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E&P NOTES

A comparison of Khuff and Arab reservoir potential throughout the Middle East

S. N. Ehrenberg, P. H. Nadeau, and A. A. M. Aqrawi

ABSTRACT

A compilation of average porosity and permeability data for petro-

leum reservoirs in the Permian –Triassic Khuff Formation and the Jurassic Arab Formation shows that most Khuff reservoirs have an average porosity of less than 12%, whereas most Arab reservoirs have an average porosity of 12 –26%. Higher porosity correlates

with shallower depth, suggesting that burial diagenesis is the main cause of the overall porosity difference between these units. Deeper burial of Khuff reservoirs is inferred to have resulted in greater porosity loss by chemical compaction and associated cementation.

A broad correlation also exists between average porosity and aver-

age permeability, suggesting that deeper burial and the resulting

porosity decrease are also a primary cause of the lower permeabil- ities of the Khuff reservoirs. In addition to greater burial depth, however, a combination of depositional and early diagenetic factors

is also reflected in the lower average porosity and permeability

values of the Khuff reservoirs. Khuff strata were deposited on an extensive, poorly circulated, very low-relief shelf and consist in large part of interbedded mudstones and grainstones having relatively fine grain size, with major amounts of depositional calcium sulfate pres- ent. Arab reservoirs were deposited under better circulated condi- tions near platform margins facing deep, intracratonic basins and, thus, have coarser, more grain-dominated fabrics and lesser overall content of chemically precipitated grains, calcium sulfate, and do- lomite. Khuff deposits were likely composed of less stable miner- alogy than Arab sediments because the Late Permian was a time of aragonite seas, whereas the Late Jurassic was a time of calcite seas. The combined result of these factors is that Arab reservoirs are charac- terized by greater preservation of primary depositional pore types, more coarsely crystalline dolomite fabrics, and lesser plugging by an- hydrite. Finally, a possible factor affecting the average porosity and

Copyright #2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

Manuscript received May 21, 2006; provisional acceptance July 6, 2006; revised manuscript received September 5, 2006; final acceptance September 14, 2006.

DOI:10.1306/09140606054

AAPG Bulletin, v. 91, no. 3 (March 2007), pp. 275–286

275

AUTHORS S. N. Ehrenberg Statoil, N-4035 Stavanger, Norway; sne@statoil.com Steve has a Ph.D. from the
AUTHORS
S. N. Ehrenberg Statoil, N-4035 Stavanger,
Norway; sne@statoil.com
Steve has a Ph.D. from the University of Cali-
fornia at Los Angeles. He works on sandstone
and carbonate reservoir studies for exploration
and production projects.
P. H. Nadeau Statoil, N-4035 Stavanger,
Norway; phn@statoil.com
Joining Statoil in 1986, Paul now serves as a
specialist in global exploration working on basin
evaluation and petroleum systems analysis.
Originating from Maine, Paul received a B.S.
degree from Boston College and a Ph.D. from
Dartmouth College. He received the Schlum-
berger Medal from the Mineralogical Society
and the Brindley Award from the Clay Minerals
Society.
A. A. M. Aqrawi Statoil, N-4035 Stavanger,
Norway; present address: Statoil Arabian
Gulf, Samarqand Street, Hai Al-Ssalam, Al-
Rabia, Amman, Jordan; aamaq@statoil.com
Adnan works as a business development man-
ager for international exploration and pro-
duction. He has more than 25 years of inter-
national geological experience in the Middle
East, southeast Asia, and northwest Europe,
with various geological research institutes and
oil companies. He has published many articles
and has recently completed a book, together
with J. Goff, A. Horbury, and F. Sadooni, on
the petroleum geology of Iraq. Adnan received
his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Uni-
versity of Baghdad and his Ph.D. and D.I.C.
from Imperial College, London. He is a mem-
ber of the AAPG, the International Associa-
tion of Sedimentologists, the Society of
Petroleum Engineers, the Iraqi Geological So-
ciety, and the Norwegian Petroleum Society.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank David E. Eby, Stephen E. Laubach,
and Bradford E. Prather for helpful reviews.

permeability values is petroleum composition, which is gas in most Khuff reservoirs and oil in Arab reservoirs. Lower economic cutoff values for gas production would favor inclusion of low-permeability zones in Khuff res- ervoirs, thus reducing average reservoir values. Two main aspects of these results are innovative. This is the first time that porosity and permeability values for either Khuff or Arab reservoirs have been examined regionally. Second, the conclusion that ther- mal exposure is the primary control on average poros- ity and permeability in these units is consistent with previous work from other carbonates, but is new for the Middle East.

