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Chords

Using different types of chords will make your music sound fuller and less predictable. Here's a quick reference table on how to form various triads and tetrads. Forming Chords

Guide to Forming Chords Type of Chord Major Triad Minor Triad Diminished Triads Augmented Triads Major 7th Chord Minor 7th Chord Dominant 7th Chord Sixth Chord Dominant 9th Chord Major 9th Chord Minor 9th Chord sus2 Chord sus4 Chord Chord Structure 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th notes of a major scale 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th notes of a minor scale 1st (root) + flatted 3rd (b3) + flatted 5th (b5) notes of a major scale 1st (root) + 3rd + sharped 5th (#5th) notes of a major scale. 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th + 7th notes of a major scale 1st (root) + flatted 3rd (b3) + 5th + flatted 7th (b7) notes (derived from a major scale) 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th + flatted 7th (b7) notes of a major scale 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th + 6th notes of a major or minor scale. add a ninth to a dominant 7th chord (1st + 3rd + 5th + flatted 7th + 9th) add a ninth to a major 7th chord (1st + 3rd + 5th + 7th + 9th) add a ninth to a minor 7th chord (1st + 3rd + 5th + flatted 7th + 9th) 1st (root) + 2nd + 5th notes of either a major or minor scale 1st (root) + 4th + 5th notes of either a major or minor scale

The I - IV - V Chord Pattern


Songwriting 101
By Espie Estrella, About.com Guide

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songwriting 101 chord patterns composers arrangers lyricists

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Printable Music GamesInstantly print games for music lessons. Makes music learning fun! funmusicco.com/printable-music-game Music TheoryName any Note or Chord - by EAR! How? Hear it Now for Yourself.www.PerfectPitch.com Master Chord TheoryThe Chord Wheel: The Ultimate Tool for All Musicians. Pro Recommended.www.ChordWheel.com Music Ads Guitar Chords Chord Scales MEMORIZING Music I IV V Guitar Songwriting Guide Let's refresh what we've learned so far about scales and chords. Before you learn how to form certain chords you must first learn about scales. A scale is a series of notes that go in an ascending and descending manner. For every scale (major or minor) there are 7 notes, for example in the key of C the notes are C - D - E - F - G - A - B. The 8th note (in this example will be C) goes back to the root note but an octave higher. Each note of a scale has a corresponding number from 1 to 7. So for the key of C it will be as follows: C=1 D=2 E=3 F=4 G=5 A=6 B=7 In order to make a major triad you will play the 1st + 3rd + 5th notes of a major scale. In our example it is C - E - G, that's the C major chord. Let's have another example this time using the C minor scale: C=1 D=2 Eb = 3 F=4 G=5 Ab = 6 Bb = 7 In order to make a minor triad you will play the 1st + 3rd + 5th notes of a minor scale. In our example it is C - Eb - G, that's the C minor chord. Guide Notes: For the next entry we will omit the 7th and 8th notes to make it less confusing. Roman Numerals

Sometimes instead of numbers Roman Numerals are used instead. We go back to our example and use a Roman Numeral for each note in the key of C: C=I D = ii E = iii F = IV G=V A = vi Those with a Roman Numeral that is capitalized (I, IV, V) represent notes from which the major chord is built. While those that have lower case numerals (ii, iii, vi) represent notes from which minor chords are built. The I, IV and V Chord Pattern For each key there are 3 chords that are played more than others known as "primary chords". The I - IV - V chords are built from the 1st, 4th and 5th note of a scale. Let's take the key of C again as an example, looking at the illustration above, you will notice that note I on the key of C is C, note IV is F and note V is G. Therefor the I - IV - V chord pattern for the key of C is: C (note I) = C - E- G (1st + 3rd + 5th note of the C scale) F (note IV) = F - A - C (1st + 3rd + 5th note of the F scale) G (note V) = G - B - D (1st + 3rd + 5th note of the G scale) There are many songs that have been written using the I - IV - V chord pattern, "Home on the Range" is one example. Practice playing the I - IV - V chord pattern for every major key and listen to how it sounds as this might inspire you to come up with a great melody for your song. Here's a handy table to guide you. I - IV - V Chord Pattern

Major Key - Chord Pattern Key of C Key of D Key of E Key of F Key of G Key of A Key of B Key of Db Key of Eb Key of Gb C-F-G D-G-A E-A-B F - Bb - C G-C-D A-D-E B - E - F# Db - Gb - Ab Eb - Ab - Bb Gb - Cb - Db

