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Rhetoric of thelmage

ccording to an ancient etymology, Ihe word image should be linked to the root imitari. Thus we find ourselves immediately at the heart of the most important problem facing the semiology of images: can analogical representation (the "copy") produce true systems of signs and not merely simple agglutinations of symbols? Is it possible to conceive of an analogical "code"(as opposed to a digital one)?We know that linguists refuse the status of language to all communication" by analogy-from the "language" of bees to the "language" of gesture-the moment such communications are not doubly articulated, are not founded on a combinatory system of digital units as phonemes are. Nor are linguists the only ones to be suspicious as to the linguistic nature of the image; general opinion too has a vague conception of the image as an area of resistanceto meaning-this in the name of a certain mythical idea of Life: the image is re-presentatiory which is to say ultimately resurrection, and, as we know, the intelligible is reputed antipathetic to lived experience. Thus from both sides the image is felt to be weak in respect of meaning: there are those who think that the image is an extremely rudimentary system in comparison with language and those who think that signification cannot exhaust the image's ineffable richness.Now even-and above all if -the image is in a certain manner thelimit of meaning, it permits the consideration of a veritable ontology of the process of signification. How does meaning get into the image? Where does it end? And if it ends, what is there beyond? Such are the questions that I wish to raise by submitting the image to a spectral analysis of the messagesit may contain. We will start by making it considerably easier for ourselves:we will only study the advertising image. Why? Because in advertising the signification of the image is undoubtedly intentional; the signifieds of the advertising message are formed a priori by certain attributes of the product and these signifieds have to be transmitted as clearly as possible. If the image contains signs, we can be sure that in

From Image- Music - Text. Sei. and Trans. Stephen Heath. New York: Hill and Wang, 1,977.32-51,.


aql 'u8rs raqlo aql uI 1+ISulpunorrns aJnpord lrn1u ar{} ol }uale^Inba ala^{ url aql ul alrlua)uor aLIl qSnoql s rat{lo ar{l uo pue qslp paJuPIq dgn;arec e ro; dressaoauSutqldrana paqsluJn] ruezued q8noql se puq auo aql uo'eJrlras d.reurlnr plol e Jo eapr aql sllusue4 slcalqo ]uaraJtlp Jo uollral -loJ parJras aq+ 'lsJIJ aql u1 :su31srar{lo oMl }sal } 8ur'rarrocstpur dllnrrgrp ou sr arar{l '(acue18lsrrJ ar{l lE realr d1a.rrlua lou sI trIleql des o} }ou sI t{rlqzrt) a8eurr aql aroldxa o1Surnurluo3 'saddloarals lsrrnol ullral qlIM dlIreIIIurEJ uo paseq'(raddad pue oleurol;o dlnrueryell ar{l plnom aq ueql dlqeqord a'rour ou'aureu ar{l Jo uope}ouuo) arll a.trar.raddlareq plnoM urpll ue) a8pal,raoml ,,qruarg,, dgerryrads sI lr lrelnr4red arour dpealp sr uodn s.t,rerp1r a8pa -lrntornl aql pu Quazuarlaureu aql Jo aJueuosse ueIIelI aql) a8essaurrrlstnB -uq aql yo uBrs palouuof, ar{} rillm dcuepunpar Jo uoI}EIar e uI spuels u8rs srql 'fr1nruatpqm{tr ro ^,{p11 sanq sr parpu8rsslr jralsod aql yo (par'uaar8'.uo11ad) paJolorrrl ar{l pue taddad aql'oleurol aqt;o raqlaSol Sur8utrq aql sI ralJIuBIS slr lluapr^a dlpnba ssal ro aJour sI u8rs puoras V 'uo4ezIIIAIJ ,,le)IueqJalu,, (srolera8uJar'salrasard) dn Surpols ftseq aql o1 pasoddo sI ,,JIas arour ;o -auo roJ punor Surddoqs,, araqm arnllnr dran e Jo sllqer{ ar{l Jo a8pa1,llou1 e dpo sarrnbar u8rs lsrr; lred se palueldtur uos auros uI sI qJILI.&{ aLI+ra^o 1no lpds suorsr,rord ar{} slal qrlqm srql pear o1 ,,'papedun,, 'a1qe1 8eq uado-1eq aql sl rar;ru8rs sll 'pau4sap a"redaql qJIqM ro; uorle;edard )rlsaurop dle4uassa ar{l Io leql pue slrnpord aql to ssauqsar} aql Jo lql aq+wory urnlar sarldrur Jlaslr qJIqM par;ru8rs V '+a>lreur :sanlA rrloqdna o.u.1 e sr paluasardar auals ar{l uI a^er{ a1!t}eqM }er{l eapl aq1 '(rcauq lou a'resuSrs 'su8rs snonulluo)slp asaql se luel"rodurrun sI rapro agl) lsrlC Jo salras e sapll -ord de,r,relq8rerlsa8eurr srql '(dplopraue 'lI ;o ged arc slaql aqt p uana) ar a,u 'a8essaut rrlsrnBurl aql aplse 3u41n4 a8erur arnd aql r{llm Ual 'a8en8uel (uapr'rzvr) 'a8essaruauo se palunoJ aq palep IIIM 1r -Jrue dlaureu.'u8rs prrddl a18urse dpo arar{ a^eq a.u ''arurg 1eq1 Jo 'Ieuorlelouuor pue 1e) ploJoml Ieuorlelouap :(a8eun relncrlred slq] uI 1see1 snql q a8essaur orlsrn8url ar{J ,,&lJlu4eil,, p leql 'paIJIuBISIeuoqlppe ue 'os1e 'a)ueuoss aql dq urrlJ s1r lnq 'o aureu aqt dldurrs 1ou sarrr8ruazua4 u8s uI 'tlJuarCpue 3ur s1r{}'lJEt aql roJ'umop ua>lorqraqunJ aq JIaslIuer a8essaru -lrrm Jo a8pal.trool e sr 1r.raqdnap o1 parrnbar a8pal.ttoul dluo aql la8en8uel ueql rar{+oauou sI ua>leluaaq seq aSessaruslq} qcrqM urorJ q)uarc aql lLIl Io tra,,'aua)sar{l Jo uolllsodsrp lernleu ar{l olul pagasur Suraq apoJ aqJ ,,'awliqa asar{l /slaqel aqt pu 'leur8reru sr qrlqm 'uotldec aql are slroddns s1rlcrlsrn8 -url sr arulsqns asoqm aSessaur1srr1e splard dlalerparuurr a8eurr aq1 'sureluo) aql ,,JJo lualaurp 1rsa8essaur ur '8eq 8urr1s rur)s,, ol ,,ft1sn 1a1 ,'punorSpeq par uo suaar8 pue s-^a.o11ad 'saoleurol aluos uado-;pq uroJJSur8raua IIe 'urooJqsnur e 'sraddad 'suoluo 'laqJes e'wr+e'e1sedyo splled auros :luauraslualpe Iuezued e a^r{ aJaH a!IUHI:IHI s:rDvssatrN 'rrleqdrua '1uu{ sr a8eurrSursrua^p aq} lseal +erc :8urpea.rr.unru4do aql ol MaIA e r{ll'rl pauroJ 'IInJ are su8rs asaq+Sursrlra.Lpe