INTRODUCTION

Carbonate reservoirs from producing oil and gas fields have extreme ranges of porosity and permeability, both locally within a single reservoir zone and in terms of average values for entire reservoir zones (Ehrenberg and Nadeau, 2005). This study describes the latter type of variation for two major reservoir formations in the Middle East and lists the factors that seem likely to account for the striking overall differences between these units. The units compared are the Khuff Forma- tion (Upper Permian–Lower Triassic) and the Arab Formation (Upper Jurassic). Both units are major pe- troleum reservoirs in the Arabian/Persian Gulf region, with the Khuff having almost exclusively gas produc- tion and the Arab producing mainly oil (Alsharhan and Nairn, 1997). The differences in reservoir quality and geology between these units are already well known, but have not previously been considered systematically in a regional perspective or in any comparison involving both formations. We hope that our results will be useful as a context for discussing and comparing data from indi- vidual fields, as well as for revealing overall trends and perhaps thereby indicating general controlling processes. The rationale for the comparison of these two quite dissimilar reservoir formations consists, first, of their enormous economic significance and, second, of their stratigraphic situation. The Khuff Formation houses the world’s largest gas accumulation: the combined North field (Qatar) and South Pars (Iran) dome, with approx- imately 1500 tcf of recoverable reserves (Statoil in- house data; 1250 tcf listed in Halbouty, 2003). The Arab Formation is the reservoir for the world’s largest oil accumulation: the Ghawar field (Saudi Arabia), with approximately 120 bi llion bbl of recoverable reserves (Statoil in-house data; >80 billion bbl listed

276 E&P Notes

in Halbouty, 2003). Other Khuff and Arab fields also contain enormous reserves (Alsharhan and Nairn, 1997). Any information contributing to a better understanding of these important resources should therefore be examined with care. The second rationale behind the Khuff and Arab comparison is the strati- graphic position of these units as the two main petroleum-bearing layers underlying the Cretaceous strata of the Middle East. Whenever drilling is planned to penetrate below the Cretaceous, therefore, both the Arab and the Khuff must commonly be considered as potential targets because both units are productive from the same structures in numerous cases (Figure 1).

STRATIGRAPHIC CONTEXT

The Khuff and Arab formations are stratigraphic entities of quite dissimilar scale. The Khuff Formation is three to five times thicker and represents four to seven times greater duration than the Arab Formation. Absolute ages quoted here refer to the time scale of Gradstein et al. (2004). Khuff deposition occupied roughly 17 m.y. and encompassed 5 (Sharland et al., 2001), 7 (Strohmenger et al., 2002), or 11 (Osterloff et al., 2004) depositional sequences of perhaps 0.5 –5 m.y. duration, whereas Arab deposition occupied about 2.1 m.y. and encom- passed four depositional sequences averaging approxi- mately 0.5 m.y. duration (Sharland et al., 2001). The Khuff Formation of Arabia is equivalent with the Dalan (Permian) and Kangan (Triassic) formations in Iran (Szabo and Kheradpir, 1978); the Chia Zairi For- mation (Permian–Triassic) in Iraq (Aqrawi, 1998); and the Bih, Hagil (Permian), and lower Ghail (Triassic) for- mations in outcrops of the Musandam area of the eastern United Arab Emirates and northern Oman (Strohmenger et al., 2002). The Khuff Formation represents an epeiric carbonate platform that developed above siliciclastics of the Unayzah Formation and its equivalents (Faraghan in Iran; Ga’ara in Iraq; Al Khlata in Oman), following middle Carboniferous (Hercynian) orogeny and middle Permian rifting (Sharland et al., 2001; Osterloff et al., 2004). Khuff thickness increases from near zero, where siliciclastic facies pinch out in central Saudi Arabia, to somewhat more than 400 m (1300 ft) in Ghawar field, eastern Saudi Arabia; to 800 m (2600 ft) in the North field, Qatar; to nearly 1000 m (3300 ft) in the eastern United Arab Emirates (Al-Jallal, 1994, 1995). According to Sharland et al. (2001), the basal Khuff transgres- sion is dated as middle –late Wordian (roughly 267– 266 Ma) in Oman, but is likely to be some 5 m.y. younger