Key of Ab Key of Bb

Ab - Db - Eb Bb - Eb - F

The I - IV - V Chord Pattern in Action Many songs, especially folk songs, use the I - IV - V chord pattern. An example is "Home on the Range" played in the key of F. Song Excerpt of "Home On The Range" F F Bb Bb Oh, give me a home where the buffalo roam FFCC Where the deer and the antelope play F F Bb Bb Where seldom is heard a discouraging word FCF And the skies are not cloudy all day As you can see this song uses three chords in the key of F which is F - Bb - C. One principle of writing melodies is to begin and end your song with the same chord. In our example above you'll notice that "Home On The Range" begins and ends with the F major chord. Playing the I - IV - V Chord Pattern on the Keyboard Here's a handy table that will show you how to form chords in every major key using the I - IV - V chord pattern. Clicking on a chord name will take you to an illustration. I - IV - V Chord Pattern

Major Key - Chord Pattern Key of C Key of D Key of E Key of F Key of G Key of A C-F-G D-G-A E-A-B F - Bb - C G-C-D A-D-E

Key of B Key of Db Key of Eb Key of Gb Key of Ab Key of Bb

B - E - F# Db - Gb - Ab Eb - Ab - Bb Gb - Cb - Db Ab - Db - Eb Bb - Eb - F

We've learned how to form and play the I, IV and V chords. Now let's learn about the ii, iii, and vi chords. Constructing ii, iii, and vi chords These chords are built from the 2nd, 3rd and 6th notes of a scale and are all minor chords. Note that these chords come from the same key as the I, IV and V chords. Let's take the key of D for example: D=I Em = ii F#m = iii G = IV A=V Bm = vi Note that the chords built on the 2nd, 3rd and 6th notes of the key of D are Em - F#m and Bm. Therefor the ii - iii - vi chord pattern for the key of D is: Em (note ii) = E - G - B (1st + 3rd + 5th notes of the Em scale) F#m (note iii) = F# - A - C# (1st + 3rd + 5th notes of the F#m scale) Bm (note vi) = B - D - F# (1st + 3rd + 5th notes of the Bm scale) Memorize all the minor chords for every key. If you combine these chords with the major chords that form the I - IV - V pattern your melodies will become fuller and less predictable. As always I made a table so you can easily see the ii, iii and vi chords in every key. Clicking on the chord name will bring you to an illustration which will show you how to play each chord on a keyboard. The ii, iii and vi Chords

Major Key - Chord Pattern Key of C Key of D Key of E Dm - Em - Am Em - F#m - Bm F#m - G#m - C#m

Key of F Key of G Key of A Key of B Key of Db Key of Eb Key of Gb Key of Ab Key of Bb

Gm - Am - Dm Am - Bm - Em Bm - C#m - F#m C#m - D#m - G#m Ebm - Fm - Bbm Fm - Gm - Cm Abm - Bbm - Ebm Bbm - Cm - Fm Cm - Dm - Gm

We've learned about the I - IV - V chords as well as the ii, iii and vi chords. Now let's play around with all these chords and see what melodies we can create. I - IV - V - I Chord Pattern Examples: Key of C: C - F - G - C Key of D: D - G - A - D Key of E : E - A - B - E I - iii - IV - ii - I Chord Pattern Examples: Key of F: F - A - Bb - G - F Key of G: G - B - C - A - G Key of A: A - C# - D - B - A I - vi - ii - V - I Chord Pattern Examples: Key Key Key Key of of of of B: B - G# - C# - F# - B Db: Db - Bb - Eb - Ab - Db Eb: Eb - C - F - Bb - Eb Gb: Gb - Eb - Ab - Db - Gb

I - ii - iii - IV - V - I Chord Pattern Examples: Key of Ab: Ab - Bbm - Cm - Db - Eb - Ab Key of Bb: Bb - Cm - Dm - Eb - F - Bb