a3ou1a4q lo cuotrtlu :SiIHJuVg



composition of the image, evoking the memory of innumerable alimentary paintings, sends us to an aestheticsignified: the"nature morte" or, as it is better expressedin other languages,the "still I'fe"3; the knowledge on which this sign depends is heavily cultural. It might be suggested that, in addition to these four signs, there is a further in{ormation pointer, that which tells us that this is an advertisement and which arises both from the place of the image in the magazine and from the emphasis of the labels (not to mention the caption). This last in{ormation, however, is co-extensivewith the scene;it eludes signification insofar as the advertising nature of the image is essentially funcexcept in tional: to utter something is not necessarilyto declare t am speaking, a deliberately reflexive system such as literature. Thus there are four signs for this image and we will assume that they form a coherentwhole (for they are all discontinuous),require a generally cultural knowledge, and refer back to signifieds each of which is global (for example, Italianicity),imbued with euphoric values. After the linguistic message,then, we can see a second, iconic message.Is that the end? If all these signs are removed from the image, we are still left with a certain informationai matter; deprived of all knowledge, I continue to "read" the image, to "understand" that it assemblesin a common spacea number of identifiable (nameable)objects,not merely shapesand colors. The signifieds of this third messageare constituted by the real objects in the scene,the signifiers by these same objects photographed, for, given that the relation between thing signified and image signifying in analogical representation is not "arbitrary" (as it is in language),it is no longer necessaryto dose the relay with a third term in the guise of the psychic image of the object. What defines the third messageis precisely that the relation between signified and signifier is quasi-tautological; no doubt the photograph involves a certain arrangement of the scene (framing, reduction, flattening) but this transition is not a transformation(in the wav a coding can be); we have here a loss of the equivalencecharacteristicof true sign systems and a statement of quasi-identity. In other words, the sign of this message is not drawn from an institutional stock, is not coded, and we are without brought up against the paradox (to which we will return) of a message a code.a This peculiarity can be seen again at the level of the knor,vledge invested in the reading of the message; in order to "read" this last (or first) level of the image, all that is needed is the knowledge bound up with our perception. That knowledge is not nil, for we need to know what an image is (children only learn this at about the age of four) and what a tomato, a string-bag, a packet of pasta are, but it is a matter of an almost anthropological knowledge. This messagecorresponds,as it were, to the letter of the image and we can agree to call it the literal message, as opposed to the previous symbolic 'message. If our reading is satisfactory, the photograph analyzed offers us three messages:a linguistic message,a coded iconic message,and a non-coded iconic message.The linguistic message can be readily separated from the other two, but since the latter share the same (iconic) substance, to what extent have we the right to separate them? It is certain that the distinction

