also have elevated operating temperatures. Non-observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in personal injury or in property damage. Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system. The system complies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected has to comply with the applicable safety standards.

The same text in German: Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangslufig bestimmte Teile der Gerte unter Spannung. Einige Teile knnen auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen. Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu Krperverletzungen und Sachschden fhren. Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die Anlagen installiert und wartet. Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Angeschlossene Gerte mssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfllen.

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Table of Contents
This document has 50 pages. Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 3 4 5 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9 10 Overview of Dual Transfer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 System impact of Dual Transfer Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on BSS performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC MMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS MMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements and counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on mobile stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interworking with other features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 21 21 22 23 23 24 25 26

IMSI co-ordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Paging coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 GTTP signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Radio resource management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DTM allocation for PS connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DTM multislot classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fragmentation of the PS resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Territory management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 35 35 36 37

Dual Transfer Mode call establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Mobile-originated call establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Mobile-terminated call establishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Handover control . . . . . . . . Intra-cell handover . . . . . . . Inter-cell handover . . . . . . . External handover . . . . . . . Inter-system handover . . . . ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 43 43 43 46 47

Dual Transfer Mode call release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Implementing Dual Transfer Mode overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

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List of Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 E-mail in dual transfer mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Real time video sharing in dual transfer mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 DTM state transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Paging coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 PS paging procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 GTTP signalling procedure in uplink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 GTTP signalling procedure in downlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 DTM multislot allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 DTM allocation example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 MO call establishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 MT DTM call establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

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List of Tables
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Required additional and alternative hardware or firmware . . . . . . . . . . 13 Required software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Impact of DTM on BSC units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Counters of Traffic Measurement related to DTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Counters of Handover Measurement related to DTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Counters of BSC Level Clear Code Measurement related to DTM . . . 17 Counters of BSC Level Clear Code (PM) Measurement related to DTM . 17 Counters of MS Capability Indication Measurement related to DTM . . 18 Counters of Packet Control Unit Measurement related to DTM . . . . . . 18 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement related to DTM . . . . . . . . . 18 Counters of Enhanced Quality of Service Measurement related to DTM . 18 Counters of PS DTM Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Counters of 106 CS DTM Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Multi-slot power reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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Summary of changes

Summary of changes
Changes between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains all changes made to previous issues. Changes made between issues 3-1 and 3-0 Information on InSite BTS has been removed. Changes made between issues 3-0 and 2-1 The BSS number has been added to the heading of the document. Information on InSite BTS has been removed. Changes made between issues 2-1 and 2-0 The list of Adjacent GSM (ADJC) radio network object parameters in BSC Parameters has been updated. Coverage planning in section Impact on planning and Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection in section Interworking with other features have been updated. Power budget handover during a DTM call in section Inter-cell handover has been updated. Changes made between issues 2-0 and 1-1 Chapters System impact of Dual Transfer Mode and Implementing Dual Transfer Mode overview have been added to this document. Chapters Technical Description of Dual Transfer Mode, Requirements for Dual Transfer Mode, Effect of Dual Transfer Mode on interfaces, and User Interface of Dual Transfer Mode have been removed. The information has been moved to chapters Overview of Dual Transfer Mode and System impact of Dual Transfer Mode. Information on PrimeSite BTSs and 2nd generation BTSs has been removed. Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE, and TRAU Bicasting in AMR FR/HR Handover have been added to chapter System impact of Dual Transfer Mode. Section GMM/SM signalling in chapter System Impact of Dual Transfer Mode has been updated for S13. Information concerning Old BSS to New BSS information element has been added to chapter Handover, section External Handover. It explains implementing of Dual Transfer Mode.

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Overview of Dual Transfer Mode

BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode

1 Overview of Dual Transfer Mode


Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) provides mobile users with simultaneous circuit-switched (CS) voice and packet-switched (PS) data services. This means that users can, for example, send and receive e-mail during an ongoing phone call. Figure E-mail in dual transfer mode illustrates how the user A can have a voice call while downloading e-mail messages.

BSC/PCU MSC/HLR BTS DTM user 3 BTS non-DTM MS

BSC/PCU Packet core


IP backbone

CS voice call PS stream Mail server


Figure 1 E-mail in dual transfer mode Figure Real time video sharing in dual transfer mode illustrates how two DTM users share a video call.

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User A

SGSN

DTM MS

BSC GGSN

BTS

MSC/HLR

BTS User B BSC SGSN IP backbone

DTM MS

IMS CS voice call PS stream


Figure 2 Real time video sharing in dual transfer mode In dual transfer mode, the mobile station (MS) is simultaneously in dedicated mode and in packet transfer mode so that the timeslots allocated for each MS are consecutive and within the same frequency. In dedicated mode, the MS has a CS connection. In packet transfer mode, the MS has a PS connection. The CS connection is always a single slot connection, whereas the PS connection can also be a multislot connection. The BSC supports only full rate CS connections in dual transfer mode. Simultaneously obtained packet data rates can be up to 118 kbit/s for EGPRS and 40 kbit/s for GPRS/CS-4. Both the CS and PS parts of a DTM call are maintained in the PS territory. A DTM call starts from an existing CS connection in the CS territory. During the DTM call establishment, the CS connection is handed over to the PS territory and combined with the related PS resources. Dual Transfer Mode uses a native split between the circuit-switched (CS) and packetswitched (PS) parts of the BSC for radio resource management. The CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) handles the following:

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speech codec mode selection for the DTM CS connection handover control admission control in the PS territory channel allocation for both CS and PS connections PS territory management

The packet control unit (PCU) handles the following:

An MS is in dual transfer mode when it has simultaneous CS and PS connections. It can enter dual transfer mode only through dedicated mode. If the MS is in idle mode, it moves to dedicated mode before entering dual transfer mode. If the MS is in packet transfer mode, the PS connection is released before the MS moves to dedicated mode. The PCU or the MS re-establishes the PS connection as soon as the MS has a CS connection. If a CS connection is released when the MS is in dual transfer mode, also the PS connection is released. The PCU or the MS re-establishes the PS connection as soon as the CS channel release has been completed. If a PS connection is released when the MS is in dual transfer mode, the MS returns to dedicated mode. The MS returns to idle mode when it has neither a CS nor a PS connection. Figure DTM state transitions illustrates how an MS can move from one mode to another.

PS release Dedicated mode

DTM assignment Packet transfer mode Dual transfer mode

CS release

RR idle mode/Packet idle mode


Figure 3 DTM state transitions

In the Nokia Siemens Networks implementation, the PCU is a part of the BSC. Terminology is used in the following way: The BSC refers to the entire network element. The term is also used when it is not necessary to distinguish between the CS and PS functionality. The PCU refers to the unit that manages PS connections.

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The CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) refers to software that manages CS connections.

Benefits of Dual Transfer Mode Mobile users require new services. With DTM, you can expand your service portfolio to offer users enhanced services in a GSM/EDGE network. DTM allows you to provide a wide range of services that demand a simultaneous CS and PS connection. Mobile users can use data services, such as file transfer, web browsing, video sharing, and mobile netmeeting, during a speech call. This makes it possible to launch services similar to UMTS class A services also in 2G networks. In addition, these services can be used to complement the 3G coverage in places where there is no 3G network coverage. Compliance DTM complies with the 3GPP standard (Rel5). For more information, see section 3GPP 43.055 Dual Transfer Mode in Base Station SubSystem BSS13, Compliance to 3GPP Rel-6 Specifications of TSG-Geran #33 (February 2007). The document is available on request via NSN Product Management. Related topics in Dual Transfer Mode System impact of Dual Transfer Mode IMSI co-ordination Paging co-ordination GTTP signalling Radio resource management Dual Transfer Mode call establishment Handover control Dual Transfer Mode call release Implementing Dual Transfer Mode overview

Other related topics RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm BSC3100: Radio Network Supervision in BSC BSS10016 and BSS10118: Common BCCH Control in BSC BSS8032: Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band BSS5050, BSS10118, BSS11116 and BSS8085: Dual Band Network Operation BSS10004 and BSS6071: Enhanced Speech Codecs: AMR and EFR BSS10101 and BSS11107: GSM-WCDMA Interworking BSS115173: Soft Channel Capacity in BSC BSS9006: GPRS System Feature Description BSS10091: EDGE System Feature Description BSS20089: Extended Dynamic Allocation BSS115006: Network-Assisted Cell Change BSS11112: Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection BSC4015: Extended Cell BSS10046: Multi BCF Control in BSC Activating and Testing BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode Activating and Testing BSS10083: EGPRS

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Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS EA - Adjacent Cell Handling EE - Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC EQ - Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC ER - Transceiver Handling TP - GSM Measurement Handling WO - Parameter Handling 1 Traffic Measurement 4 Handover Measurement 50 BSC Level Clear Code Measurement 51 BSC Level Clear Code (PM) Measurement 71 MS Capability Indication Measurement 106 CS DTM Measurement 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement 79 Coding Scheme Measurement 97 Enhanced Quality of Service Measurement 105 PS DTM Measurement BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List

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2 System impact of Dual Transfer Mode


The system impact of BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) is specified in the sections below. DTM is an application software product and requires a valid licence in the BSC.