I - vi - ii - IV - I Chord Pattern Examples: Key of C: C - Am - Dm - G - C Key of D: D - Bm - Em - A - D Try This! Using the I - vi - IV - V - I - vi - V - I chord pattern play the following chords: C - Am - F - G C-A-G-C Listen to it several times, what songs come to mind when you play this pattern? One example that uses this pattern is the song "Unchained Melody". Try it: C - Am Oh my love F my darling G I hunger for C your love Am a long G lonely time Then back to C for the second verse You can play around with various chord patterns to see what other melodies you can come up with We've learned how to form and play the I, IV and V chords. Now let's learn about the ii, iii, and vi chords. Constructing ii, iii, and vi chords These chords are built from the 2nd, 3rd and 6th notes of a scale and are all minor chords. Note that these chords come from the same key as the I, IV and V chords. Let's take the key of D for example:

D=I Em = ii F#m = iii G = IV A=V Bm = vi Note that the chords built on the 2nd, 3rd and 6th notes of the key of D are Em - F#m and Bm. Therefor the ii - iii - vi chord pattern for the key of D is: Em (note ii) = E - G - B (1st + 3rd + 5th notes of the Em scale) F#m (note iii) = F# - A - C# (1st + 3rd + 5th notes of the F#m scale) Bm (note vi) = B - D - F# (1st + 3rd + 5th notes of the Bm scale) Memorize all the minor chords for every key. If you combine these chords with the major chords that form the I - IV - V pattern your melodies will become fuller and less predictable. As always I made a table so you can easily see the ii, iii and vi chords in every key. Clicking on the chord name will bring you to an illustration which will show you how to play each chord on a keyboard. The ii, iii and vi Chords

Major Key - Chord Pattern Key of C Key of D Key of E Key of F Key of G Key of A Key of B Key of Db Key of Eb Key of Gb Key of Ab Key of Bb Dm - Em - Am Em - F#m - Bm F#m - G#m - C#m Gm - Am - Dm Am - Bm - Em Bm - C#m - F#m C#m - D#m - G#m Ebm - Fm - Bbm Fm - Gm - Cm Abm - Bbm - Ebm Bbm - Cm - Fm

Consonant chords sound harmonious and pleasing, while dissonant chords elicit a feeling of tension and sounds like the notes are clashing. In Western music the following intervals are considered consonant:

minor third - For example from C to Eb

major third - For example from C to E perfect fourth - For example from C to F perfect fifth - For example from C to G minor sixth - For example from C to Ab major sixth - For example from C to A octave - For example from C to C

On the other hand these intervals are considered dissonant:

minor second - For example from C - Db major second - For example from C to D minor seventh - For example from C to Bb major seventh - For example from C to B tritone - For example from C to F#, tritone is also known as an augmented 4th or diminished fifth and it has an interval of 3 whole steps.

Most often dissonance is resolved by moving to a consonant chord. This makes the initial feeling of tension created by dissonant chords to reach a resolution. The common term for this is tension and release. However, dissonance doesn't always need to be resolved, also perceiving chords as dissonant tends to be subjective. There are other chords you can use to make your music more interesting: Sixth Chords - Is formed by adding a sixth to either a major or minor triad. For example to form a C6 chord you will start on a C major triad which is C-E-G, then you add the major sixth which is A. So C6 = C-E-G-A. For a minor sixth chord the principle is the same but you will construct if from a minor triad. For example to form a Cm6 chord you will start on a C minor triad which is C-Eb-G, then you add the major sixth which is A. So Cm6 = C-Eb-G-A. To simplify, the formula for a sixth chord is the 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th + 6th notes of a major or minor scale. Ninth Chords - Is formed from either a dominant 7th, major 7th or minor 7th chord by adding the ninth. There are three commonly used types of ninth chord:

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Dominant 9th Chord (ex. C9) - Formed by playing the 1st + maj 3rd + 5th + flat 7th + 9th. Simply put, you start with a dominant 7th chord then add the 9th. Major 9th (Ex. Cmaj9)- Formed by playing the 1st + maj 3rd + 5th + maj 7th + 9th of a major chord. In other words you start from a major 7th chord and then add the 9th. Minor 9th (Ex. Cm9) - Formed by playing the 1st + min 3rd + 5th + flat 7th + 9th of a minor chord. Simply put, you start with a minor 7th chord then add the 9th