pqolS alSurs e asrrdulor dpo deu 1xa13uo1 e) luauluad aq ol uraas t{}3ua1 slr rou uorqrsodslr raqllau .ro; 'slunor leql a8essau rrlsrn8url aql 1o aruasa.rd aql dldurrs sr 1r /]rEJuI 'arnlrnrls Iuolleturotq aql Jo surrel IInJ aqtraq o1 Surn /lllls -urluoJ qraads pue Surlr;rur ,'3ur1rr,l,tJo uoIlezIIIAIJ e tala uer{l arour pu are a,tt-a8erur aql Jo uoqezrlrlr) Jo )lel ol aleJnJ)edra,r lou sI lI leql sMoLIS qrlqM 'uoolleq dr.4sruroc'anSoprp urlrJ'alrlue ssardSurduedurorre'uorldec 'a1l1lse :a8etur dra,r.aur luasard paapur sr a8essarurrlsrnBurl aq] leql sreadde '.{epo1 'suorleJrunluluoJssew 1e lr Jo Ia^al aL{} l'asJnoJslppue aln8r; uaaMlaq suorlElal aql qlIM sa^lasuraql pauJaJuo) oq]\^ ralrlsaualN s qJns sJoLIlnE slr pue (palerlsnp aq lou ppor{s salqal spureluoc eT Jo suolllpa leql drnluar qluaalq8ra aql ul aiqe^laruo)ur se.rtil) sa.rnlrrd sTooq ro; uotssed sll qll,rt porrad aql spre8a; se dllerrrolsrq pasod aq plnoJ uralqord aq1 ;a8erur le)rssplr e ppp lxal ar{l saop .ro ,{ruepunpar Jo uouaurouaqd e aLIl o] uo4eurroJul LISaTJ dq lxal aql u1 ua.lr8 suorleurroJurarll Jo urual alerqdnp a8eurr aql saocl z,,uoll -erlsnilr,, Jo arnlrnrls Surd;ru8rs ar{l sl ler{M '.llall Jo lurod lerryonrls e urorJ parpnls alllll uaaq a^eLI ol suraasJr q8noql '1uanba.r;sr a8etur pue lxaq ;o 8ur ->iurl aql />looqar{l 1o aruereadd aq} Jo luaruour aql uorC 'a8erur ar{l Jo a}e+s 'sallalros alerall1ll dle4red ol >lreq oB o1 d.ressarau rrtlderSolrrd uos e ol Jo ssallqnop sr 1r' lnoqllm ua,l.r8sa8eurl pul, ol rapro uI 2a8ewr aq+punor aJaLIlsI aluelsuoJ a8essarurrlsrn8url aql s1 Jo 'rapun 'ur Jalleur Ienlxal sde,,ra.1e :TDVSSSIAtr JITSInSNIf aHI 'a8erur palouuo) aLIl pu 'dla,Lrssarcng 'a8eur palouap aq; 'a8essalurqsrn8url aqtr le >loollleqs aaa'uaq1 'papuuoJ dlalerparuurr pue papuap st a8etut pra}Il aq+ a8etur crloqtu^,{s aql }eg1 sll ruaq+ a>leuJ ol Japro uI .,iesderu a,l,re'uorllouuoJ to rualsds e sr s.raryru8rs tua;sds Jaqloue ;o su8rs aLIl Ja^o sa>IelqJn{.tauralsds e 1eq1Sur,ttou>I'aJuaH 'a8essaru aql :puoras at11 go aql se sreadde aBessatu l.toddns Ieralrl ,,rr1oqw.,{s,, aql Jo 1a8ssau aq] uo palurrdtur JJosaruos ur sr lsrrJ aq1 'sa8essaurJIuoJI o,ta,] Ieralrl aql pue a8essatuiernllnr aql Jo uorsra^ur aql dq atllll e parJrpou aq sa8essauarp Jo rapJo aql n'uorldr.rrsap Iern+Jnrlse ]nq stsdleue,ptreu,,e 11r.rr 'sa8essaur aaJrllaql;o drqsuorlelar-Jalul Jou sr uorlsanb ur sr leqm leql ua^r3 'a8etur aql IeurJ aql to arnl)nrls Ilera^o aql Sulpuelsrapun Jo urle rno ;o lq8rs 8urso1lnoqlr.r,r 'dlrleraua8 s1rut 11aroldxa ol se os a8essatuyo ad,{1LIJeaJaprs 'dlanos ur a8etur -uoJal ol sm{l sr .ltou Tse} aqJ 'par;4snf aq ol ll aTe} IIIM a.,r.r aql Jo alor ar{l Jo uollpueldxa ue ro; aql sa,ted uorldt.rrsap sILI}JI pue uol -qsJ luaJaqor pue aldturs e ur a8etur atl] Jo arnlJn4s ar{l aqlrJsap ol sn slru -rad uoqrurlsp aql g '(uorlrur;ap e;o a8en8ueplaur aq] ol asrno)ar dq ldarxa Surueau slr urorJ ,prow,, aql aleredas o] alqe sI auo ou l14ear ur q8noql uarra)paryu8rs e pue rar;ru8rse;o u8rs rrlsrn8url ar{l ur uorlJul}slp aq} s,\lolle ue sel{'Ja^amor{'uollJullsrpaLII qJIqM ler{} ol snoSoleuedlrpr1err leuotle.rado '(a.raquraouor rno) a8eurr sseur aql uo4JunJ aql o1 spuodsa.rrocSurpea.rur Jo uorsn;uo)srql lpql ralpl uaasaq tlM 1rpue'a8essaul lprnllnr aql pue aBesseu pua auo t, sanlarar a8etur aql Jo ra.ltarl aql :8ur lerydarrad aql aw!4 awas a41 -pear dreurp;o ur dlsnoaueluods aperu lou sr sa8essaurJIuoJI oml ar{l uaamlaq