Figure 1. Locations of petroleum fields for which average values are avail- able for Khuff

Figure 1. Locations of petroleum fields for which average values are avail- able for Khuff and Arab reservoir parameters.

in Saudi Arabia. Khuff deposition terminated in the late Induan (approximately 250 Ma) with progradation of fine siliciclastics of the overlying Sudair Formation. Important internal markers are the Nar anhydrite (end Capitanian; 260.4 Ma) and the Permian–Triassic bound- ary (251.0 Ma). The Arab Formation consists of four regionally correl- ative cycles of carbonate capped by evaporite, termed D, C, B, and A in ascending order. The formation ranges in thickness from 128 –150 m (419 –492 ft) in Saudi Arabia to 180 –285 m (590 –935 ft) in the United Arab Emirates (Alsharhan and Nairn, 1997). According to Sharland et al. (2001), the maximum flooding surface of the Arab D, near the base of the formation, is dated as middle Kimmeridgian (roughly 152.9 Ma), and the maximum flooding surface of the Arab A coincides with the Kimmeridgian –Tithonian boundary (150.8 Ma).

DATA

The data examined in this article are average values for the producing zones of oil and gas fields, the geographic distribution of which is shown in Figure 1. These data are a component of Statoil’s global reservoir database, results from which have been reported in Bjørkum and Nadeau (1998), Ehrenberg and Nadeau (2005), and Nadeau et al. (2005). Numerous gaps exist in these data, such as reservoirs represented by porosity but not permeability values. The nature of the original mea- surements upon which the average values are based is unknown, but derivation from a combination of core- plug data and log interpretation seems likely. The per- meability values will therefore not reflect the contribu- tion of fractures, which are known to be important in both Khuff (Loutfi and Abul Hamd, 1989; Bashari, 2005)

Ehrenberg et al.

277

Figure 2. Comparison of average porosity and permeability values for Arab reservoirs from the Statoil

Figure 2. Comparison of average porosity and permeability values for Arab reservoirs from the Statoil database versus average values for the same fields recovered by digitizing crossplots from published sources. (A) Data for three fields, for which the Statoil database includes values for two different reservoir zones in field B. (B) Data for two other fields, for which all cases include values for multiple reservoir zones in each field.

and Arab reservoirs (Keith et al., 1998; Meyer et al., 2000; Al-Ghamdi et al., 2003). The Statoil data have been augmented by a com- pilation of additional published porosity-permeability data from specific fields, where core and wire-line-log data are commonly also available and, thus, provide insight into geologic controls. These additional data were collected from Wilson (1985), Munn and Ju- bralia (1987), Bos (1989), Kawaguchi (1991), Alshar- han and Nairn (1994, 1997), Saner and Sahin (1999), Lucia et al. (2001), Rahim et al. (2001), Dasgupta et al. (2002), Cantrell and Hagerty (2003), Clark et al. (2004), and Ehrenberg (2006). In most cases, these data were published in graphic instead of numeric form, so av- erage porosity and permeability values were obtained by digitizing the individual data points on the pub- lished plots. Tests performed by digitizing porosity- permeability plots of data with known values confirm that the digitization procedure recovers the initial data values with a high degree of accuracy. For most Arab reservoirs, the digitized data provide alternative values for several reservoirs already present in the Statoil database (Figure 2). Some cases compare closely, and others do not, but we have no way of evaluating the relative accuracy of individual values because the source data are not publicly available. The additional data also provide porosity and permeability values not already listed in the Statoil database for one Arab reservoir and four Khuff reservoirs. These five porosity values are included in Figure 3.

