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Clauses A phrase A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject-verb relationship.

by the brazier into the night a glass of wine A clause A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb. Zorba did not hear my question. He started. He had heard this time. (page 80) Four kinds of clauses (1) Main Clause A clause can stand by itself giving a complete thought, and is usually called a sentence. Zorba scratched his head vigorously. There were dark ones, fair ones, ginger ones, even a few white ones. Zorba started laughing. (page 81) (2) Subordinate clause (or) Dependent clause A dependent clause cannot stand by itself and make good sense. It must be combined with an independent clause so that it becomes part of a sentence that can stand by itself. A dependent clause = when I saw a young peasant woman An independent clause = I was going round the market. A complex sentence = I was going round the market when I saw a young peasant woman. A dependent clause = as shed no money An independent clause she was going to give her earrings. A complex sentence = As shed no money, she was going to give her earrings. (page 82) (3) Relative clause A relative clause will begin with a relative pronoun or a relative verb. It has also incomplete thought, and so is called a dependent clause. Relative pronouns = that, which, who, whom, whose Relative adverb = why, when, where Two types : (1) relative pronoun (or) relative adverb + subject + verb (2) relative pronoun + verb Relative pronoun Type (1) that I had A complex sentence: I also took a silver-knobbed cane that I had. (Page 85- second line of second paragraph = that is omitted.)

Type (2) who brought you into this world A complex sentence: God forgive your father and mother who brought you into this world! (page 85-the last line) Relative Adverb Type (1) where I was A complex sentence: I didnt know where I was. (page 72- line 3) (4) Noun Clause A noun clause is any clause that functions as a noun in a sentence. I do what he says. (object) (page 72 line 20) You understand what Im saying. (object) (page 72 - nline -28)

A compound sentence A compound sentence is a sentence consisting of two or more main (independent) clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction. Her daughter had said something to her, but I hadnt understood. (page 83-line -13) She lit the samovar and made some tea. (page 83 line 16) A complex sentence A complex sentence is a sentence with only one independent (super ordinate/ principle/ main) clause and one or more dependent (subordinate/ sub-) clauses. On the way, she came to realize (that) I wanted her to be mine.(page 83 first line) When youve gone white on top like me, well talk again about this-this everlasting business.(page 87-last second paragraph)