a & u u 1a 4 7 l o r u o p t l > : t; S e H I u V g



signified, thanks to connotation, and it is this signified which is put in relation with the image). What are the functions of the linguistic messagewith regard to the (twofold) iconic message?There appear to be two: anchorage and relny. As will be seen more clearly in a moment, all images are polysemous; they imply, underlying their signifiers, a "floating chain" of signifieds, the reader able to choose some and ignore others. Polysemy poses a question of meaning and this question always comes through as a dysfunction, even if this dysfunction is recuperated by society as a tragic (silent, God provides no possibility of choosing between signs) or a poetic (the panic "shudder of meaning" of the Ancient Greeks) game; in the cinema itself, traumatic images are bound up with an uncertainty (an anxiety) concerning the meaning of objects or attitudes. Hence in every society various techniques are developed intended to fix the floating chain of signifieds in such a way as to counter the terror of uncertain signs; the linguistic messageis one of these techniques.At the level of the literal message,the text replies-in a more or less direct, more or less partial manner - to the question: what is lf ? The text helps to identify purely and simply the elements of the sceneand the scene itself; it is a matter of a denoted description of the image (a description which is often incomplete) or, in Hjelmslev's terminology, of an operation(as opposed to connotation).eThe denominative function corresponds exactly to an anchorage of all the possible (denoted) meanings of the object by recourse to a nomenclature. Shown a plateful of something (in an Amieur advertisement), I may hesitate in identifying the forms and masses; the caption (" rice and tuna fish zuithmushrooms") helps me to choose the correctleoelof perception, permits me to focus not simply my gaze but also my understanding. When it comes to the "symbolic message,"the linguistic messageno longer guides identification but interpretation, constituting a kind of vise which holds the connoted meanings from proliferating, whether towards excessively individual regions (it limits, that is to say, the projective power of the image) or towards dysphoric values. An advertisement (for d'Arcy preserves)shows a few fruits scatteredaround a ladder; the caption (" as if from your oTrin garden")banishes one possible signified (parsimony, the paucity of the harvest) because of its unpleasantness and orientates the reading towards a more flattering signified (the natural and personal character of fruit from a private garden); it acts here as a counter-taboo, combatting the disagreeable myth of the artificial usually associated with preserves. Of course, elsewherethan in advertising, the anchoragemay be ideological and indeed this is its principal function; the text directs the reader through the signifieds of the image, causing him to avoid some and receive others; by means of an often subtle dispatching, It remote-controls him towards a meaning chosen in advance. In all these casesof anchorage,language clearly has a function of elucidation, but this elucidation is selective, a metalanguage applied not to the totality of the iconic message but only to certain of its signs. The text is indeed the creator's (and hence society's) right of inspection over the image; anchorage is a control, bearing a responsibility-in the face of the projective power of pictures-for the use of the message.With