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RESULTS

Most Khuff reservoirs have average porosity of less than 12%, whereas most Arab reservoirs have average porosity of 12–26% (Figure 3). This is the fundamental finding of the present study. All the following discussion and other relationships shown revolve around explaining this difference in porosity and exploring its consequences. Average porosity shows a broad (poor) correlation with shallower top-reservoir depth in both Khuff and Arab data (Figure 4). The trend in the Khuff data is un- certain, however, because it depends solely on the very low porosity values of the three deepest Khuff reservoirs. Nevertheless, the two trends appear to have a common meeting point, such that the combined data may be seen as defining a single overall trend, the slope of which becomes steeper with decreasing porosity (Figure 5). A broad correlation also exists between average po- rosity and average permeability in both Khuff and Arab data (Figure 6). The two units again each define rough trends with somewhat diffe rent slopes but having a common meeting point. The combined data thus de- fine a single overall trend, the slope of which becomes steeper with decreasing porosity on the semilog coor- dinates used (Figure 7). Ehrenberg and Nadeau (2005) presented a global compilation of the average porosity and permeability values for carbonate reservoirs. Trends of porosity ver- sus depth were characterized by values of porosity P10, P50, and P90 at fixed intervals of depth. Porosity P10,

Figure 3. Frequency distribu- tions of average porosity values for Khuff (A) and Arab reser-

Figure 3. Frequency distribu- tions of average porosity values for Khuff (A) and Arab reser- voirs (B). Only one value is in- cluded for each reservoir, but there are multiple reservoirs in several fields.

in this connection, represents the porosity value for a given depth for which only 10% of the data points are larger. Similarly, trends of porosity versus permeability were characterized by values of permeability P10, P50, and P90 at fixed intervals of porosity. A superposition of these trends in Figures 5 and 7 provides a global perspective on the Khuff and Arab data. Khuff porosity values fall mostly between the porosity P90 and P50 depth trends, whereas nearly all Arab porosities exceed P50 and commonly exceed the P10 trend. Khuff per-

meabilities fall mainly below the global permeability P50, whereas most Arab permeabilities exceed the global P50 trend.

DISCUSSION

The above differences in average porosity and perme- ability between Khuff and Arab reservoirs reflect a combination of depositional, diagenetic, and economic

a combination of depositional, diagenetic, and economic Figure 4. Top-reservoir depth versus average porosity for

Figure 4. Top-reservoir depth versus average porosity for (A) Khuff and (B) Arab reservoirs. Plotting symbols indicate country.

Ehrenberg et al.

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Figure 5. Top-reservoir depth versus average porosity for combined Khuff and Arab reser- voirs. Plotting symbols indicate the formation and data source. Gray lines show P10, P50, and P90 trends for carbonate reservoirs worldwide (Ehrenberg and Nadeau, 2005).

carbonate reservoirs worldwide (Ehrenberg and Nadeau, 2005). factors (Table 1).We suggest, however, that the factor of

factors (Table 1).We suggest, however, that the factor of greatest importance is likely to be burial depth. Deeper burial corresponds to increasing thermal exposure (tem- perature integrated over time), which causes porosity loss in both carbonates and sandstones by increasing the rates of chemical compaction and associated cementa-

tion from the solutes thus supplied (Schmoker, 1984; Walderhaug, 1996; Ehrenberg, 2004, 2006). Despite the high degrees of complexity and heterogeneity known to characterize both Khuff and Arab strata, the correlation shown in Figure 5 indicates that most of the variation in average porosity, and thus the main part of the overall

in average porosity, and thus the main part of the overall Figure 6. Arithmetic average permeability

Figure 6. Arithmetic average permeability versus average porosity for (A) Khuff and (B) Arab reservoirs. Plotting symbols indicate country.

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Figure 7. Arithmetic average permeability versus average porosity for combined Khuff and Arab reservoirs. Plotting

Figure 7. Arithmetic average permeability versus average porosity for combined Khuff and Arab reservoirs. Plotting symbols indicate the formation and data source. Gray lines show (from top) P10, P50, and P90 trends for carbonate reservoirs worldwide (Ehrenberg and Nadeau,

2005).

porosity difference between these formations (Figure 3), reflects the deeper burial of the Khuff reservoirs. Inso- far as average permeability also correlates with porosity (Figure 7), it may be concluded that burial depth, by controlling porosity, is also a major factor responsible for the lower average permeabilities of Khuff as com- pared with Arab reservoirs. Despite the overriding importance of thermal expo- sure, as reflected in the top-reservoir–depth parameter,

several other well-known differences between Khuff and Arab carbonates have tended to reinforce the temperature- driven contrasts in reservoir quality. One of these fac- tors is the different platform geometries characterizing the two units. Khuff strata were deposited on an exten- sive (epeiric), very low-relief shelf, which was sheltered from the open ocean by a reefal barrier (Figure 8A). Consequently, Khuff reservoirs have a layer-cake ge- ometry and consist mainly of interbedded mudstones