2.1

Requirements
Hardware requirements
Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Hardware/firmware required BSC2i or BSC3i PCU2 No requirements No requirements No requirements

Table 1

Required additional and alternative hardware or firmware

Software requirements
Network element BSC Flexi EDGE BTS UltraSite EDGE BTS MetroSite EDGE BTS Talk-family BTS MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required S12 or later No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements M11 SG5 OSS4.1

Table 2

Required software

Frequency band support The BSC supports DTM on the following frequency bands: GSM GSM GSM GSM 800 900 1800 1900

Other requirements GPRS/EDGE must be available and active in the network. A Nokia Siemens Networks BSC needs the Gs interface for full paging coordination support.

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The network must support Network Operation Mode I (NOM I) to provide CS paging coordination for DTM-capable MSS. In NOM I, the core network provides CS paging coordination so that CS paging requests to GPRS-attached MSS are sent to the PCU via the SGSN. The PCU provides CS paging on the packet associated control channel (PACCH) if the MS is in packet transfer mode. If the MS is in packet idle mode, it is paged for CS calls on the paging channel (PCH). In Network Operation Mode II (NOM II), all CS paging requests are sent on the PCH. This means that if a DTM-capable MS is in packet transfer mode (that is, there is ongoing data transfer in normal GPRS/EDGE mode), it does not necessarily monitor the PCH channel and, therefore, does not respond to the CS paging.

2.2

Restrictions
The following restrictions apply to DTM: DTM is not supported in the extended area of the cell. DTM is only supported in the normal area of the cell. The BSC does not perform coordination of international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) for those DTM-capable MSS that are in the extended area of the cell. This prevents mobile-terminated (MT) DTM call establishment and GPRS transparent transport protocol (GTTP) signalling in the downlink direction. The single-slot operation mode of dual transfer mode is not supported. Only the multi-slot operation mode is supported. CS paging coordination is not provided in Network Operation Mode II (NOM II). CS paging coordination is provided in NOM I only. For details on the NOM requirements, see section Other requirements. The BSC supports only full rate CS connections in dual transfer mode.

2.3

Impact on transmission
No impact.

2.4

Impact on BSS performance


OMU signalling No impact. TRX signalling DTM increases the load on TRX signalling slightly. Impact on BSC units
BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU Impact No impact No impact DTM increases the load on the BCSU slightly.

Table 3

Impact of DTM on BSC units

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BSC unit PCU

Impact DTM slightly increases the load on the PCU. In addition, an active DTM call decreases PCU connectivity with one 16 kbit/s Abis timeslot.

Table 3

Impact of DTM on BSC units (Cont.)

Impact on BTS units No impact.

2.5
2.5.1

User interface
BSC MMI
The following command groups and MML commands are used to handle DTM: Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC: EEJ, EEO Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQO, EQV Adjacent Cell Handling: EAC, EAM, EAO Transceiver Handling: ERO GSM Measurement Handling: TPE, TPI , TPM, TPS Parameter Handling: WOC, WOI Licence and Feature Handling: W7M, W7I

For more information on the command groups and MML commands, see MML commands.

2.5.2

BTS MMI
DTM cannot be managed with BTS MMI.

2.5.3

BSC parameters
BSC radio network object parameters The following BSC radio network object parameters are related to DTM: DTM fragmentation penalty DTM PFC packet flow timer ISHO preferred for non-DTM MS

SEG-specific BTS radio network object parameters The following SEG-specific BTS radio network object parameter is related to DTM: DTM enabled

Adjacent GSM (ADJC) radio network object parameters The following adjacent GSM (ADJC) radio network object parameters are related to DTM: DTM enabled DTM power budget margin

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NCCR EGPRS PBGT margin NCCR GPRS PBGT margin

For more information on the radio network object parameters, see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary. PRFILE parameters The following PRFILE parameters are related to DTM: DL_DTM_TBF_REL_DELAY DTM_CALL_ASSIGN_TIMER DTM_CALL_PENALTY_TIMER DTM_MS_CL_11_SUPPORT_EDA MAX_LAPD_LENGTH UL_DTM_TBF_REL_DELAY UL_DTM_TBF_RELDELAY_EXT

For more information on PRFILE parameters, see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List.

2.5.4

Alarms
DTM modifies the description of alarm 7725 TRAFFIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION FAILURE.

2.5.5

Measurements and counters


The following measurements and counters are related to DTM. 1 Traffic Measurement
Name DROPS AFTER DTM CS TCH ASSIGNMENT DTM CS TCH DROPS BETWEEN ASSCOMPL AND RFCH REL ACK Number 001233 001234

Table 4

Counters of Traffic Measurement related to DTM

For more information, see 1 Traffic Measurement. 4 Handover Measurement


Name DTM MS HO ATTEMPTS TO DTM CELL DTM MS HO SUCCEEDED TO DTM CELL DTM MS HO ATTEMPTS TO NON DTM CELL DTM MS HO SUCCEEDED TO NON DTM CELL DTM CALL HO FROM DTM CELL SUCCEEDED DTM HO DUE LACK OF RESOURCES Number 004190 004191 004192 004193 004194 004195

Table 5

Counters of Handover Measurement related to DTM

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Name NON DTM BASED ISHO ATTEMPT NON DTM BASED ISHO SUCCESS DTM CALL HO ATTEMPTS TO DTM CELL DTM CALL HO SUCCESS TO DTM CELL DTM CALL HO ATTEMPTS TO NON DTM CELL DTM CALL HO SUCCESS TO NON DTM CELL

Number 004196 004197 004198 004199 004200 004201

Table 5

Counters of Handover Measurement related to DTM (Cont.)

For more information, see 4 Handover Measurement. 50 BSC Level Clear Code Measurement
Name M TRAFFIC LOAD Number 0500938

Table 6

Counters of BSC Level Clear Code Measurement related to DTM

For more information, see 50 BSC Level Clear Code Measurement. 51 BSC Level Clear Code (PM) Measurement
Name INCOMING EXTERNAL DTM HO DUE NO PS RESOURCES AVAILABLE INCOMING EXTERNAL DTM HO DUE TRAFFIC Number 051186 051187

INTER DTM HO DUE NO PS RESOURCES AVAILABLE 051188 INTRA DTM MO CS TO PS TERRITORY HO INTRA DTM MT CS TO PS TERRITORY HO INTRA DTM MT PS TO PS TERRITORY HO INTRA DTM PS TO CS TERRITORY HO OUTGOING EXTERNAL DTM HO DUE NO PS RESOURCES AVAILABLE 051189 051190 051191 051192 051193

OUTGOING EXTERNAL DTM HO DUE DTM DISABLED 051194 OUTGOING EXTERNAL DTM HO DUE PS QUALITY CONTROL OUTGOING EXTERNAL DTM HO DUE NO DTM SUPPORT OUTGOING EXTERNAL DTM HO TO WCDMA INTER DTM HO DUE DTM DISABLED INTER DTM HO DUE PS QUALITY CONTROL INTER DTM HO DUE NO DTM SUPPORT 051195 051196 051197 051198 051199 051200

Table 7

Counters of BSC Level Clear Code (PM) Measurement related to DTM

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For more information, see 51 BSC Level Clear Code (PM) Measurement. 71 MS Capability Indication Measurement
Name TCH RESERV BY DTM MS REPORTING TIME BY DTM MS Number 071037 071038

Table 8

Counters of MS Capability Indication Measurement related to DTM

For more information, see 71 MS Capability Indication Measurement. 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement
Name UL TBF RELEASES DUE DTM DL TBF RELEASES DUE DTM DL RLC CS1 BLKS TO DTM MS DL RLC CS2 BLKS TO DTM MS UL RLC CS1 BLKS FROM DTM MS UL RLC CS2 BLKS FROM DTM MS Number 072201 072202 072203 072204 072205 072206

Table 9

Counters of Packet Control Unit Measurement related to DTM

For more information, see 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement. 79 Coding Scheme Measurement
Name DL RLC MCS-N BLOCKS TO DTM MS UL RLC MCS-N BLOCKS FROM DTM MS Number 079010 079011

Table 10

Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement related to DTM

For more information, see 79 Coding Scheme Measurement. 97 Enhanced Quality of Service Measurement
Name LLC BYTES UL DTM LLC BYTES DL DTM Number 097041 097042

Table 11

Counters of Enhanced Quality of Service Measurement related to DTM

For more information, see 97 Enhanced Quality of Service Measurement.

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105 PS DTM Measurement


Name MT DTM CALL INITIAL REQUESTS MT DTM CALL CONTINUATION REQUESTS MT DTM CALL INITIAL REJECTIONS MT DTM CALL CONTINUATION REJECTIONS DTM REJECTIONS NO RESOURCES DTM REALLOCATION REQUESTS DUE PS QUALITY DTM REALLOCATION REQUESTS DUE PS OTHER DTM PS REALLOCATION REJECTIONS DTM TBF ASSIGNMENT FAILURES DTM ALLOCATIONS INITIAL DTM REALLOCATIONS DTM DURATION SUM FR DTM DURATION SUM HR Not in use DTM FRAGMENTS TWO DTMS PACKED Not in use PEAK OF SIMULTANEOUS DTM CS CONNECTIONS DTM REQUESTS OF 1 UL PS TSL DTM REQUESTS OF 2 UL PS TSL DTM REQUESTS OF 1 DL PS TSL DTM REQUESTS OF 2 DL PS TSL DTM REQUESTS OF 3 DL PS TSL Not in use DTM ALLOCATIONS OF 1 UL PS TSL DTM ALLOCATIONS OF 2 UL PS TSL DTM ALLOCATIONS OF 1 DL PS TSL DTM ALLOCATIONS OF 2 DL PS TSL DTM ALLOCATIONS OF 3 DL PS TSL Not in use UL DTM TBF ESTABLISHMENTS DL DTM TBF ESTABLISHMENTS UL DTM TBF DROPS DUE DOWNGRADE DL DTM TBF DROPS DUE DOWNGRADE UL DTM TBF DROPS ABNORMAL 105026 105027 105028 105029 105030 105021 105022 105023 105024 105025 105015 105016 105017 105018 105019 105020 105013 105014 Number 105000 105001 105002 105003 105004 105005 105006 105007 105008 105009 105010 105011 105012

Table 12

Counters of PS DTM Measurement

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Name DL DTM TBF DROPS ABNORMAL

Number 105031

Table 12

Counters of PS DTM Measurement (Cont.)