plnoM Japar aql q)rqM .ttolaq) dlrrqr8qlalur 1o aar8ap lsrl; aql ol uor{s auars eql Jo uol+rlJpuapl ur spuodsanoc a8etur aql Jo JaIFI ar{l 1pa+uasarda,r aql Jo la^al aql le SuluPalu auo lseal le sq lI aruls 'aBessautlual)IJJns e sI lI 's8ur '(pres uaaq 1sn[seq leqm q]lM uol]rlper]uo) ou sI araql pue) ure8e uaql -uealu :saqrlenlrll;o apnlruald e o1 aruasqe ue sr aql Surueaur lI Jo 11e Jo IInJ aJIIIIps,, aql Jo aseJ spuodsarrocdlerryeu alels aAIl)IAa srql '(,,uorlrsodruoc uraql a^oura,ro1 dle aql uI se 'a8eurr aql Jo aloq.Maql aleu8a.rdurluJ daql .ro1 -nlJe alqrssodaq lou plnoM lr) palalap dgeluaw are uollelouuor;o su8rs aql uaqm a8eurr aql uI Ual sr leqM dq pa1n14suo) 'uotlJtla dq a8essaure '1eads ,,{1uo aq louuel a8essar.u ol os 'lle Io lsrrJsl ll 'leuorlela.r lnq leque}sqns 1era11 aql snqJ'a8essaru-rrToqurds-p.4q} e dq paplduroc aq ar{l Jo srr+srralJereqr pue llanreu yo u8rs ar{l ulof .{lalerparuurr plnoM lI 'palalq) aq ol areM a8eurt ur 1sea1 a.rnde ur a8erurIeralII (Sursqra'rpe e 1rua^g 'aqe1s 1e) ,p^reu,, d1e1o1 sr a8essatuoqoqruds ar{l pue a8essatu1e.ra1r1 JalunoJua Jalau a.ta11euor1e.rado aql uaa,t,r+aq uorlrurlsrp ar{}'8ul)ads dl.radold aSeurraql ur +eql uaas aleq aM fl5VWI CAIONIICIAHI 'uralsds,,snoIJoqel,, ssal e oq des ol sr leql 'a8etut aql ol palsnJlua arp qr1{,lt ,,suo4dtrtsap,, Iqra^ }o ruoparoq aql pa.redsaq deru rapeer palrrnq aql lr{l os aplJuroJ ol apur are aq1yo snle1spaddl a8essatualrsrnJsrp aql pue a8essaurl11socaql 1(s.rape.reqr -oarals aql) rapro rrqeurBrpe;ed e Jo suoqurrofw a^Ilnqlrg aql Surraqle8 a8eurr aql /lxa+ aql o+ ile a^oqe paurJuor sr srsa8arp ar{} Sulppar ,,4trnb,, toy papualur sdrrls cruroc ureual ut;tlarzel,, uaql sI uollurJotul aql 'leJlSoleu Suraq a8erur aql'pu a8reqc leuoqeruroJur ar{} sup1ap r{rlqm a8eurr aq+ sI +I '(1orluor'a8eloqrue) 1(a8en8uel;o tualsds aq1) anlel alnlllsqns e ser{ uar{M }r d11soo arotu sI uoqeurroful apor plr8rp e ;o Surureal ar{l saop lr se Sur.rrnba.r aql delar Jo anle^ orla8arp ar{l seq lxal aq} uaqM '>lrom e ;o dtuouooa leraua8 aql roJ acuanbasuoc sr raqlo aql ro auo aql Jo aJueunuop ar{} lnq /aloqm Jo rrlsrnSurl ar{l Jo suorlJunJ o1\{l ar{] Jruof,r auo aql q lsya-oJ ueJ aSessar.u 'dlsnornq6 'gas1r q aSeurr aLIl punoJ aq ol lou arc leql s8uruearu'sa8essaur;o dq uorlre arll aJue^pe saop dlear lnq uoqeplJnla acuanbas aql ur 'lno 3ur11as se dldurrs lou suorlcunt anSoprp araqm 'tullt uI luel.rodur dra,l satuoraq lxal -de1arqql 'a8erur paxrJ ar{l uI arpr apqr14'(rrualsds snoruouoln uu se palear} srsaBarpar{} 'alop aq lsnu srsa8arp ar{l leql uoqerurl3uor aldue sr qcn1.r,r.) -Jaue aql 'd.ro1s ;aq8rq le pazllar sr a8essauraql 1o dlrun aql to leql '1a,1.a1 arues ar{l aql pue uBeluds yeraua8aJour e;o sluaur8er; are'sa8erut aql se derr,t uI 'sproM aql ldlqsuollela,r d.reluauralduroce uI puels a8erul pue (anSoprp 1o qJleus e uago lsotu) lxal ala11 'sdrrls rltuor pu suoolreJ ur lpelncrlred uaas aq ue) 111(pau.raruorsr a8erur paxlJ aql s rJ se 1sea1 le) uoururor ssaysr delar 'sluaruasrualpe pue sqderSoloqd ssard uI punoJ dluotutuor Jo uoqounJ aql uollrun; luanba.r; lsoru ar{l sr aBe.roqcuy sr pue aBessatucrlsrnSurl aql Jo 'palsanur IIe a^oqe a.redlarcos e yo d3o -loapr pu dlrleroru ar{l leql le^al slql le sI }I ler{l aasueJ e.ll pup .ianlA aols -satdat e sm{l seq lxal aq+ 'a8etur aql Jo spalJlu8rs aql ;o d1.raqr1 er{l o} lradsar