Table 1. Factors Accounting for Differences in Average Porosity and Permeability between Khuff and Arab Reservoirs

Factors

Khuff

Arab

Burial diagenesis

More chemical compaction and associated cementation caused by greater thermal exposure Extensive, poorly circulated, very low-relief shelf

Shallower burial depths correspond to greater preservation of primary porosity Well-circulated conditions nearer to margins facing deep intracratonic basins Grainstones and grain-dominated packstones

Depositional setting

Dominant lithologies Grainstones having relatively fine grain size and mudstones

Primary mineralogy

Aragonite Extensive anhydrite plugging of entire zones

Mainly calcite Localized anhydrite cementation

Anhydrite cement

Dolomite

Major proportion of reservoirs, finely crystalline Minor to moderate proportion of reservoirs, medium

Dominant pore types Moldic and intercrystalline

Petroleum phase

Gas

to coarsely crystalline Primary intergranular, intrafossil, and microporosity Oil

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Figure 8. Maps comparing the paleogeography of the (A) Khuff platform (modified from Dasgupta et al., 2002) and (B) Arab platform (modified from Swart et al., 20 05).

Figure 9. Photomicrograph of a Khuff grainstone with oomoldic porosity. Porosity inversion has produced molds

Figure 9. Photomicrograph of a Khuff grainstone with oomoldic porosity. Porosity inversion has produced molds after former ooids and filled original intergranular pore space with calcite cement. This sample is from the base of the uppermost Khuff depositional sequence at 2900 m (9500 ft) depth, offshore the Persian Gulf (Ehrenberg, 2006).

and relatively fine-grained grainstones (Al-Jallal, 1987; Dasgupta et al., 2002; Alsharhan, 2006; Ehrenberg, 2006; Insalaco et al., 2006). The Arab Formation was depos- ited on a shelf that was differentiated into shallow- water shoals and intrashelf basins (Figure 8B), with relief inherited from the underlying carbonate units (Meyer and Price, 1992). Arab reservoirs consequently have progradational geometries and commonly have a predominance of coarse-grained, grain-dominated textures and low to moderate content of chemically precipitated grains. Nevertheless, Arab cycles include a wide spectrum from deep- to shallow-water facies (Wilson, 1985; Mitchell et al., 1988; Meyer and Price, 1992; Bouroullec and Meyer, 1995; Meyer et al., 1996; Al-Saad and Sadooni, 2001). Major anhydrite deposi- tion and cementation was mainly limited to the ter- minal (lowstand to early tra nsgressive) phase of each Arab cycle, whereas the highstand carbonates tend to be preserved as limestone with low to moderate anhy- drite content (Alsharhan and Magara, 1995; Al-Silwadi et al., 1996; Cantrell and Hagerty, 1999).

Khuff deposits were likely composed of less sta- ble mineralogy than Arab sediments because the Late Permian was a time of aragonite seas, whereas the Late Jurassic was a time of calcite seas (Sandberg, 1983). As a result, Khuff grainstones were susceptible to intense eogenetic dissolution and cementation, commonly lead- ing to the porosity inversion for which these strata are notorious (Focke and Munn, 1985; Al-Jallal, 1987; Bos, 1989; Talu and Abu-Ghabin, 1989; Zeidan, 1994; Ba- shari, 2005) (Figure 9), whereby volumes that were ini- tially solid (grains) become pores, and the initial inter- granular pores become solid (cement). Such textures are generally not mentioned in descriptions of Arab lithologies. Other possible contrasts between the Khuff and Arab reservoirs are more widespread and proportion- ately greater dolomitization and calcium sulfate cementa- tion of the Khuff strata. These differences are somewhat hypothetical, however, because quantitative mineral- ogic data are limited to a few specific fields, and wide variations are reported between different Arab reservoirs.