For more information, see 105 PS DTM Measurement. 106 CS DTM Measurement
Name MO DTM CALL INITIAL REQUESTS MO DTM CALL CONTINUATION REQUESTS MO DTM CALL INITIAL REJECTIONS MO DTM CALL CONTINUATION REJECTIONS DTM CS ASSIGNMENT COMMANDS DTM PACKET ASSIGNMENT COMMANDS DTM CS REALLOCATION REQUESTS DTM CS REALLOCATION REJECTIONS DTM INITIAL ASSIGNMENT FAILURES DTM REALLOCATION ASSIGNMENT FAILURES MS LOST DURING ASSIGNMENT DTM RELEASES DUE PS RELEASE DTM RELEASES DUE CS RELEASE DTM RELEASES DUE CS HANDOVER DTM RELEASES DUE OTHER IGNORED INITIAL DTM REQUESTS IGNORED DTM CONTINUATION REQUESTS DTM IMSI NOT AVAILABLE DTM ASSIGNMENT COMMANDS GTTP MESSAGES UL GTTP MESSAGES DL GTTP MESSAGES DISCARDED PACKET NOTIFICATIONS PACKET NOTIFICATION FAILURES MS LOST DURING REALLOCATION Number 106000 106001 106002 106003 106004 106005 106006 106007 106008 106009 106010 106011 106012 106013 106014 106015 106016 106017 106018 106019 106020 106021 106022 106023 106024

Table 13

Counters of 106 CS DTM Measurement

For more information, see 106 CS DTM Measurement.

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2.6

Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)


DX MSC (MSC)/DX HLR (HLR) The MSC must provide the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) of the MS to the BSS in the COMMON ID and HANDOVER REQUEST messages if the MS and the BSS are DTM-capable and the IMSI is available at the MSC. The MSC must be configured or parameterized so that it can provide the IMSI. If the IMSI is not available during a CS call establishment, DTM resources cannot be allocated. The Nokia Siemens Networks MSC supports IMSI delivery from release M11 onwards. In external handovers, the MSC provides the classmark information of the MS to the target BSC, so that the target BSC knows whether the MS is DTM-capable (DTM multislot class). Serving GPRS support node (SGSN) The MS Radio Access Capability information element (IE), which the SGSN provides, contains DTM-specific fields. The SGSN must provide the IMSI of the MS in the base station system GPRS protocol (BSSGP) DL-UNITDATA protocol data units (PDUs) if the SGSN has a valid IMSI for the MS. The IMSI must also be included in the PAGING PS and RA CAPABILITY UPDATE ACK messages. It may also be included in the CREATE BSS PFC message. IP multimedia core (IMC) The Nokia Siemens Networks IMS release 1 (for peer-to-peer PS connections) is required for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) sessions, such as DTM MS-to-MS calls (for example, real time video sharing (RTVS)). Charging DTM has no impact on charging. According to the definition of a class A mobile, the CS and PS components of a DTM call are independent of each other. Therefore, charging is entirely an operator-specific issue.

2.7

Impact on NetAct products


NetAct Administrator To enable hardware management with NetAct Administrator, you need to add a PCU2 unit to the product catalogue. DTM has no other impact on NetAct Administrator. NetAct Monitor No impact. NetAct Optimizer NetAct Optimizer allows you to optimize the capacity of the network in which DTM is used. You can study DTM-related configuration and performance management data in map and table formats in Optimizer. The GPRS territory settings algorithm optimizes the values of the default and dedicated GPRS territories based on the CS and PS traffic counters and key performance indicators (KPIs). The algorithm takes DTM traffic into account when the territory settings are determined.

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NetAct Planner DTM has no direct impact on NetAct Planner. However, DTM can be taken into consideration when network traffic is planned and simulated with NetAct Planner. NetAct Configurator NetAct Configurator can be used to configure the radio network parameters related to DTM. For more information, see BSS RNW Parameters and Implementing Parameter Plans in Nokia Siemens Networks NetAct Product Documentation. For a list of the radio network parameters, see chapter BSC parameters. NetAct Reporter NetAct Reporter can be used to create reports from measurements related to DTM. For a list of the measurements, see chapter Measurements and counters. NetAct Tracing The values of the following counters of temporary bank flow (TBF) Observation for GPRS Trace are visible in the parameter tables in TraceViewer: 025312 TBF DTM FLAG 025313 MULTISLOT CLASS 025314 DTM MULTISLOT CLASS

In addition, the DTM flag is marked on a graphical report.

2.8

Impact on interfaces
Impact on radio interface The following messages are related to DTM. Unless otherwise stated, the messages are sent on the main associated control channel (DCCH). DTM ASSIGNMENT COMMAND DTM ASSIGNMENT FAILURE DTM INFORMATION DTM REJECT DTM REQUEST GPRS INFORMATION PACKET ASSIGNMENT PACKET NOTIFICATION PACKET SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 14 This message is sent on the packet associated control channel (PACCH).

DTM modifies the following messages: GPRS SUSPENSION REQUEST SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 6 SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 13

Impact on Abis interface DTM introduces several new layer 3 messages that are transferred transparently over the Abis interface.

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Impact on A interface DTM modifies the following messages: HANDOVER REQUEST HANDOVER REQUIRED

When DTM is in use, both messages include a Dual Transfer Mode information field in the information element (IE) Old BSS to New BSS information. In addition, the HANDOVER REQUEST message includes an IMSI IE if the MSC knows the IMSI of the mobile station (MS). Impact on Gb interface DTM modifies the following message: SUSPEND PDU

Q3 interface DTM introduces several parameters and two BTS-level measurement types that have an effect on the Q3 interface. For more information, see chapters BSC parameters and Measurements and counters. BSC-BSC interface No effect.

2.9

Impact on mobile stations


DTM requires DTM-capable mobile stations (MSS). The MS must support at least DTM multi-slot class 5.

2.10

Impact on capacity
IMSI coordination In IMSI coordination, the CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) informs the PCU about all DTM MSS that have a CS connection in the segment. The PCU keeps an IMSI record for all the DTM-capable MSS that are in dedicated mode in the DTM-capable cells that are connected to the PCU. For example, if 30% of the MSS support DTM and the BSC has a total traffic handling capacity of 4000 Erl, about 0.3 x 4000 = 1200 IMSI records are needed per BSC. A single PCU2 can handle about 640 IMSI records. The signalling load that IMSI coordination generates depends on the amount of DTMcapable MSS in the network. When the amount of DTM-capable MSS is small, the signalling load is low. However, when the large majority of the MSS are DTM-capable, IMSI coordination generates a considerable signalling load between the PCU and CS connection control. If there are several PCUs within the BSC, the load is naturally balanced between the PCUs. In an overload situation, CS connection control may not be able to handle all the generated IMSI coordination messages, and some of the messages may be discarded. This may have the following consequences:

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The PCU might not receive an indication that a DTM MS has entered dedicated mode. If the PCU receives a data PDU for the MS, the downlink temporary block flow (TBF) establishment fails and the MS is considered as unreachable.

DTM traffic The DTM traffic handling capacity depends on the CS and PS traffic handling capacity of the system. Therefore, DTM must be taken into account in PS territory planning. Note that the CS channel of a DTM call is allocated from the PS territory. Also note that the DTM CS connection uses a full rate (FR) traffic channel. A DTM CS radio timeslot (RTSL) in the PS territory cannot be used for data traffic. Therefore, DTM call allocations can cause fragmentation to the PS timeslots when there are several simultaneous ongoing DTM calls and the DTM-specific channel allocation algorithm needs to allocate resources from the middle of the PS territory. When the PS territory is fragmented, the PCU's capability to give multi-slot allocations for other data connections decreases. Therefore, if DTM users are expected to contribute considerably to the PS traffic load and the quality of experience (QoE) of the existing data users cannot be decreased, it may be necessary to evaluate and possibly increase the size of the PS territory. The PCU can reallocate DTM resources within the PS territory to maintain the optimal use of the PS territory. Reallocation causes an interruption in the DTM-PS data transfer. Therefore, DTM calls are primarily allocated far from the CS-PS territory border. This minimizes the number of DTM call reallocations, and results in less breaks in the PS service for DTM users. PCU connectivity An active DTM call decreases PCU connectivity with one 16 kbit/s Abis timeslot. This must be taken into consideration in dimensioning. DTM CS allocations are handled by PCU2. One DTM CS allocation consumes one RTSL from the PCU2 connectivity. This should be taken into consideration if the PCU is limited by the number of RTSLs. If EDGE has been implemented in the network, the number of connected RTSLs does not usually limit PCU connectivity. GMM/SM signalling Short message (SMS) and GPRS mobility management and session management (GMM/SM) signalling messages are transmitted faster via DCCH signalling links than using a new TBF (this is due to a TBF establishment delay). For SMS signalling messages, this only applies if the MS uses GPRS for sending SMSS. For more information on GMM/SM signalling messages, see chapter GTTP signalling.