I'm sure you've seen the word "sus" on music sheets and tabs. Sus is an abbreviation for "suspended", it refers to chords that doesn't follow the common triad pattern, whether major or minor triads, of 1 (root)+ 3 + 5. There are two commonly used types of suspended chords: sus4 - A sus4 chord replaces the 1+3+5 pattern with 1+4+5, meaning the third note is replaced by the fourth. For example the tab says you need to play a Dsus4 chord, instead of

playing D+F#+A (=1+3+5) you raise the middle note or the third note by a half step. So a Dsus4 chord is D+G+A (=1+4+5). Here are some commonly used sus4 chords for guitar. sus2 - The sus2 chord follows the pattern 1 (root) + 2 + 5, so if in a sus4 chord you play the root, fourth and fifth notes, for a sus2 chord you play the root, second anf fifth notes. In other words from a sus4 chord you lower the middle note three half steps. For example a Dsus2 chord is D+E+A. Here are some commonly used sus2 chords for guitar

What Are Diminished and Augmented Triads? Answer: There are two more types of triads called diminished and augmented chords. Diminished Chord - Uses the symbol "o" or "dim" and is formed by playing the first note (root) + flatted third (b3) + flatted fifth (b5) of a major scale. When you add another minor third (b3) to a diminished chord it becomes a tetrad or a four-note chord. The symbol used for this is "o7". Two commonly used types of tetrad are the dominant 7th (7) and the major 7th (maj7) chords. Here are the diminished chords in different keys: C dim = C - Eb - Gb G dim = G - Bb - Db D dim = D - F - Ab A dim = A - C - Eb E dim = E - G - Bb B dim = B - D - F F# dim = F# - A - C Gb dim = Gb - A - C Db dim = Db - E - G C# dim = C# - E - G Ab dim = Ab - B - D Eb dim = Eb - Gb - A Bb dim = Bb - Db - E F dim = F - Ab - B Augmented Chord - Uses the symbol "+" or "aug." and is formed by playing the first note (root) + third note + sharped fifth (#5th) of a major scale. Here are the augmented chords in different keys: C aug = C - E - G# G aug = G - B - D# D aug = D - F# - A# A aug = A - C# - F E aug = E - G# - C B aug = B - D# - G F# aug = F# - A# - D Gb aug = Gb - Bb - D Db aug = Db - F - A C# aug = C# - E# (or F) - A Ab aug = Ab - C - E Eb aug = Eb - G - B Bb aug = Bb - D - F# F aug = F - A - C#

Chord inversions are used by composers and musicians for modulation, to create a melodic bass line and generally to make music more interesting. A chord inversion simply means rearranging the notes in a given chord. Inversions can also be applied to intervals and melodies, for this lesson however, we will focus on inverting triads. Difficulty: Average Time Required: Varies, depending on playing level Here's How:

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Learn the root position of triads in both major and minor keys. When we say root position it refers to the normal position of chords in which the root note is at the bottom; root + third + fifth (1+3+5). For example a C major triad is C+E+G, with C as the root note. For the first inversion of a triad simply move the root note at the top an octave higher. So if the root position of a C major chord is C+E+G, moving the root note (C) at the top makes the first inversion as E+G+C (3+5+1). For the second inversion of a triad move the lowest note and place it on top of the root note. Let's take the C major chord as an example again, the first inversion of this chord is E+G+C with E being the lowest note. Move E above the root note which is C to make the second inversion of G+C+E (5+1+3). Usually, triads are referred to as having only two inversions. This is because when you invert a triad a third time you return to the root position an octave higher. For additional help, please refer to the Piano Chord Library. You can choose which chord you want to play and then click "Invert" to see how you can play it in different inversions.

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Question: What are dominant 7th's and is it the same as a major 7th chord? Learning chords may seem tricky and confusing, especially for beginners. Don't despair, once you understand how these chords are related and their respective patterns, you'll see that chords aren't so hard to learn after all. Answer: A dominant 7th uses the symbol of a note name + 7. For example: C7, D7, E7, etc. It is different from the symbol used for a major 7th which is maj7. A dominant 7th is not the same as a major 7th chord. But, to form a dominant 7th you must know how to form a major 7th chord first because these two types of chords are related. A major 7th chord is formed by playing the root (1st) + 3rd + 5th + 7th notes of a major scale. A dominant 7th is formed by simply lowering the 7th note a half step. As an example, Cmaj7 = C - E - G - B (7th note). Lower the 7th note a half step, from B to Bb, thus Dominant 7th = C - E - G - Bb. Here are the dominant 7th chords in every key: C7 = C - E - G - Bb D7 = D - F# - A - C E7 = E - G# - B - D F7 = F - A - C - Eb G7 = G - B - D - F A7 = A - C# - E - G B7 = B - D# - F# - A C#7 = C# - E# (F) - G# - B Db7 = Db - F - Ab - B