a & a u la q q lo )poprlv :SgHJ1IVg'8



perceive only lines, forms, and colors), but this intelligibility remains virtual by reason of its very poverty, for everyone from a real society always disposes of a knowledge superior to the merely anthropological and perceivesmore than just the letter.Sinceit is both evictive and sufficient, it will be understood that from an aestheticpoint of view the denoted image can appear as a kind of Edenic state of the image; cieared utopianically of its connotations, the image would become radically objective,ot in the last analysis,innocent. This utopian character of denotation is considerably reinforced by the paradox already mentioned, that the photograph (in its literal state),by virtue of its absoluteiy analogical nature, seems to constitute a messagewithout a code. Here, however, structurai analysismust differentiate,for of all the kinds of image only the photograph is able to transmit the (literal) hrformation without forming it by means of cliscontinuoussigns and ruies of transformation. The photograph, messagervithout a code, must thus be opposed to the message. The coded nature of drawing which, even rvhen denotecl,is a cclcJed the drawing can be seen at three lel'els. Firstiv to reproduce an object or a transpositions; there is no scenein a dra.,ving requires a set of rule-goz,ented essentialnature of the pictorial copv and the codes of transpositiorr are historical (notably those concerning perspective).Secondly,the operation of the immediately necessitates a certain division between the drawing (the codir-rg) significant and the insignificant: the drawing does not reproduce euerything (often it reproduces very little), u'ithout its ceasing,however, to be a strong message; whereas the photograph, aithough it can chooseits subject,its point of view and its angle, cannot intervene n:itlin the object (except by trick effects).In other words, the denotation of the clrawing is less pure than that of the photograph, for there is no drawing without styie. Finally, iike all codes, the drawing demands an apprenticeship (Sausslrre attributed a great importance to this semiologicalfact). Does the coding of the denoted message It is certain that the coding of have consequences for the connoted message? the literal prepares and facilitates comotation since it at once establishesa certain discontinuity in the image: the "execution" of a drawing itself constitutes a connotation. But at the same time, insofar as the clrawing displays its is profoundly modified: it coding, the relationship between the two messages is no longer the relationship between a nature and a culture (as with the photograph) but that between two cultures; the "ethic" of the drawing is not the same as that of the photograph. In the photograph-at least at the ievel of the literal message-the relationship of signifieds to signifiers is not one of "transformation" but of "recording," and the absenceof a code clearly reinforces the myth of photocaptured mechanically,not humanly graphic "naturainess": the sceneis there, (the mechanical is here a guaranteeof objectivity). Man's interventions in the photograph (framing, distance,lighting, focus, speed)all effectively belong to the plane of connotation; it is as though in the beginning (even if utopian) there were a brute photograph (frontal and clear) on which man would then lay out, with the aid o{ various techniques,the signs drawn from a cultural code. Only the opposition of the cultural code and the naturai non-code can,

Io sueaur ar{l sapl^ord lI arour aq}'(sa8eurr ;o dlqelou pue) uorlerurotul Jo uorsnJJrpaql sdola,LapdSolouqoal arour ar{l :xopered lerlro}slq luelrodrur ue 'arnllnr;o su8rsaql arnleu uI punoJ o} suraas lI asneJaq lqnop lnor{}lm sI sIqJ a8essaur aq+ sazrleq)allalulslp apor Jo aruasqe aq1 lsualsls r4ueruas d1 -uado dlsnorqrlda.rrnssI qln4-opnasd y roJ palnt4sqns dlrprrcn aldurs arll 1o 'paluasa.rdarauars aql aonpo.rdo1dlsnoaueluods suraasarnlu :spafqo a'Larll lo -7utaq letnleu Jo pur1 e 'luanr;;ns st a8essaru IJalII aql s relosul 'qder8o1 -oqd aql ur suleruar ssalar{lauou araLll ,,'sloqruds,,yo 11ryst ralsod uazuacl a.ql sI qrlqm'uollelouuo) q8noqllv'3utst1.ranpe ur dllenadsa 'asuap rqoquds aql sazllJnleua8eurt Jo aJrJrue)queuras ar{} slua)ouur 1r'a8essaru palouap aq1:(a8essauprn{l ar{}}o uolssnrsrp rage uollsanb srql o} Sururnla;) aur1ap o1 urBaq uEJ a,l,r r{r1{,ta.a8essaur rruorl ar{l Jo arnlJn4s le;aua8 aql ur alor lerrads e sdeld '(qderSoloqd Sursrllanpe aql qllrvr aseJ ar{l) apoc due dldrur 1ou saop ll rlrirlm ol lualxa ar{l ol'ageurr palouap aql'slua^a IIe lV 'sanuouoJa IeuolleruJotul Jo uorlelnur alrsrrap e o1 spuodsarroJ Jr lsa8erur yo dprue; 1ea;8 aql to rural 'apu a ['rc| (pa,r.o-rdtur) flollltm sa8assaw lsel ar{l trou sr qderSoloqd aql a)uaH -slLIsll ur aurrl +srrJ oql .ro; Sut;alunorua dltueurnq'alqessedrnsun dlanqrur;ap pue ,taeu dlalnlosqe aruo l '1re; letrSolodo.rqlue ,,]r-II , e luasarda.r pue (ue lqde.rSoloqd aql Jo suorllque pu sanbruqcal aqt to uoqnlo^a ar{+alrdsap) drolsrq apnla asuas auros uI uec qde.rSoloqd aql searaqm 'uollrlt Jo slJe snor.tald aql qlIM >learqIear duu lnoqlyvi'euraulJ aq+1o drolsrq aq uec araql e atolaq f,em ,rtoq ureldxa plnom uorssruro q)Tr{,la13uql aql p atatlq-8uraq aql :sqderSoloqd paleurrue sp uaas aq ra8uol ou uD san? ata4q-uaaq-Bunarq aldurrs +ousI qde.rSoioqd rulrC 'uo4rsoddo pcrper e 1nq aar8apto aruaraJJlp aql o1 dlr;oqlne pual plnom sIt{J pue urlrt uaaMlaq uor+)u4srp ar{l lr{l ,{,\aIA 'spuadap arour ssausnolrsuoJ pue lq *lU q)IqM uo a3le1 Ieuoq)I; ,,1ecr8eru,, 'arrrloaford a.rnde ol pallar aq pue ar{l ol ssausnolJsuoc'1etrolelrads aJoru }ou 'aw s,l! aql slea;ap dp 'lrarroJ lsnu qderSoloqd aql IIe le are $lrurar asaql JI -sea os samsu1laql :(s8ura,terpasn dueru sqde.rSoloqd ol +rosarslsal IerI -Soloqcdsd dlqeqord a,trlcaford aql saqsruIrurp .vra1 d.ra,L) a8eurr aql la.ra.od ;o qrlqm wnuqtynba le,rodurel Jo puDI sltlJ 'parallaqs are a,r,t. (atatlq-uaaq-Butaa4) r,uo,r;dlrlear e 'alcelrur snonerd e dq 'sn SurnrB 'samil moq st stt4lJo a)uaplla aql sl araql qderSoloqd d.ra,l,a uI roJ 'ata4q-uaaq-3u1 Surd;adn1s sdea,r,1e -aaq 1(palegap aq a8eurr orqderSoloqd arll 'o ralre dlrpal s1r a:qt lsnur leql Jo -reqc leor8eur aql ol se surrelc) acuasatd e derr.tou uI sI'uolsnll se pacuar'radxa ranau sr qdeo1oqd aql roJ 'ltou-ata4 aql Jo leql sr sll :poo+srapun dlny aq ue; qde.rSoloqd aql 1o rtylaatun luat aqr teqt apo) lnoqty* a8es -saur ro a8essaurpalouap srql Jo la^al aLI+ ] snql s ll'uaql-a,Laq| aql pue mou -anq aql uaaMlaq uoqcunfuor prrSolp ue Suraq qderSoloqd aql dllrolralue lerodural pue drerpaurtur lerleds :dro8aleo arurl-a;eds Mau sI aleq ar't lt{M 'atatlq-uaaq-3utau1 s+r Jo ssauareMe ue ]nq (a4o,Lo.rdppoo ddoc due qcrq,tr) aql Jo ssausnolJsuor lou seqsqqelsa 3urq1aql 1o ata4y-8uraq lI a)uls'paluap -arardun d1n.4 paapur sr sanlolur qderSoloqd ar{l ssausnolrsuo) Jo adfi aq1 drolsrq s,ueur ur sluasarda.rlI uollnlolar prrSolodo,rqlue aq+ Jo luarussassP aql .ta.ollpue qder8oloqd aql Jo ral)ereq) rryrads aql roJ lunoJr 'sutaas 1r