2.11

Impact on coverage
From the service perspective, it is best if all the cells within a certain geographical area support DTM. This guarantees service continuity during cell changes. DTM offers coverage for services that demand the simultaneous existence of a CS and a PS connection. For example, when UMTS coverage is not available in the area, GSM/EDGE coverage can be used. The multi-slot power reduction of an MS may affect the uplink coverage. This is shown in table Multi-slot power reduction .

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Number of uplink timeslots 1 2 3

Power reduction 0 dB 0..3 dB 1.8..4.8 dB

Table 14

Multi-slot power reduction

2.12

Impact on planning
DTM deployment DTM can only be supported in cells that include a PS territory. When you are planning on deploying DTM on top of an existing network, you should follow the typical dimensioning process. Depending on your dimensioning strategy, you need to calculate either the available capacity or the required capacity. For more information, see BTS EDGE Dimensioning, Abis EDGE Dimensioning, and BSC EDGE Dimensioning. Coverage planning In a layered environment it is often so that there is GPRS/EDGE capacity provided on the coverage layer, whereas the capacity layer serves mainly CS traffic and has only the minimum required GPRS/EDGE capacity for maintaining the service continuity in the network. In this case the power budget parameters, NCCR EGPRS PBGT margin and NCCR GPRS PBGT margin, can be used in the purpose of pushing the mobiles in DTM call to the coverage layer. For more information about power budget handovers, see Inter-cell handover. During a DTM call the uplink coverage might be reduced regarding uplink multi-slot allocation. This needs to be taken into account in coverage planning. Multi-slot allocation depends on the used services and might not be applicable for all services. In other respects, the coverage of DTM does not differ from the coverage of speech calls and EDGE connections. Capacity planning Capacity planning for DTM is influenced by the following factors: RTSL allocation (all DTM RTSLs--both CS and PS--are allocated from the PS territory) used DTM applications and the typical DTM traffic profile PS territory fragmentation (a DTM CS RTSL cannot be used for PS data transfer) DTM call allocations and reallocations

If DTM services, such as RTVS, are used, additional capacity should be considered. Because of the nature of the DTM connection (a simultaneous CS and PS connection), DTM influences both CS and PS traffic. To a great extent, the impact of DTM depends on the following factors in the network: penetration of DTM-capable MSS used DTM applications DTM traffic profile

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DTM service pricing existing data traffic and traffic mix CS traffic/blocking rate

DTM calls are allocated from the PS territory. This makes it possible to multiplex DTM TBFs and normal TBFs on the same timeslots. A DTM call requires at least two packet data channels in the PS territory. Two channels are required so that the DTM CS and PS connections can be allocated to the PS territory. If a territory upgrade is required before the DTM call can be allocated, it may slow down the call establishment procedure. When the number of DTM users increases, the average size of the CS territory decreases. On the PS territory, territory fragmentation and PCU connectivity limitations may cause blocking to the PS service. To avoid the short breaks that the DTM call reallocations cause in the DTM PS data transfer, the PCU allocates PS resources for the DTM users far from the CS-PS territory border. In highly-loaded PS territories, however, the DTM-specific channel allocation algorithm may have to allocate resources from the middle of the PS territory. This causes fragmentation to the PS timeslots which decreases the PCU's capability to give multi-slot allocations for other data connections. Simulations have shown that PS territory fragmentation has a negative impact on the QoE of the normal data users when the ratio of DTM load to normal data load is higher than 20%. If the expected number of DTM users at service launch is considered to be large, redimensioning of the existing network is recommended. If the DTM user locations can be identified, some single cells that have simultaneous DTM users may require more CS and PS RTSLs. Especially the PS territory may need to be increased if the other data services in the BTS require high data rates or multi-slot allocations.

2.13

Interworking with other features


GPRS GPRS must be available and active in the network for DTM to work. If GPRS is deactivated when DTM is in use, the MSS that have an active DTM connection keep their CS connection but lose their TBFs. For more information on GPRS, see BSS9006: GPRS System Feature Description. For activation instructions, see Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS. EGPRS The BSC supports DTM data transfer in both GPRS and EGPRS modes. A DTM TBF is established in EGPRS mode if the MS is EGPRS-capable and if the DTM call is allocated from a EGPRS-capable PS territory. If not, the DTM TBF is established in GPRS mode. For more information on EGPRS, see BSS10091: EDGE System Feature Description . For activation instructions, see Activating and Testing BSS10083: EGPRS. Inter-system handover An inter-system handover takes place between a GSM and a WCDMA network. The BSC uses the service priority information from both the MSC and the SGSN in the intersystem handover decision for a DTM-capable MS, if such information is available.

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For more information on how inter-system handovers work with DTM, see chapter Intersystem handover. For more information on inter-system handover, see BSS10101 and BSS11107: GSM-WCDMA Interworking. Adaptive Multi Rate The BSC selects an adaptive multi rate (AMR) speech codec for a new DTM CS connection if AMR was used on the preceding CS connection of the call. For more information on AMR, see BSS10004 and BSS6071: Enhanced Speech Codecs: AMR and EFR. Common BCCH and Multi BCF By default, RX-level based traffic channel (TCH) access control is not used in normal CS channel allocation for evaluating the usability of resources in different BTSs of a segment. However, it is used as a standard procedure with DTM. For more information on Common BCCH Control, see BSS10016 and BSS10118: Common BCCH Control in BSC. For more information on Multi BCF Control, see BSS10046: Multi BCF Control in BSC . Radio Network Supervision DTM has an effect on the following supervisions: The Too short mean holding time supervision is not used for channels that are used for DTM CS connections. The Cell channel congestion supervision does not count DTM requests.

Other supervisions are used for DTM CS connections as usual. For more information on Radio Network Supervision, see BSC3100: Radio Network Supervision in BSC. Extended Dynamic Allocation Extended dynamic allocation (EDA) mode enhances the data transmission capability in the uplink direction. In EDA mode, it is possible to allocate two PS timeslots in the uplink direction for a DTM multi-slot class 11 MS. In dynamic allocation (DA) mode, it is possible to allocate only one PS timeslot in the uplink direction in dual transfer mode. Note that an MS may reduce its output power depending on the number of allocated uplink timeslots. The power reduction is not taken into account in the initial DTM allocation. For more information on EDA, see BSS20089: Extended Dynamic Allocation. For more information on DTM allocations, see chapter DTM multi-slot classes. Queuing and Pre-emption Queuing is not applied to DTM requests. The DTM CS channels are not targets of pre-emption procedures (forced release and forced handover). For more information on queuing and pre-emption, see Radio Resource Pre-emption and Queuing. Soft Channel Capacity The maximum number of simultaneously active traffic channels in a BSC signalling unit (BCSU) is determined by the configuration of the unit. With Soft Channel Capacity, the

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BSC regards the DTM CS allocations as active traffic channels, that is, just like normal CS connections. For more information on Soft Channel Capacity, see BSS115173: Soft Channel Capacity in BSC . Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection The PCU does not apply network-controlled cell re-selection (NCCR) procedures for an MS in dual transfer mode. However, NCCR is used normally for DTM-capable MSS that do not have an ongoing CS connection. If the PS quality control function triggers NCCR for a DTM call, the BSC performs an inter-cell handover for the related CS connection. For more information on NCCR, see BSS11112: Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection. The NCCR parameters, NCCR EGPRS PBGT margin and NCCR GPRS PBGT margin, are used in power budget handovers when a mobile is in DTM call. For more information about power budget handovers, see Inter-cell handover. Network-Assisted Cell Change The PCU does not apply network-assisted cell change (NACC) procedures for an MS in dual transfer mode. However, NACC is used normally for DTM-capable MSS that do not have an ongoing CS connection. Note that NACC procedures (that is, the use of PACKET SI STATUS messages) reduce the PS interruption time when a DTM call is released because of a CS call release and the PS connection needs to be re-established in normal GPRS/EDGE mode. For more information on NACC, see BSS115006: Network-Assisted Cell Change. In-call modification In-call modification takes place when a CS speech call needs to be changed to a CS data call. If an in-call modification procedure is started during a DTM call, the BSC releases the DTM call. Power control In a DTM call, the power control algorithm limits the downlink transmission power of the DTM CS connection to be between [PMAX - 10 dB, PMAX]. PMAX is the maximum downlink transmission power that can be used in the transceiver (TRX). Intelligent Underlay-Overlay, Handover Support for Coverage Enhancements, and Enhanced Coverage by Frequency Hopping The BSC does not support super-reuse frequencies for GPRS. Therefore, it does not initiate handovers towards super-reuse resources for ongoing DTM connections. If a DTM call is started from the super-reuse layer, it leads to a handover to the regular layer. Like GPRS/EDGE, DTM is not supported in a child cell, that is, in a cell that contains only super-reuse resources. For more information on Intelligent Underlay-Overlay, see BSC4016: Intelligent Underlay-Overlay. For more information on Handover Support for Coverage Enhancements, see BSS7064: Handover Support for Coverage Enhancements. For more information on Enhanced Coverage by Frequency Hopping, see BSS8037: Enhanced Coverage by Frequency Hopping.

