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Dont Cry For Me Argentina from EVITA By Andrew-Lloyd Webber Song & Musical Background

"Don't Cry for Me Argentina" is a song from the 1978 musical Evita with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Tim Rice. The protagonist character Eva Pern. sings it at the beginning of the second act as Evita addresses the crowd from the balcony of the Casa Rosada and features a sweeping melody tied to broad emotional themes of regret and defiance, characteristic of Lloyd Webbers most popular songs. The musical Evita was initially produced as an album, before being adapted for the stage, followed a formula Lloyd Webber and Rice had stumbled upon during the production of Jesus Christ Superstar. Julie Covington played the lead role of Eva Pern on the original 1976 album from which the single was released. When Covington chose not to take the stage role, Elaine Paige was cast as Eva in the London production. In the United States, the song is also closely linked with Patti LuPone, who performed the role of Eva in the original Broadway production of the show. American singer-songwriter Madonna recorded her version of the song for her starring role in the 1996 film Evita. It was released as the second single from the soundtrack. Evita was released in the US on February 11, 1997 by Warner Bros. Records. This version has gone on to become the most popular of all recordings of the song.

Don't Cry for Me, Argentina belongs to a fascinating category of songs purists refer to as the geographically hortatory; that is, songs in which a city, state or nation is addressed directly and exhorted to take a particular course of action at the direction of the singer,

no matter how onerous or implausible. Its lush orchestral passages evoke both the magic of the pampas and the smoky romance of those sultry Buenos Aires evenings. Evita is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Tim Rice. It concentrates on the life of Argentine political leader Eva Pern, the second wife of Argentine president Juan Pern. The story follows Evita's early life, rise to power, charity work, and eventual death. The musical began as a rock opera concept album released in 1976. Its success led to productions in London's West End in 1978, and on Broadway a year later, both of which enjoyed considerable success, winning both the Laurence Olivier Award and Tony Award for Best Musical. This was followed by a string of professional tours and worldwide productions and numerous cast albums, as well as a major 1996 film of the musical starring Madonna and Antonio Banderas. The musical was revived in London in 2006, and on Broadway in 2012.

History of the Character- Eva Peron


Eva Mara Duarte de Pern (7 May 1919 26 July 1952) was the second wife of President Juan Pern (18951974) and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. She is usually referred to as Eva Pern or by the affectionate Spanish language diminutive Evita.
The song imitates the occasion when Evita stood upon the balcony of the Casa Rosada and pleaded with the Argentinian crowd to accept her candidacy as the Vice-President, after having previously left Spain for an overly embellished tour of Europe. She had adopted new wealthy French fashion and customs. As a child she lived in poor, country areas, so when she applied for a political position the parliament and Spanish population took her lightly. This song marks her defiance and apologetic-like speech to the crowd to accept her, despite her disloyalty in the past and despite what they believed about the unserious nature of her candidacy. The word

cry is used in the context of asking the crowd not to scream and shout, at the message she wished to convey- that her heart still lied within its Argentinian roots and was willing to serve the needs of the people.

Eva Peron waves to supporters in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1951.

At Evita Peron's grave in the La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires, one of the plaques is a tribute from the city's taxi drivers' union. One of her epitaphs, roughly translated, reads: "Don't cry for me Argentina, I remain quite near to you."

Dont Cry For Me Argentina

SCORE ANALYSIS PITCH-MELODY


The pitch is definite with a minor tonality of D Flat Minor, which is maintained throughout the entire work. There is a transitional passage or motif in A Flat Major, which recurs throughout the entire duration of the piece. Bars 11-12 Introduction Bars 26-29 Verse 1 Bars 40-45 Verse Bars 64-68 Verse 3
EXAMPLES *Introduction (1-15) *Verse 1 (1-30), Verse 3 (55-69)

CONTOUR *Large ascending movement in piano bass line with arppegiated motifs extending over 9 notes. * Similar movement in Piano Treble line during Verse 1 and returning in Verse 3, where there is reiteration of the arpeggiated pattern from the introduction. *Movement in leaps of fifths, fourths and thirds in piano bass line. *Consecutive octave intervals- descending in scale steps. *Scale-like passages recur during the dominant motif from the refrain. Ascending steps during the refrain (f, gb, ab) then lowered a tone (eb, f, g). *Descending steps (gb, f, eb). *The Vocal melody us based around chords with repetitive note patterns, with most phrases remaining straight, rising then falling in contour. *There is high-pitched material above the treble staff used for the flute embellishment, which creates a monophonic, thin and light density. *Within these passages are also the only half beats of silence in the piece.