Eb7 = Eb - G - Bb - Db F#7 = F# - A# - C# - E Gb7 = Gb - Bb - Db - E Ab7 = Ab - C - Eb - Gb Bb7 = Bb - D - F - Ab

Question: What are major and minor 7ths and how are they formed? You usually see these symbols on music sheets but may not know what it means. The symbol used to signify a major 7th is maj7 while min7 stands for minor 7th. Here is an explanation of what is the difference between these two types of chords and how they are formed. Answer: The major 7th chord is formed by playing the root (1st) + 3rd + 5th + 7th notes of a major scale. It is important to learn how to form the major scales and assign the numbers 1 to 7 (with 1 assigned to the root note) in order to learn how to play a major 7th chord easily. Here are the major 7th chords in every key: Cmaj7 = C - E - G - B Dmaj7 = D - F# - A - C# Emaj7 = E - G# - B - D# Fmaj7 = F - A - C - E Gmaj7 = G - B - D - F# Amaj7 = A - C# - E - G# Bmaj7 = B - D# - F# - A# C#maj7 = C# - E# (F) - G# - B# (C) Dbmaj7 = Db - F - Ab - C Ebmaj7 = Eb - G - Bb - D F#maj7 = F# - A# - C# - E# (F) Gbmaj7 = Gb - Bb - Db - F Abmaj7 = Ab - C - Eb - G Bbmaj7 = Bb - D - F - A A minor 7th chord is formed based on the major 7th chord, by lowering the 3rd and 7th note a half step (also means to flatten the 3rd and 7th). Here are the minor 7th chords in every key: Cm7 = C - Eb - G - Bb Dm7 = D - F - A - C Em7 = E - G - B - D Fm7 = F - Ab - C - Eb Gm7 = G - Bb - D - F Am7 = A - C - E - G Bm7 = B - D - F# - A C#m7 = C# - E - G# - B Dbm7 = Db - E - Ab - B Ebm7 = Eb - Gb - Bb - Db F#m7 = F# - A - C# - E Gbm7 = Gb - A - Db - E Abm7 = Ab - B - Eb - Gb Bbm7 = Bb - Db - F - Ab

If you know how to form major chords, you'll find it easy to learn how to form minor chords. In this lesson, we will learn how to form "minor triads." First let's define what a minor triad is; a triad are 3 notes either played together or pressed one after another. A minor chord is

played using the 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th notes of a minor scale. A minor chord has a symbol of m or min. Here's how to form minor triads: Difficulty: Average Time Required: Depends on your playing level Here's How: 1. Learn all the note names on a keyboard. The white key to the left of two black keys is always a C; now moving to the next white keys on the right we have D - E - F - G - A - B then back to C again. These note names just keep repeating. The names of the black keys (and some white keys as well) varies depending on whether it's a sharp or a flat. For example, the black key next to C may either be a C# or a Db. Learn how to play the minor scales, also known as natural minor. A scale is a series of notes that go in an ascending and descending manner. To guide you, here are the minor scales in every key: C = C - D - Eb - F - G - Ab - Bb - C D = D - E - F - G - A - Bb - C - D E = E - F# - G - A - B - C - D - E F = F - G - Ab - Bb - C - Db - Eb - F G = G - A - Bb - C - D - Eb - F - G A=A-B-C-D-E-F-G-A B = B - C# - D - E - F# - G - A - B Here are the other minor scales for flats and sharps: C# = C# - D# - E - F# - G# - A - B - C# Eb = Eb - F - Gb - Ab - Bb - Cb - Db - Eb F# = F# - G# - A - B - C# - D - E - F# G# - G# - A# - B - C# - D# - E - F# - G# Bb = Bb - C - Db - Eb - F - Gb - Ab - Bb To simplify, you can memorize this formula to form a minor scale = whole step - half step - whole step - whole step - half step - whole step - whole step or w - h - w - w - h w - w. To make it easier, if you already know how to play a major triad chord, just lower the third note (or the note being pressed by your middle finger) a halfstep to make it a minor triad. For example, a C major triad is C - E - G, lower the E a half step (=Eb), thus, a C minor triad is C - Eb - G. Now, assign numbers to each note of a minor scale, always assign number one to the root note. For example, in the C minor scale the numbers will be assigned as follows: C=1 D=2 Eb = 3 F=4 G=5 Ab = 6 Bb = 7 C=8 Now, in order to form a minor triad play the notes numbered 1 + 3 + 5. In our example above for the key of C that is, C + Eb + G, that's the C Minor Triad. Do this pattern to form all the other minor triad chords. Added Tip: To play the chords with your right hand, use your thumb to play the root, your middle finger for the third note and your pinky to play the 5th note. For the left hand it's the other way around, with your pinky playing the root, your middle finger still playing the third note and your thumb playing the 5th note. Try this: Try playing the following minor triads in this pattern: C minor triad - A minor triad - F minor triad - G minor triad. You can play the notes on a chord one after the other or all at the same time. Just listen to how it sounds.