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Circuit-switched data The BSC does not support dual transfer mode for an MS that has an ongoing circuitswitched data call. The call can be either a high speed circuit switched data (HSCSD) call or a single-slot data call. For more information on circuit-switched data, see BSS7003 and BSS7037: HSCSD and 14.4 kbit/s Data Services in BSC. Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band (DADL/B) makes it possible to move calls to capacity layer cells during the CS call setup phase. In many cases, in a layered environment GPRS/EDGE is implemented mainly on the coverage layer. The capacity layer serves mainly CS traffic and has only the minimum required GPRS/EDGE capacity for maintaining the service continuity in the network. Therefore, whenever the BSC detects during the CS call setup phase that an MS requires DTM service, it prevents the DADL/B handover from taking place for the MS in question. For more information on DADL/B, see BSS8032: Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band. Extended Cell and Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE An MS can initiate and receive DTM calls successfully only when it is in the normal area of the cell. DTM calls are not supported in the extended area of the cell. For more information on Extended Cell, see BSC4015: Extended Cell. For more information on Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE, see BSS20094: Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE. TRAU Bicasting in AMR FR/HR Handover Transcoding and rate adaptation unit (TRAU) Bicasting in AMR full rate/half rate (FR/HR) Handover is applied to CS to DTM CS handovers when the channel mode is changed from AMR HR to AMR FR and conditions for TRAU Bicasting in AMR FR/HR Handover are met. Because AMR HR for DTM calls is not supported, TRAU Bicasting in AMR FR/HR Handover is not applied to CS to DTM CS handovers in which the source channel mode is AMR FR. For more information on TRAU Bicasting in AMR FR/HR Handover, see BSS10004 and BSS6071: Enhanced Speech Codecs: AMR and EFR.

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3 IMSI co-ordination
The BSC must know the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) of a mobile station (MS) to be able to provide dual transfer mode for DTM-capable MSS. The IMSI is needed for co-ordination and identification purposes. Without the IMSI, the BSC cannot co-ordinate the circuit-switched (CS) and packet-switched (PS) resources. During a CS call establishment, the MSC sends the IMSI to the CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) in a COMMON ID message, provided that the IMSI of the MS is available at the MSC and that the MSC has been configured to send the information. In external handovers, the IMSI is sent in the HANDOVER REQUEST message. The packet control unit (PCU) needs to know when a DTM MS is in dedicated mode. This information is needed in PS paging co-ordination, DTM call handling, and GPRS transparent transport protocol (GTTP) signalling procedures. Therefore, CS connection control informs the PCU whenever a DTM-capable MS enters or leaves dedicated mode in a DTM-capable cell. The PCU keeps a record (IMSI record) of all DTM-capable MSS that are in dedicated mode in a DTM-capable cell under the PCU. The IMSI co-ordination procedure consists of the following steps: 1. During the CS call establishment, the MSC sends the IMSI of the MS to CS connection control in a COMMON ID message. 2. CS connection control sends the IMSI to the PCU. 3. The PCU creates a dedicated IMSI context for the MS that is in dedicated mode. 4. The PCU receives downlink logical link control (LLC) protocol data units (PDUs) for the MS. Because the PCU has a dedicated IMSI context for the MS, it establishes a temporary block flow (TBF) in dual transfer mode. 5. When the CS call is released, CS connection control informs the PCU. 6. The PCU removes the dedicated IMSI context from the IMSI record.

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4 Paging coordination
CS paging Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) does not change the circuit-switched (CS) paging procedures in the BSC. A mobile station (MS) that is not GPRS attached is always paged for CS calls on the paging channel (PCH). In Network Operation Mode I (NOM I), the core network provides CS paging coordination so that CS paging requests to GPRS-attached MSS are sent to the PCU via the SGSN. The PCU provides CS paging on the packet associated control channel (PACCH) if the MS is in packet transfer mode. If the MS is in packet idle mode, it is paged for CS calls on the PCH. In Network Operation Mode II (NOM II), all CS paging requests are sent on the PCH. This means that if a DTM-capable MS is in packet transfer mode, it does not necessarily monitor the PCH and, therefore, does not respond to the CS paging.

CS paging uses the same channel as the PS services: common control channel (CCCH) or PACCH during data transfer. The MS needs to monitor only one paging channel. Figure Paging coordination illustrates the paging process.

BSC
GSM CS voice calls

MSC

CCCH Gs or Packet data channel


GSM CS voice calls

Gb

2G SGSN

Figure 4

Paging coordination

A Nokia Siemens Networks BSC needs the Gs interface for full paging coordination support. The Gs interface is used in Network Operation Mode I (NOM I). If NOM II is used, the MS may not respond to the CS paging while the MS is in packet transfer state. Note that it is essential to have dedicated PS timeslots with NOM I to guarantee that GPRS-attached subscribers can perform routing area (RA) and location area (LA) update procedures when moving from one RA/LA to another in the network. PS paging DTM introduces a packet notification procedure in which a DTM-capable MS can be paged for PS calls in dedicated mode. This means that instead of paging the MS on the PCH, CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) informs the MS about the PS paging request by sending a PACKET NOTIFICATION message on the main

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associated control channel (DCCH) if the MS is DTM capable and in dedicated mode in a DTM-capable cell. PS paging is illustrated in figure PS paging procedure.

MS

BTS

CS connection control in the BSC

PCU

SGSN

PS paging PDU

IMSI record check PS paging request PACKET NOTIFICATION

Figure 5

PS paging procedure

1. The SGSN sends a PS paging protocol data unit (PDU) to the PCU. 2. The PCU checks from the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) record whether the MS is in dedicated state. Because of IMSI coordination, the PCU is always aware of which DTM-capable MSS are in dedicated state. 3. As the MS is in dedicated mode, the PCU sends the PS paging request to CS connection control. 4. CS connection control sends the PACKET NOTIFICATION message to the MS on the DCCH. If the MS is not in dedicated mode, the PCU sends the PS paging request to CS connection control, which then sends it onwards on the PCH as usual.

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5 GTTP signalling
When a Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) capable mobile station (MS) is in dedicated mode in a DTM-capable cell, the CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) and MS can use the main associated control channel (DCCH) for GPRS mobility management and session management (GMM/SM) signalling. The GMM/SM signalling messages are transmitted within GPRS INFORMATION messages (layer 3 message) using a GPRS transparent transport protocol (GTTP). With GTTP, there is no need for a separate radio connection (that is, no temporary block flows (TBFs) are needed for the GMM/SM signalling). Therefore, GTTP provides a fast signalling link for GMM/SM messages. GTTP signalling in uplink When a DTM-capable MS is in dedicated mode in a DTM-capable cell, it can use the GPRS INFORMATION message to send a logical link control (LLC) protocol data unit (PDU) to CS connection control on the DCCH. However, the following conditions must be met: The LLC PDU contains upper layer signalling (that is, a GMM or SM signalling message) or the LLC PDU is used as a cell update message. The length of the message in link access protocol on the Dm channel (LAPDm) frames is equal to or less than the value of the MAX_LAPD_LENGTH parameter. The MAX_LAPD_LENGTH parameter specifies the maximum length of the GTTP message.

Uplink GTTP signalling is illustrated in figure GTTP signalling procedure in uplink.

MS

BTS GPRS INFORMATION

CS connection control in the BSC

PCU

SGSN

TLLI, LLC PDU LLC PDU

Figure 6

GTTP signalling procedure in uplink

1. The MS in dedicated mode sends a GPRS INFORMATION message to CS connection control. The GPRS INFORMATION message contains the temporary logical link identity (TLLI) of the MS and the LLC PDU that contains the GPRS signalling message. 2. CS connection control sends the TLLI and LLC PDU to the PCU. 3. The PCU sends the LLC PDU to the SGSN. GTTP signalling in downlink When the PCU receives a downlink LLC PDU for a DTM-capable MS that has a CS connection in the cell without ongoing TBFs, the PCU can use GTTP signalling to transmit the LLC PDU to the MS. However, the following conditions must be met:

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The downlink LLC PDU contains a signalling message. This is indicated by the T bit in the QoS Profile information element (IE) in the BSSGP DL UNITDATA PDU. The length of the message in the LAPDm frames is equal to or less than the value of the MAX_LAPD_LENGTH parameter.

Downlink GTTP signalling is illustrated in figure GTTP signalling procedure in downlink.

MS

BTS

CS connection control in the BSC

PCU

SGSN LLC PDU

IMSI record check LLC PDU GPRS INFORMATION


Figure 7 GTTP signalling procedure in downlink

1. The SGSN sends the LLC PDU to the PCU. 2. The PCU checks from the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) record whether the MS is in dedicated state. Because of IMSI co-ordination, the PCU is always aware of which DTM-capable MSS are in dedicated state. 3. The PCU forwards the LLC PDU to CS connection control. 4. CS connection control uses the GPRS INFORMATION message to send the LLC PDU to the MS on the main DCCH.

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6 Radio resource management


The BSC reserves radio resources for a Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) call from the packetswitched (PS) territory. This makes it possible to share the PS resources between DTM connections and normal PS connections. DTM allocation to the PS territory provides multiplexing gain when DTM temporary block flows (TBFs) and normal TBFs are allocated on the same timeslots. The PCU decides if and how a DTM allocation is made.