*Introduction (1-15) *Bars 1-13 *Bars 49-50

*Bar 37 *Bars 16-22 (verse 1)

*Bar 89

*Bar 89

RANGE
*The piece has a mezzo-soprano vocal range from a low A below middle C to a D above high C. Therefore an 11-note range. * Largest interval within the melody is an octave from A to low A. *Piano bass line is from a B two octaves below middle C below the staff to an E above middle Cwritten but played by the right hand in the vocal line. *Low A in Bar 52 *High D in Bar 32 *Bar 52

EXAMPLES

*Bar 13 (E) *Bar 9 (B)

INTERPRETATION
*A lyrical, flowing interpretation that allows the performer to adopt emotion and experiment with varied vocal colours on the repeated notes. The intervals provide variation for contrast. The highest note is used on the word never to emphasise the strong context of the lexicon in the song. The sweeping melody is tied to emotions of defiance, regret and a longing to receive forgiveness from a country.

EXAMPLES
D during the refrain Bar 80.

*There are smooth, sweeping orchestral passages, with a romantic mood captured by arpeggiated harp plucking. This evokes the sincerity in Evita Perons address, as if it were straight from her heart. *The timpani drum roll portrays the climax of the piece before its conclusion with the refrain.

*Quasi Harp indication at Bar 16.

*Quasi Timpani indication at Bar 92.

PATTERNS & PHRASING


*The piano Bass material is identical for two consecutive bars, with the next imitative in style. Using the same intervals, but based around a separate chord. *The tonic D is sustained by the pedal in the Bass and repeated in every Bar during the introduction. *Use of tonic sustained pedal point of the D in the piano bass line for the 1st verse. *Use of repeated note patterns for the dominant A, sub-mediant B and sub-dominant G, in the verses. *There are usually consecutive repeated notes, followed by a rise in pitch, then notes of the same pitch followed by a fall in pitch. *Repetition of four-note Bass line pattern for three bars. *In the refrain, there is a five-note motif repeated, with the second being a tone lower. It has a steplike, ascending scale passage, with the accompaniment also ascending in similar motion. *Block chords are used to enhance the density and grandness of the refrain. *Phrases are mostly regular.

EXAMPLES
*Introduction- Bars 1 & 2, 3 & 4, 5 & 6 identical.

*Bars 1-7 *Verse 1, Bars 16-25 *A-Bars 16-17, G-Bar 21, B- Bars 18-19.

*Bars 25-28 *Bars 46-48 *Bars 49-51

*Bars 76 &77

* Accompaniment by orchestra with piano and mezzo soprano solo voice. * Use of complex, non-traditional chords, reflective of twentieth century writing. Examples- Eb7, Ab7, Dbmaj7, Gbmaj7 * These chords are used in a repetitive nature throughout the piece. * Dominant melody in the introduction is the same as the vocal line melodic motif used in the refrain- a common introductory technique.

TONE COLOUR
Voice Type- Female-Mezzo Soprano Performing Media- Orchestra, solo flute, timpani, harp, piano Techniques- Colla Voce- sung speech to convey sincerity - Bouche Ferme- humming mmm, with mouth closed - Pedal Markings to create legato-smooth phrases - Pizzicato- plucking of harp strings - Arco- with bow (strings) - Tremolo- rapid reiteration of a single note Registers- Middle register used for all instruments, except flute, which plays in upper register during the solo passage. Mood- Warm, grand (grandioso), formal, tense with gradual ease, romantic-harp