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There are many different types of chords, the most common are major and minor chords. For this lesson we will learn about how to form "major triads." First, let's define what a major triad is; a triad are 3 notes either played together or pressed one after another. A major chord is played using the 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th notes of a major scale. A major chord has a symbol of M or Maj. Here's how to form major triads: Difficulty: Average Time Required: Depends on your playing level Here's How: 1. Learn all the note names on a keyboard. The white key to the left of two black keys is always a C; now moving to the next white keys on the right we have D - E - F - G - A - B then back to C again. These note names just keep repeating. The names of the black keys (and some white keys as well) varies depending on whether it's a sharp or a flat. For example, the black key next to C may either be a C# or a Db. Learn how to play the major scales. A scale is a series of notes that go in an ascending and descending manner. To guide you, here are the major scales in every key: C=C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C D = D - E - F# - G - A - B - C# - D E = E - F# - G# - A - B - C# - D# - E F = F - G - A - Bb - C - D - E - F G = G - A - B - C - D - E - F# - G A = A - B - C# - D - E - F# - G# - A B = B - C# - D# - E - F# - G# - A# - B Here are the other major scales for flats and sharps: C# = C# - D# - E# (=F) - F# - G# - A# - B# (=C) - C# Db = Db - Eb - F - Gb - Ab - Bb - C - Db Eb = Eb - F - G - Ab - Bb - C - D -Eb F# = F#= F# - G# - A# - B - C# - D# - E# (=F) - F# Gb = Gb - Ab - Bb - Cb (=B) - Db - Eb - F - Gb Ab = Ab - Bb - C - Db - Eb - F - G - Ab Bb = Bb - C - D - Eb - F - G - A - Bb To simplify, you can memorize this formula to form a major scale = whole step whole step - half step - whole step - whole step - whole step - half step or w - w - h - w -w-w-h Now, assign numbers to each note of a major scale, always assign number one to the root note. For example, in the C major scale the numbers will be assigned as follows: C=1 D=2 E=3 F=4 G=5 A=6 B=7 C=8 Now, in order to form a major triad play the notes numbered 1 + 3 + 5. In our example above, that is C + E + G, that's the C Major Triad. Do this pattern to form all the other major triad chords. Added Tip: To play the chords with your right hand, use your thumb to play the root, your middle finger for the third note and your pinky to play the 5th note. For the left hand it's the other way around, with your pinky playing the root, your middle finger still playing the third note and your thumb playing the 5th note. Try this: Try playing the following major triads in this pattern: C major triad - A major triad - F major triad - G major triad. You can play the notes on a chord one after the other or all at the same time. Just listen to how it sounds.

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Remember, perfect intervals have only one basic form. The first (also called prime or unison), fourth, fifth and eighth (or octave) are all perfect intervals. Perfect intervals can be seen on both major and minor scales. On the other hand, non-perfect intervals have two basic forms. The second, third, sixth and seventh are non-perfect intervals; it can either be a major or minor interval. Major intervals comes from the major scale. Minor intervals are exactly a half-step lower than major intervals. Here's a handy table that will make it easier for you to determine intervals by counting the distance of one note to another note in half-steps. Table of Intervals

Perfect Intervals Type of Interval Unison Perfect 4th Perfect 5th Perfect Octave Number of Half-steps not applicable 5 7 12

Major Intervals Type of Interval Major 2nd Major 3rd Major 6th Major 7th Minor Intervals Type of Interval Minor 2nd Minor 3rd Minor 6th Minor 7th Number of Half-steps 1 3 8 10 Number of Half-steps 2 4 9 11