a&aula4q lo ryop4[ :SEHruvs 8



masking the constructed meaning under the appearance of the given meaning. Runtonrc oF THEIuecE It was seen that the signs of the third message(the "symbolic" message,cultural or connoted) were discontinuous. Even when the signifier seems to extend over the whole image, it is nonetheless a sign separated from the others: the "composition" carries an aestheticsignified, in much the same way as intonation although suprasegmental is a separate signifier in language. Thus we are here dealing with a normal system whose signs are drawn from a cultural code (even if the linking together of the elements of the sign appears more or less analogical). What gives this system its originality is that the number of readings of the same lexical unit or lexia (of the same image) varies according to individuals. In the Panzaniadvertisement analyzed, four connotative signs have been identified; probably there are others (the net bag, lor example, can signify the miraculous draught of fishes, plenty, etc.). The variation in readings is not, however, anarchic; it depends on the different kinds of knowledge-practical, national, cultural, aesthetic-invested in the image and these can be classified, brought into a typology. It is as though the image presented itself to the reading of several different people who can perfectly well co-exist in a single individual: the one lexia mobilizesdifferentlexicons. What is a lexicon? A portion of the symbolic plane (of language) which corresponds to a body of practices and techniques.l2This is the casefor the different readings of the image: each sign corresponds to a body of "attitudes" - tourism, housekeeping, knowledge of art - certainty of which may obviously be lacking in this or that individual. There is a plurality and a co-existence of lexicons in one and the same person, the number and identity of these lexicons forming in some sort a person's idiolect.l3 The image, in its connotation, is thus constituted by an architecture of signs drawn from a variable depth of lexicons (of idiolects); each lexicory no matter how "deep," still being coded, if, as is thought today, the psycheitself is articulated like a language; indeed, the further one "descends" into the psychic depths of an individual, the more rarified and the more classifiable the signs become-what could be more systematic than the readings of Rorschach tests? The variability of readings, therefore, is no threat to the "langu age" of the image if it be admitted that that language is composed of idiolects, lexicons and sub-codes.The image is penetrated through and through by the system of meaning, in exactly the same way as man is articulated to the very depths of his being in distinct languages. The language of the image is not merely the totality of utterances emitted (for example at the level of the combiner of the signs or creator of the message),it is also the totality of utterances received:14the language must include the "surprises" of meaning. Another difficulty in analyzing connotation is that there is no particular analytical language corresponding to the particularity of its signifieds-how are the signifieds of connotation to be named? For one of them we ventured