6.1

DTM allocation for PS connections


When a DTM call is to be allocated for a mobile station (MS), the DTM circuit-switched (CS) connection is allocated close to the PS territory border, if possible. If the DTMcapable MS supports DTM multislot class 5 or 9, the PS timeslot furthest from the CSPS territory border is selected for the DTM CS connection. If the DTM-capable MS supports DTM multislot class 11, the PS timeslot second furthest from the CS PS territory border is selected for the DTM CS connection. However, if there are DTM PS allocations for other MSS close to the PS territory border, the DTM CS connection is allocated to a timeslot that has no DTM PS allocations, if possible. If such a timeslot cannot be found, a timeslot with a DTM PS allocation is considered. Once a suitable timeslot for the DTM CS connection has been found, the DTM PS resources are reserved for the DTM call so that the DTM CS timeslot and the DTM PS timeslots form a collective allocation configuration that the DTM-capable MS can manage within its multislot capability. For more information, see DTM multislot classes. If there are several alternatives for a DTM allocation, a DTM allocation that avoids the fragmentation of the PS resources and gives optimal resources for the PS part of the DTM allocation is preferred. Once a suitable DTM allocation has been found, the PCU tries to search for new resources for the PS allocations that are currently using the timeslot selected for the DTM CS connection. If the PCU finds new resources for all affected PS allocations, the DTM allocation is accepted. If not, the DTM allocation is rejected.

6.2

DTM multislot classes


The BSC supports DTM multislot classes 5, 9, and 11. The multislot capability of an MS is indicated as a part of the radio access capability information of the MS. The BSC supports dynamic allocation (DA) and extended dynamic allocation (EDA) modes for uplink TBFs that operate in dual transfer mode. In EDA mode, it is possible to allocate two PS timeslots in the uplink direction for a DTM multislot class 11 MS. In DA mode, it is possible to allocate only one PS timeslot in the uplink direction in dual transfer mode. Figure DTM multislot allocations illustrates how PS and CS resources can be allocated for multislot classes 5, 9, and 11. The PS and CS resources must be in consecutive timeslots.

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Downlink radio timeslots: Uplink radio timeslots: DTM class 5,9,11 2+2=4 DA DTM class 5,9,11 2+2=4 DA DTM class 9,11 3+2=5 DA DTM class 9,11 3+2=5 DA DTM class 11 2+3=5 EDA
Figure 8

3 0

4 1

5 2

6 3

7 4

PS CS PS CS CS PS CS PS PS PS CS PS CS PS CS PS CS PS PS CS PS CS PS

DTM multislot allocations

6.3

Fragmentation of the PS resources


A DTM call within the PS territory causes the fragmentation of the PS resources if the timeslots configured for PS services become scattered because of the DTM CS resource reservation. If the timeslots configured for PS services are no longer consecutive, it is more difficult to make multislot PS allocations for other users. This is because the timeslots that belong to a multislot PS allocation must be subsequent. Therefore, the timeslots that avoid the fragmentation of the PS resources are preferred over the other timeslots in the DTM channel allocation procedure. Sometimes, a trade-off situation may occur. For example, DTM allocation candidate A that increases the fragmentation of the PS resources may give more capacity to the DTM PS connection than DTM allocation candidate B that does not increase the fragmentation of the PS resources. This kind of a situation can be balanced with the DTM fragmentation penalty parameter. The DTM fragmentation penalty parameter specifies the fragmentation penalty that is used in the DTM channel allocation algorithm if a configuration that gives the highest capacity for the DTM-capable MS must be found. This happens if there are DTM PS allocations for other MSS near the end of the PS territory. The capacity of a DTM PS allocation is estimated in terms of radio timeslots. The fragmentation penalty is subtracted from the estimated capacity value if the DTM allocation would increase the fragmentation of the PS resources. Example: Figure DTM allocation example illustrates the use of the DTM fragmentation penalty parameter.

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TSL-0

TSL-1

TSL-2

TSL-3

TSL-4

TSL-5
existing TBF

TSL-6

TSL-7

CS PS

DTM allocation candidate A:


PS timeslot share:

DTM PS DTM CS DTM PS 50% 100% DTM PS DTM CS 100%

DTM allocation candidate B:


PS timeslot share:

Figure 9

DTM allocation example

DTM allocation candidate A contains two DTM PS timeslots. We assume that the DTMcapable MS gets a 50% share of the first PS timeslot (the other 50% is given to another PS connection) and a 100% share of the second PS timeslot. We also assume that DTM allocation candidate A increases the fragmentation of the PS resources and that the DTM fragmentation penalty parameter has a value of 0.3. The capacity of DTM allocation A is therefore 1.2 timeslots (0.5 + 1.0 - 0.3 = 1.2). DTM allocation candidate B contains one DTM PS timeslot. We assume that the DTMcapable MS gets a 100% share of that PS timeslot. We also assume that DTM allocation candidate B does not increase the fragmentation of the PS resources. The capacity of the DTM allocation B is therefore 1.0 timeslots. In this example, DTM allocation candidate A is selected for the DTM call. This is because the capacity of DTM allocation candidate A is larger than the capacity of DTM allocation candidate B. However, had the DTM fragmentation penalty parameter had a larger value, for example 0.6, then DTM allocation candidate B would have been selected instead. The DTM fragmentation penalty parameter can have values between 0 and 1. Value 0 means that a DTM allocation that does not increase the fragmentation of the PS resources is not preferred over a DTM allocation that increases the fragmentation of the PS resources. Value 1 means that a DTM allocation that does not increase the fragmentation of the PS resources is selected instead of a DTM allocation that increases the fragmentation of the PS resources. However, if the latter one provides one timeslot more capacity than the former one, the latter one is selected.

6.4

Territory management
The PCU allocates radio resources for DTM calls from the PS territory. This makes it possible to share the PS resources between DTM PS connections and normal PS connections. It is not necessary to increase PS capacity when DTM is introduced in the network. However, when DTM is in use and the size of the PS territory is determined, all timeslots within the PS territory must be taken into account. This means timeslots configured for PS use and timeslots configured for DTM CS use. It is advisable to have at least two default channels in the PS territory.

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Territory upgrade The CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) initiates a territory upgrade if the number of timeslots configured for PS use in the PS territory drops below the dedicated GPRS/EDGE capacity because of the made DTM allocations. The PCU requests a territory upgrade in the following cases: If the PS territory is, by default, too small for a DTM allocation (it contains only one PS timeslot) during an ongoing DTM call establishment. If the PS territory is too small for a DTM allocation, CS connection control delays the DTM call establishment for a short period of time and initiates a territory upgrade procedure, if possible. After a short while, as the upgrade is expected to have finished, CS connection control continues with the pending DTM call establishment. The load on the timeslots configured for PS use increases over the current thresholds. When the PS load is determined, only the timeslots configured for PS use are taken into account. The DTM CS timeslots are not considered.

Territory downgrade The PCU requests a territory downgrade in the following case: The load of the timeslots configured for PS use drops below the current thresholds and the size of the PS territory is larger than the size of the default PS territory. The PCU ensures that the number of the timeslots configured for PS use does not drop below the dedicated GPRS/EDGE capacity.

CS connection control triggers a territory downgrade if the CS load increases. Timeslot types in the PS territory A DTM CS timeslot is seen as part of the PS territory when the size of the territory is determined. However, only a timeslot configured for PS use can be interpreted as a dedicated GPRS/EDGE timeslot. The PCU interprets a timeslot with a DTM CS connection as a default GPRS/EDGE timeslot or as an additional GPRS timeslot but never as a dedicated GPRS/EDGE timeslot.

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7 Dual Transfer Mode call establishment


7.1 Mobile-originated call establishment
A Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) capable mobile station (MS) can request a DTM call when it has a circuit-switched (CS) connection in a DTM-capable cell. The MS requests a DTM call by sending a DTM REQUEST message to the CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control). If the MS has a CS traffic channel (TCH), the DTM REQUEST message is sent on the fast associated control channel (FACCH). Otherwise, the DTM REQUEST message is sent on the stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH). When CS connection control receives a DTM request from a DTM-capable MS, it establishes, with the PCU, a mobile-originated (MO) DTM call for the MS if the following conditions are met: The DTM MS has a TCH allocated for a CS speech call. The international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) of the MS is known. The DTM request is received from the normal area (that is, not the extended area) of the cell. The PCU can find suitable radio resources for the DTM call.

The MO DTM call establishment procedure is illustrated in figure MO call establishment.

MS

BTS

CS connection control in the BSC

PCU

DTM REQUEST

DTM resource request

AC and radio resource allocation for the DTM call


Reply to DTM resource request
DTM ASSIGNMENT COMMAND ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

Information that the MS has moved to the new resources

Uplink RLC block scheduling PS data sending in dual transfer mode


Figure 10 MO call establishment

1. The MS sends a DTM REQUEST message to CS connection control on the FACCH. The message contains the temporary logical link identity (TLLI) of the MS and a channel request description. 2. CS connection control forwards the DTM resource request to the PCU.