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283

Nevertheless, Khuff strata in both Ghawar and South Pars fields are predominantly dolostone, with limestone intervals mainly confined to the most open-marine grain shoal facies (Dasgupta et al., 2002; Ehrenberg, 2006). Alsharhan (1993) states that Khuff Formation is 75 – 85% dolomitized in the United Arab Emirates. The Khuff dolostones formed in evaporitic sabkha and shallow re- flux settings (Talu and Abu-Ghabin, 1989; Ehrenberg, 2006), although evidence of dolomite recrystallization and cementation during burial is abundant (Videtich, 1994; Alsharhan, 2006). Arab strata of Ghawar field contain only subordinate dolostones, which are partly of early, open-marine, and hypersaline-reflux origin, but largely of late-burial or hydrothermal origin related to the introduction of basinal brines along fractures (Powers, 1962; Meyer et al., 1996; Cantrell and Hagerty, 2003; Cantrell et al., 2004; Swart et al., 2005). This moderate degree of Arab dolomitization also appears to charac- terize other areas (Wilson, 1985; Magara et al., 1993; Alsharhan and Magara, 1995; Al-Silwadi et al., 1996; Al-Saad and Sadooni, 2001), although extensive dolo- mitization is reported in other cases, reflecting either early hypersaline conditions (Azer and Peebles, 1998; Grotsch et al., 2003) or late expulsion of brine from compacting evaporite basins (Broomhall and Allen, 1987; Goff, 2005). Khuff dolomite tends to be finely crys- talline (Talu and Abu-Ghabin, 1989; Bashari, 2005), whereas Arab dolomite is commonly coarsely crystal- line and, in other cases, may be dominated by preserved intergranular pores (Meyer et al., 2000; Cantrell et al., 2001; Grotsch et al., 2003; Clark et al., 2004; Swart et al., 2005). The combined result of the above depositional and eogenetic factors is that Khuff lithologies tend to be dominated by moldic pores in limestones and by very fine intercrystalline pores in dolostones, as well as having extensive anhydrite-cemented barrier zones. Arab res- ervoirs are characterized by a greater preservation of primary depositional pore types, more coarsely crystal- line dolomite fabrics, and lesser plugging by anhydrite. These tendencies should be expected to result in lower permeability for a given porosity and poorer overall con- nectivity in Khuff strata, in contrast to excellent reser- voir characteristics in Arab strata. Finally, contrasting petroleum type may be an im- portant reason for lower average porosity and perme- ability of the Khuff reservoirs represented in our data- base. Khuff reservoirs almost exclusively contain gas, whereas Arab reservoirs produce mainly oil. Of the Khuff locations in Figure 1, only Yibal field has signifi- cant oil production (Bos, 1989). The Khuff is part of

284 E&P Notes

a Paleozoic petroleum system sourced mainly from Lower Silurian hot shales in the gas window, whereas the Arab is sourced mainly from Upper Jurassic shales and basinal carbonates in the oil window (Abu-Ali et al., 1991; Alsharhan and Magara, 1994; Alsharhan, 2006). The reason that petroleum ty pe affects average reser- voir porosity and permeability values is economic in- stead of geologic. Parameter values exist in our database because they represent reservoirs in production, and it is well known that gas can commonly be produced from rock having permeability well below the economic cut- off for oil production (Worthington et al., 2003). Thus, production may be possible from low-permeability zones in Khuff reservoirs that would be excluded as uneco- nomic for oil production in Arab reservoirs, and these tighter zones will contribute to the average values tabu- lated in our database.

CONCLUSIONS

1. Most Khuff reservoirs have average porosity of 5– 12% (average 8%), whereas most Arab reservoirs have average porosity of 12 –26% (average 19%).

2. Because there is overall correlation of decreasing po- rosity with increasing depth, and Khuff reservoirs are mostly deeper than Arab reservoirs, lower porosity of Khuff reservoirs probably results primarily from greater burial diagenesis (chemical compaction and associated cementation).

3. A broad correlation exists between average porosity and average permeability, suggesting that deeper buri- al with resulting porosity decrease is also a primary cause of the lower permeabilities of Khuff reservoirs.

4. In addition to the difference in burial depth, a com- bination of depositional and early diagenetic factors have reinforced the lower average porosity and per- meability values of the Khuff reservoirs.

5. Because the Khuff is almost exclusively a gas play, whereas Arab reservoirs contain mainly oil, differ- ent cutoff values may pertain to these two units, al- lowing the inclusion of lower permeability zones in Khuff than in Arab reservoirs.

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