TEXTURE Degree of Density- Orchestral refrains & introduction thick and homophonic-many melodies and block chords. - Voice and arpeggiated harp maintains a thinner density with polyphonic verses. Changes- Block chords create heavy density with all four, chord notes played in Bass. Eg. Bars 76 & 77 - Arpeggiated plucked harp creates light density - Final refrain is marked as grandioso-grandly. This is enhanced by vertical, chord harmonies and similar motion, ascending and descending phrases. - Orchestral tutti creates homophonic heavy density in the final refrain. Movement of Lines - Similar motion used between harmonic lines. Eg. Bars 49-51 - Imitation of previous bars used within one line. Eg. Introduction Bass line, bars 1-7 - Horns play in an antiphonal style- response style, Bars 33-44 Texture Introduction- homophonic, Verse 1- polyphonic Verse 2- polyphonic Refrain- homophonic Verse 3- polyphonic Refrain x 2- homophonic Description - Smooth, elegiac, legato lines - Heavy and dense or light and clear

STRUCTURE
Themes - Refrain theme used in introduction - Verse theme, varied for contrast in verses 2 & 3 -Use of imitative like material, particularly in the introduction. Motifs - Repeated scale-like motifs Eg. 39-50, 49 - Arpeggiated accompaniment motifs - Vertical block chords Sections - Introduction- refrain melodic material - Verse 1, 2, Refrain- tempo 1, Verse 3, Refrain- tempo 2, Orchestral- bouche ferme Refrain, Colla voce bridge section, Refrain. - Modified Strophic Form - Musical Theatre piece The contrasts in the verses create variety and repetition of motifs and thematic motifs create unity and balance.

DYNAMICS & EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUES

Loudness & Softness (volume)

- mf-mezzo forte- moderately loud- introduction - Diminuendo - Crescendo - p-piano- softly- Bar 14 -pp-pianissimo- very soft- Bar 15 -ff- fortissimo- very loud Bar 93 Changes- gradual with diminuendos and crescendos Louder dynamics are achieved by the orchestra playing tutti in the final refrain this helps it to be grandioso- played grandly Terraced dynamics when horns and orchestral play Softer dynamics achieved when playing at a lower pitch and when the voice plays with a light harp accompaniment. Accents - Tenuto (ten)- note held for its full value- bar 96 - Accents- bars 97, 98 Silence- used in half beats in the flute solo in bar 89 Pauses- fermata in Bar 91 & 102, phrasing breaks used for punctuation in Bars 91, 96 Style- musical theatre Period- 1970s Performance Directions/Stylistic Indications - Dolce- sweetly- bar 1 - sim- similarly played sections - Tango feel- bar 46 - Bouche Ferme- with mouth closed (humming mmm) - Colla Voce- with voice- sung speech, similar to recitative - Molto- much - Grandioso- grandly - Tremolo- rapid repetition of a single note - Hold, no Trem- straight hold of the note, after tremolo - Orchestra Tutti- all orchestra plays together - Quasi Timp /Harp- optional, with these instruments - Legato- smooth and connected- Bars 1, 2, 3 - Pedal Markings- Bars 1 & 2 Gradually getting softer- Bar 13 Gradually getting louder- Bar 45

DURATION
Time Signature- 4/4- Simple Quadruple, four crotchet beat per bar Metre- four crotchet beats Metrical Accents Tempo- Slowly, Slow-tango feel Tempo Changes - poco rit- a little slower

- poco rall- a little- gradually slower


- rit- gradually getting slower - Absence of a tempo- return to former speed- marking, despite rit & rall indication

RHYTHMIC PATTERNS
Semibreves held with pedal. Mixed quaver/ crotchet rhythms- bass line. Triplets Ties Consecutive quaver rhythms. Minim block chords Sustained tonic pedal point- semibreves Double dotted minim- (3.5 beats), followed by semibreves (0.5 beats). Dotted Crotchets, quaver, crotchet, crotchet. Demisemiquavers flute solo passage

EXAMPLES
Bars 1- 7 Bars 1- 6 Bars 5 & 6 Bar 5, 7-8, 8-9 Verses 1, 3, Refrains Bars 35-42 Bars 16-25 Bars 55-61, 63 Bass line, Bars 78-80 Bar 89