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3. The PCU performs admission control (AC) for the DTM call. 4. The PCU allocates radio resources for the DTM call by using the DTM-specific channel allocation function. 5. The PCU establishes an uplink temporary block flow (TBF) for the MS in dual transfer mode. The TBF is in EGPRS mode if the MS supports EGPRS and if the DTM allocation is made into a PS territory that supports EGPRS. If not, the TBF is in GPRS mode. 6. The PCU sends a reply to the DTM resource request to CS connection control. The message contains information on the DTM allocation (CS resource and TBF allocation). 7. CS connection control sends a DTM ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the MS on the FACCH. The message contains the DTM call assignment (new CS resource and uplink TBF assignment). 8. The MS moves to the assigned resources and sends an ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message to CS connection control on the FACCH. 9. CS connection control informs the PCU when the MS has moved to the new resources. 10. The PCU starts to schedule uplink radio link control (RLC) blocks (that is, uplink state flags) for the MS on the timeslots that belong to the uplink TBF allocation. 11. The MS sends PS data on the assigned resources in dual transfer mode. Exceptions in MO call establishment An MS requests for PS resources on the SDCCH If a DTM-capable MS sends a DTM REQUEST message on the SDCCH before a traffic channel assignment, CS connection control does not establish a DTM call but sends a DTM REJECT message to the MS and continues the CS call establishment as usual. This is because it is not possible to have a DTM call that consists of a DTM PS connection and a SDCCH connection. The DTM REJECT message contains a Wait Indication information element (IE) that determines how long the MS must wait before it can make a new attempt for packet access in the same cell. The wait indication time used on the SDCCH channel is two seconds.

7.2

Mobile-terminated call establishment


When the PCU receives a downlink logical link control (LLC) protocol data unit (PDU) for a DTM-capable MS that is in dedicated mode in a DTM-capable cell, it initiates a mobile-terminated (MT) DTM call establishment for the MS. The MT DTM call is established if the following conditions are met: The MS has a TCH allocated for a CS speech call. The IMSI of the MS is known. The MS is in the normal area (that is, not the extended area) of the cell. The PCU can find suitable radio resources for the DTM call.

The MT DTM call establishment procedure is illustrated in figure MT DTM call establishment.

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MS

BTS

CS connection control in the BSC

PCU

SGSN
LLC PDU

IMSI record check MT DTM call initiation AC and radio resource allocation for the DTM call TBF in dual transfer mode

DTM allocation information


DTM ASSIGNMENT COMMAND ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

Information that the MS has moved to the new resources

Downlink RLC block scheduling PS data receiving in dual transfer mode


Figure 11 MT DTM call establishment

1. The SGSN sends the PCU a downlink LLC PDU, addressed to an MS. The PCU does not have a resource reservation for the MS. The received MS Radio Access Configurator (RAC) IE indicates that the MS supports DTM. 2. The PCU checks from the IMSI record whether the MS is in dedicated state. Because of IMSI co-ordination, the PCU is always aware of which DTM MSS are in dedicated state. 3. As the MS is in dedicated mode, the PCU initiates an MT DTM call establishment procedure for the MS. 4. The PCU performs AC for the DTM call. 5. The PCU allocates radio resources for the DTM call by using the DTM-specific channel allocation function. 6. The PCU establishes a downlink TBF for the MS in dual transfer mode. The TBF is in EGPRS mode if the MS supports EGPRS and if the DTM allocation is made into a PS territory that supports EGPRS. If not, the TBF is in GPRS mode. 7. The PCU informs CS connection control about the DTM allocation (CS resource and TBF allocation).

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8. CS connection control sends a DTM ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the MS on the DCCH. The message contains the DTM call assignment (new CS resource and downlink TBF assignment). 9. The MS moves to the assigned resources and sends an ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message to the network on the FACCH. 10. CS connection control informs the PCU when the MS has moved to the new resources. 11. The PCU starts to schedule downlink radio link control (RLC) blocks for the MS on the timeslots that belong to the downlink TBF allocation. 12. The MS receives PS data on the assigned resources in dual transfer mode.

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8 Handover control
8.1 Intra-cell handover
In an intra-cell handover, the CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) moves the Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) call to other timeslots within the cell. Both CS connection control and the PCU can trigger an intra-cell handover. CS connection control may initiate an intra-cell handover if the DTM circuit-switched (CS) connection needs to be moved to another timeslot because of quality reasons. The PCU may initiate an intra-cell handover when the following procedures trigger a DTM reallocation procedure: territory downgrade (or territory downgrade permission request) PS quality control DTM PS resource management

The intra-cell handover procedure consists of the following steps. Except for the first step, the procedure is identical for a CS-connection-control-initiated and a PCU-initiated intra-cell handover. 1. CS connection control requests new resources for the DTM call from the PCU. This step only applies to a CS-connection-control-initiated intra-cell handover. 2. The PCU determines a new DTM allocation for the MS. 3. Once the PCU has found new resources for the DTM call, it stops scheduling the packet-switched (PS) resources that belong to the old DTM allocation and informs CS connection control about the new DTM allocation. 4. CS connection control sends a DTM ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the MS on the associated control channel (DCCH). The message contains the new CS resource and a reassignment for the ongoing temporary block flows (TBFs). 5. The MS moves to the assigned resources and sends an ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message to the network on the fast associated control channel (FACCH). 6. CS connection control informs the PCU when the MS has moved to the new resources. 7. The PCU resumes the uplink state flag (USF) and/or radio link control (RLC) block scheduling for the MS on the new PS resources. 8. The MS continues the DTM call on the new resources. An intra-cell handover is performed for the CS connection also when the MS is moved from the CS territory to the PS territory in DTM call establishment. The following intra-cell handovers are not allowed for DTM calls: handovers between regular and super re-used transceivers (TRX) load-based handover between the BTSs in the segment

8.2

Inter-cell handover
CS connection control handles the handover procedure for DTM calls. Therefore, the PCU does not apply the network controlled cell re-selection (NCCR) or network assisted cell change (NACC) procedures for a DTM-capable MS when it is in dedi-

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cated mode. The PCU may, however, request an inter-cell handover for a DTM call in the following cases: PS quality control triggers a cell change for the DTM PS connection. MT DTM call establishment fails because of lack of resources.

When CS connection control performs an inter-cell handover for a DTM-capable MS, it favours cells that support DTM to provide and maintain the DTM service for the MS. This means that CS connection control must know whether the adjacent cell supports DTM. This information is provided by the adjacent cell parameter DTM enabled. When an inter-cell handover is triggered, CS connection control searches the neighbor cells for DTM support. The adjacent cells in which the DTM enabled parameter is enabled and which are not overloaded or have a smaller load than the serving cell, are put on top of the candidate cell list. This preference for DTM-capable adjacent cells overrides the preference rules that are normally followed, that is, the value of the TCH in handover parameter that defines the traffic channel allocation in intra-BSC inter-cell handovers. CS connection control triggers an inter-cell handover for a DTM CS connection by applying existing handover algorithms. In the handover, the CS connection is moved to the CS territory of the target cell and the DTM call in the source cell is released. After the handover has been completed, CS connection control sends a DTM INFORMATION message to the MS on the DCCH if the target cell supports DTM. The DTM call is then re-established in the target cell. For more information on existing handover algorithms, see RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm. The following inter-cell handovers are not allowed for DTM calls: MSC-controlled traffic reason handover BSC-initiated traffic reason handover umbrella handover inter-cell direct access intelligent underlay overlay (IUO) handover to a child cell

MO DTM call establishment or DTM call reallocation fails because of lack of resources If a mobile-originated (MO) DTM call establishment or a DTM call reallocation fails because of lack of resources in the PCU, CS connection control searches for another DTM-capable cell in which the DTM call can be established or re-established. CS connection control performs a handover to another DTM capable cell when Equation 1 is true. EQUATION 1 AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX(0, Pa) AND PBGT(n) > dtmPowerBudgetMargin(n) where Pa = (MsTxPwrMaxGSM(ADJ)(n) - P) or (MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00(ADJ)(n) - P) P = Maximum power of an MS

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A power budget (PBGT) handover back to the source cell is allowed for the same call after a guard time of 255 seconds. If an inter-cell handover, triggered by an unsuccessful MO DTM call establishment attempt, cannot be performed, or if the handover does not succeed, CS connection control rejects the DTM call request. If an inter-cell handover, triggered by an unsuccessful DTM CS call reallocation attempt, cannot be performed, or if the handover does not succeed, CS connection control releases the DTM call by performing an intra-cell handover from the PS territory to the CS territory of the cell. DTM PS connection reallocation caused by PCU quality control When the PCU requests an inter-cell handover for a DTM PS connection because of quality reasons, CS connection control searches for another DTM-capable cell in which the DTM call can be re-established. CS connection control performs a handover for a DTM CS connection when Equation 1 is true. A PBGT handover back to the source cell is allowed for the same call after a guard time of 255 seconds. Inter-cell handover from a non-DTM-capable cell to a DTM-capable cell When a DTM-capable MS has a CS call in a non-DTM-capable cell, CS connection control can move the call to a DTM-capable cell to provide the DTM service. CS connection control performs a handover for a CS connection when Equation 2 is true. EQUATION 2 AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX(0, Pa) AND HoMarginPBGT(n) > PBGT(n) > dtmPowerBudgetMargin(n) where Pa = (MsTxPwrMaxGSM(ADJ)(n) - P) or (MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00(ADJ)(n) - P) P = Maximum power of an MS When the handover is a BSC internal inter-cell handover, a PBGT handover back to the source cell is allowed for the same CS connection when both the PBGT handover equation (for details on the PBGT handover equation, see chapter Target cell evaluation according to radio criteria in RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm) and Equation 3 (reversed PBGT handover equation) are true. The reversed PBGT handover equation prevents consecutive PBGT handovers between the source cell and the serving cell. EQUATION 3 (reversed PBGT handover equation) PBGT(SERV_CELL) < dtmPowerBudgetMargin(SERV_CELL) - 2dB where PBGT(SERV_CELL) = (A - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(SOURCE_CELL)) (B - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO - (BsTxPwrMax - BS_TX_PWR)) where