Chromatic
The word "chromatic" comes from the Greek word chroma meaning "color." The chromatic scale consists of 12 notes each a half step apart. It is from the chromatic scale that every other scale or chord in most Western music is derived. On the piano/keyboard when you play all the black and white keys of an octave in an ascending or descending order you are playing a chromatic scale. We will take the C chromatic scale as an example: C Chromatic Scale as you go up: C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C C Chromatic Scale as you go down: C B Bb A Ab G Gb F E Eb D Db C In this example we start at C and end at C, that is an octave. As you go up the scale some of the notes are sharped. As you go down, some of the notes are flatted. Notice that the sharped and flatted keys are the same keys but given different names, these are called enharmonic tones. Enharmonics sound the same but have different names. For example C# and Db is the same key. Here are several resources on chromatic scales for different instruments:

Violin Horn Guitar Piano Flute

Question: What is the Whole Tone Scale? Answer: Major and minor scales consists of 7 notes, while pentatonic scales are made of 5 notes. However, the whole tone scale has 6 notes that are all a whole step apart making its intervallic formula easy to remember - W-W-W-W-W-W. This type of scale is used in Romantic music as well as jazz music; for example, the music of Thelonius Monk. It is important to remember that there are only two whole tone scales; C (CD - E - F# - G# - A#) and D flat (Db - Eb - F - G - A - B). If you start a scale on a different note, you are still playing the same notes as the C and Db whole tone scales but in different order. The sound of a whole tone scale is often decribed as "dreamlike

Pentatonic
The word "pentatonic" comes from the Greek word pente meaning five and tonic meaning tone. Simply put, the pentatonic scale consists of five notes within one octave, that's why it is also sometimes referred to as a five-tone scale or five-note scale. It is believed that the pentatonic scale was used way back in ancient times. Composers like Claude Debussy have used pentatonic scales for added effect in his music. The anhemitonic form of pentatonic scale has no semitones (ex. cdfgac} this is the most commonly used form. The two basic forms of pentatonic scales are: Major Pentatonic - Consists of the 1st - 2nd - 3rd - 5th - 6th notes of a major scale. Minor Pentatonic - Consists of the same 5 notes of a major pentatonic scale but its tonic (first note of the scale} is 3 semitones below the tonic of the major pentatonic scale. For example, the C major pentatonic (C - D - E - G - A} has the same notes as the A minor pentatonic (A - C - D - E - G} but arranged differently. The first note or tonic of the A minor pentatonic scale (=A) is 3 semitones (half steps) lower than the first note of the C major pentatonic scale (=C). It uses the 1st - minor 3rd - 4th - 5th - minor 7th notes of a scale

Question: What are modes? Answer: Modes are used in many types of music; from sacred music to jazz to rock. Composers use it to add "flavor" to their compositions in order to avoid predictability. It is formed by naming a different note as the root (1st) instead of the original root of the scale. Thus, in a way, modes can be defined as displaced major scales. Types of Modal Scales Ionian - Also known as the major scale; follows the pattern W-W-H-W-W-W-H.

Dorian - Constructed from the second note of a major scale; follows the pattern W-H-WW-W-H-W. Phrygian - Constructed from the third note of a major scale; follows the pattern H-W-WW-H-W-W. Lydian - Constructed from the fourth note of a major scale; follows the pattern W-W-W-HW-W-H. Mixolydian - Also known as "mixo," is constructed from the fifth note of a major scale and follows the pattern W-W-H-W-W-H-W. Aeolian - Also known as the natural minor scale, is constructed from the sixth note of a major scale and follows the pattern W-H-W-W-H-W-W. Locrian - Constructed from the seventh note of a major scale; follows the pattern H-W-WH-W-W-W. Each mode has a very distinct sound; for example, the Phrygian mode sounds melancholy and reflects the music of Spain. The Lydian mode sounds happy and is often used in jazz and rock music. The Mixolydian mode evokes a bluesy sound and can often be heard in jazz, blues and rock music. The Locrian mode, on the other hand, has a very strange sound but is rarely used. Note: W = whole step, H = half step

Question: What are Intervals? Answer: An interval is the difference between two pitches measured by half steps. It is also defined as the distance of one note to another note. In Western music, the smallest interval used is the half-step. Learning about intervals makes it easier to play scales and chords. Intervals have two characteristics: the type or quality of an interval (ex. major, perfect, etc.) and the size or distance of an interval (ex. second, third, etc.). To determine an interval, you first look at the type of interval followed by the size (ex. Maj7, Perfect 4th, Maj6, etc.). Intervals can be major, minor, perfect, augmented and diminished. Sizes or Distance of Intervals (Using the C Major Scale as Example)