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A = MsTxPwrMaxGSM(ADJ)(n) or MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00(ADJ)(n) B = MsTxPwrMaxGSM(BTS) or MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00(BTS) When the handover is an external handover, a PBGT handover back to the source cell is allowed for the same CS connection after a guard time of 255 seconds. Inter-cell handover for a DTM CS connection during DTM deactivation When DTM is deactivated in a cell, CS connection control searches for another DTMcapable cell in which the DTM call can be re-established. CS connection control performs a handover for a DTM CS connection when Equation 1 is true. When the handover is a BSC internal inter-cell handover, a PBGT handover back to the source cell is allowed for the same CS connection when both the PBGT handover and Equation 3 are true. For details on the PBGT handover equation, see chapter Target cell evaluation according to radio criteria in RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm. When the handover is an external handover, a PBGT handover back to the source cell is allowed for the same call after a guard time of 255 seconds. If an inter-cell handover cannot be performed for a DTM CS connection, or if the handover does not succeed, CS connection control releases the DTM call by performing an intra-cell handover from the PS territory to the CS territory of the cell. Power budget handover during a DTM call A PBGT handover for a DTM CS connection is performed as for a normal CS connection with one exception: the power budget value is evaluated against the NCCR EGPRS PBGT margin (GPM) or NCCR GPRS PBGT margin (EPM) parameter instead of the Ho Margin pbgt (PMRG) parameter. The NCCR EGPRS PBGT margin parameter is used if the DTM MS is EGPRS capable and the NCCR GPRS PBGT margin parameter is used if the DTM MS is not EGPRS capable. By these parameters it is possible to prioritize DTM-capable cells over non-DTM-capable cells, because a higher margin can be set for non-DTM-capable cells than for DTM-capable cells. Moreover, by these parameters it is possible to push the DTM calls to the cells that provide GPRS/EGPRS capacity (for example the coverage layer) while keeping the normal CS calls in the cells with minimum GPRS/EDGE capacity (for example the capacity layer).

8.3

External handover
In an external handover, an MS with an ongoing connection moves to another cell so that the BSC changes. When an external handover is triggered, the source BSC sends a HANDOVER REQUIRED message to the MSC. The message contains the information element (IE) Old BSS to New BSS information that is used to pass field elements from the old BSS to the new BSS. For a DTM-capable MS that has or is requesting a DTM allocation, the Old BSS to New BSS information IE contains a Dual Transfer Mode information field. During the external handover procedure, CS connection control performs the handover for the CS connection as normal and releases the DTM allocation in the source cell. After the handover has been completed (that is, when the target cell has received the HANDOVER COMPLETE message), CS connection control sends a DTM INFORMATION message to the MS on the main DCCH if the new cell supports DTM and the MS had or requested a DTM call in the old cell. Old BSS to new BSS IE is an optional element in the HANDOVER REQUEST message. The MSC sends this message to the target BSC. If the MSC does not support delivering

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the IE to target BSC, the DTM INFORMATION message is not sent to the MS and the MS has to read the DTM capability of the target cell from the system information broadcast in the cell before the MS can request the new DTM connection. This causes a prolonged interruption time in the DTM connection during the external handover.

8.4

Inter-system handover
In an inter-system handover, an MS connection is transferred from the GSM system to the wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) system. For more information on inter-system handover, see BSS10101 and BSS11107: GSMWCDMA Interworking. DTM-capable MSS When an inter-system handover is triggered for a DTM-capable MS, CS connection control performs the handover for the CS connection as usual. If the MS had an ongoing DTM call, CS connection control releases the DTM allocation in the source cell. The SGSN may include the Service UTRAN CCO IE in the BSSGP DL UNITDATA PDU or the CREATE BSS PFC PDU messages to control the inter-system handover procedure. The Service UTRAN CCO IE indicates whether an inter-system handover should be performed. The Service UTRAN CCO IE contains service priority information. If the value of the WCDMA FDD NCCR enabled parameter is Y (that is, the inter-system network-controlled cell re-selection (IS-NCCR) procedures are enabled in the BSC) and the DTMcapable MS has a CS connection, the PCU sends the received Service UTRAN CCO information to CS connection control. If the value of the WCDMA FDD NCCR enabled parameter is N and the DTM-capable MS has a CS connection, the PCU ignores the received Service UTRAN CCO information. If the DTM-capable MS does not have a CS connection, normal ISNCCR is performed. In addition to the service priority information received from the SGSN, CS connection control receives priority information from the MSC. This means that CS connection control can receive conflicting service handover recommendations from the SGSN and the MSC. Therefore, CS connection control applies the following rules to inter-system handovers: 1. If the Service Handover IE received from the MSC states that CS connection control must not perform an inter-system handover for the MS, CS connection control does not initiate an inter-system handover for the MS in question. 2. If the MSC does not forbid an inter-system handover for the MS, CS connection control bases the inter-system handover decision on the service priority information received from the SGSN. 3. If CS connection control has not received any service priority information from the SGSN, it bases all inter-system handover decisions on the information included in the Service Handover IE it received from the MSC. 4. If neither the SGSN nor the MSC has sent any service priority information to CS connection control or if CS connection control did not recognize the received information, CS connection control performs an inter-system handover as usual, based on load and signal level thresholds. For more information on inter-system handover, see BSS10101 and BSS11107: GSM-WCDMA Interworking. Non-DTM-capable MSS

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Handover control

BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode

CS connection control initiates an inter-system handover to a non-DTM-capable MS as soon as at least one WCDMA radio access network (RAN) cell is available and the following conditions are met: The MS supports WCDMA. The MS has a normal CS call. The value of the ISHO_SUPPORT_IN_BSC parameter is TRUE. The value of the ISHO preferred for non-DTM MS parameter is TRUE. Note that when the value of the ISHO preferred for non-DTM MS parameter is FALSE, normal inter-system handover (ISHO) is performed. When the value is TRUE, the non-DTM-capable MS is moved to an available WCDMA cell as soon as possible. If the value of the ISHO_SUPPORT_IN_BSC parameter is FALSE, ISHO is not triggered regardless of the value of the ISHO preferred for non-DTM MS parameter.

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BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode

Dual Transfer Mode call release

9 Dual Transfer Mode call release


A Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) call is released when an inter-cell handover is performed for the circuit-switched (CS) connection or when either a CS or packet-switched (PS) connection is released. Both the PCU and the CS connection control in the BSC (CS connection control) can initiate a DTM call release. PCU-initiated DTM call release The PCU releases the PS resources allocated for the DTM call and informs CS connection control that the mobile station (MS) has returned to dedicated mode. CS connection control then initiates an intra-cell handover to move the CS connection to the CS territory. The PCU informs CS connection control as soon as the temporary block flows (TBFs) have been released. The PCU applies similar TBF release delay procedures to DTM TBFs that are used to normal TBFs. You can adjust the length of the DTM TBF release delays with the following DTM-specific PRFILE parameters: DL_DTM_TBF_REL_DELAY, UL_DTM_TBF_REL_DELAY, and UL_DTM_TBF_RELDELAY_EXT. CS-connection-control-initiated DTM call release CS connection control initiates a DTM call release when the CS call is released or when an inter-cell handover is performed for the MS. In a CS-connection-control-initiated DTM call release, CS connection control informs the PCU that the DTM call needs to be released. The PCU then releases the PS resources allocated for the DTM call. If the DTM call is released because of a CS call release, the MS returns to packet idle mode. After this, the PS connection can be re-established in normal GPRS/EDGE mode if the MS or the PCU has more data packets to send. Note that the PCU is unable to re-establish the PS connection in normal mode until CS connection control releases the DTMCS resource reservation. If the DTM call is released because of an inter-cell handover, the MS moves to a new cell and performs a cell update or routing area update procedure if the new cell is DTM-capable. After this, the PS connection can be re-established in dual transfer mode if the MS or the PCU has more data packets to send.

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Implementing Dual Transfer Mode overview

BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode

10 Implementing Dual Transfer Mode overview


Steps 1 Activate IMSI delivery in the MSC. In a Nokia Siemens Networks MSC, international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) delivery is active when the value of the COMMON ID INFORMATION SUPPORTED BSSAP parameter is YES. For more information, see Base Station Controller Handling in MSC in Nokia Siemens Networks MSC/HLR Product Documentation. 2 Check the value of the BSS TO BSS INFO SUPPORTED parameter in the MSC. The BSS TO BSS INFO SUPPORTED parameter specifies whether the transparent passing of information from an old BSS to a new BSS via the MSC is supported. The value of the parameter must be YES. For more information, see section External handover and Base Station Controller Handling in MSC in Nokia Siemens Networks MSC/HLR Product Documentation. 3 Activate DTM in the BSC. For detailed activation steps, see Activating and Testing BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode.

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