Prime/First - c to c Second - c to d Third - c to e Fourth - c to f Fifth - c to g Sixth - c to a Seventh - c to b Octave - c to c

Types or Qualities of Intervals

Perfect Intervals have only one basic form. The first (or prime), fourth, fifth and eighth (or octave) are all perfect intervals. When you lower a perfect interval by a half step it becomes diminished. When you raise it a half step it becomes augmented. Non-perfect Intervals have two basic forms. The second, third, sixth and seventh are non-perfect intervals; it can either be a major or minor interval (ex. Maj7, minor6, etc.). When you lower a major interval by a half step, it becomes a minor. When you raise it a half step it becomes augmented. On the other hand when you lower a minor interval by a half step it becomes diminished. When you raise it a half step it becomes a major.

Question: What Are Harmonic Intervals? Answer: Notes that are played together or simultaneously create harmony. The interval between these notes are called harmonic intervals. Just like melodic intervals, there are harmonic 2nds, 3rds, 4ths, 5ths, 6ths, etc. The difference is that in melodic intervals the notes are played one after another, while in harmonic intervals you play the notes at the same time. Notes on a chord that are played together have harmonic intervals. The most common type of chords are major and minor chords. The triad is a type of major or minor chord that has 3 notes played either at the same time or one after another. A major triad is played using the 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th notes of a major scale. A minor triad is played using the 1st (root) + 3rd + 5th notes of a minor scale. Question: What are Melodic Intervals? Answer: The distance between notes is called an interval. When you play notes separately, one after another, you are playing a melody. The distance between these notes is called a melodic interval. Let's use the piano keys to illustrate the different types of melodic intervals: Melodic 2nds - Distance from a white key to the next white key, either up and down the keyboard. On the staff melodic 2nds go from line to space and vice versa. Melodic 3rds - When you skip a white key, that's a melodic 3rd. On the staff it goes from space to space or from line to line. Melodic 4ths - Skipping 2 white keys; on the staff melodic 4ths go from line to space or space to line. Melodic 5ths - Skipping 3 white keys; on the staff melodic 5ths go from space to space or from line to line. Melodic 6ths - Skipping 4 white keys; on the staff it goes from line to space or space to line. Melodic 7ths - Skipping 5 white keys; on the staff it goes from space to space or line to line. An octave is when you skip 6 white keys. For example from C to C, E to E or G to G. On the staff an octave goes from line to space or space to line.

Question: What Is the Circle of Fifths? The Circle of Fifths is a diagram which is an essential tool for musicians. It is named such because it uses a circle to illustrate the relationship of different keys that are a fifth apart. Answer: It is labeled with the letter names of the notes with C at the top center then going clockwise are the notes G - D - A - E - B/Cb - F#/Gb - Db/C# - Ab - Eb - Bb - F then back to C again. The notes on the circle are all a fifth apart, C to G are a fifth apart, G to D is also a fifth apart and so forth. The basic illustration for the Circle of Fifths is this. Other Uses of the Circle of Fifths Key Signatures - You can also tell how many sharps and flats are there in a given key by looking at the Circle of Fifths. See illustration. Transposition - The Circle of Fifths can also be used when transposing from a major key to a minor key or vice versa. To do this a smaller image of the Circle of Fifth is placed inside a larger image of the circle. Then the C of the smaller circle is aligned to the Eb of the larger circle. So now if a piece of music is in Ab you can see that when you transpose that it will be on the key of F. The upper case letters represent major keys, the lower case letters represent minor keys. See illustration here. Chords - Another use for the Circle of Fifths is to determine chord patterns. The symbol used for this are I (major), ii (minor), iii (minor), IV (major), V (major), vi (minor) and viio (diminished). On the Circle of Fifths, the numerals are arranged as follows starting from F then moving clockwise: IV, I, V, ii, vi, iii and viio . So for example a piece asks that you play a I-IV-V chord pattern, looking at the circle you can see that it corresponds to C - F - G. Now if you want to play it in another key, say for example on G, you then align the numeral I to G and you'll see that the I-IV-V chord pattern now corresponds to G - C - D.