ruor; 'aldurexa ro; aql ler{l +ualxa aLIl ol Iraua8 lnq (slurerlsuor .,fuo1euoqd aql ol sr ,luaragrp) uorsrn to slurJlsuoc prrsdqd ar{+ol lJalqns lI leq] ]ua]xa aql des otrsr 1r{l)a8eurraq11o cu ,grr"ar.t (srolelouuor sll Jo uoIlEJItISSelJ 'arn+Jalll 'rualp ol aJuelsu to1 uotttwot'tuto{ -ol"qt snql ,r' pu "ql alqeqoJd uana sl ]I lruro; rraql dq dp'ressa lnrrripq, a1S.rt.-n,qrr*" "r"ql leql'a8etur araql 'punos paleln)Ig araq) acuels -rn ,lor, ltq (.rana1eq,,r,t ro 'arnlsa8 s)Irolaq' dSoloapr Jo lradse Suld;ru8rs aql se -qns d1qn1t,o".tt,,' iq rraql ')"uoptpt palle) slollouuoDJo las aql pue src4ap_uuor Surreaddesnr{l rrro}aqr asaql'acuelsqns uasoq) aql ol Sulproccepar;tcadsar r{rlq1'r aq IIIM s;arJru8rs 'd8o1oapr /sI leq] lerauaS aql oI uolllouuoJ ;o srar;ruflrs puodsauor 'asn detu lI uoll+ouuoc;o s'rar;ru8rs lerlm 'hSopapt ralleru ou drolsrq pue dlanos ua,tt8 e ro; a18ursaq lnq louueJ r{rlqm '(4rorrtarue.l; aql Jo ururop uoululoJ srql Jo lr{l sr uor}Jouuot ;o spar;ru8rs dpo uer dSolonuas dqzvrsr qrrq''r't) sarnl ie1o1leads oJ os e uI palraruo) aq lr"B r,rolrn aql ro a8eu4 aq1'ssard uanlr,lr aql uI punot acl ol ale spar;ru8rs 'slle[qo aures ar{l :uoururor ur spat;ru8rs sll ile sploq 1r (rnorneqaq to sapou 'a8en8uel 'a8etur) pazlllln saru+sqns luaraJJlp aql uo luapuadap sraltlu -8rs pcrddl spq uoqelouuor JI ro; 'sacuelsqns raqlo Jo asoql Jo osp lnq a8etur 'lno uaaq paIJJef, aq1 ;o uralsds allllouuo) aql Jo dlaraur lou droluaaul u aq dpo ser{ uollelouuot ;o suralsds aql Jo d.rolua'lur alrsseur e a)uo alqrssod dpealc llrm-rer{+ou auo ol uorlrsoddo ur aq d1pryua't'a deur r{f,ItlM-saxe apIS qrns to uollnlllsuora.r aq1 dlrcrqsruedg ro dlrcrueuuaS dlnrqruarC Jluras uJ} -3uo1e'sarlrleuorleuto slxe uleuaD e o1 s8uolaq /irycruatp11 er:sax -rar o1SurproJJe']r slnd seunal3 'l 'Y se'ro sqled paulJapuluar o1Surp'rooce 'splalJ aAIlIJ ,suorlrsoddo ua,La 'suoqelnJlu rrleruBrpered uI sdeqrad ur palapuar aq IIIM ruloJ JIar{}to sIS -osse ur pazrue8ro ar saurasasar{I sr'Jalsea -dpue ar{l'uop}ouuo) Jo saurasatll;o Surureu aq}-'{1snorqryq aq spaau JI 'Suqured o1 rpaq8eds urorJ'uIFtrI pue-dprcgr1re aleln8ar o1 Suqdaooedg Sulqldrana Jo a)uassapasuapuoJaql q lI dp11 1ou st fr\nruat1u11 ppto, 1eq1 "q liltn- x41ns ar{l 'uollelorruoJ }o aql uroJJ unou lJer]sqe ue Surrrr,rap :a.r,r1ra[pe ar{l to sluslJcl ,p"r;rrr8r. aql roJ luno)J ol alq Suraqlsaq s puIT lilntunr1al1 prcads e arrnbar aroJaraql plnoM -rq q+I^{ Ual ale a^{ pu a8en8ue1e1aur '(tu8eluds 'Surueaw o1 ue pasodxa uorlelouuoJ Jo sauras asaql ssardxa o1 'Sutueaur ale}s IJIJ}aql Jo lnor{ll6 u$rs e ;o uoqsanb e sr 1raculs) rapaq'Io 'ur8eluds due ruo't;5o yo 1ro, e o1 Surpuodsarro) pue lxaluo) due 1o pa'trrdap aurasar{} la8en8uel ,rr,'"1n5 arnd e ur ldacrror e sr'dre,4uocar{}uo ,,'f,qua1d,, '(as'rnocsrp leqra^ Jo leql) prrtrcerd uluar e sprMol paluarro ;o d1r,tr1rsuerl 'aJuEralln lua8urluoc B ur dn lq8nel sde'tr1esI lI Jot ru8eluds snonulluoJ 'sal+ aJuassaue ol sraJarra^au proM palouap aq1 d1ua1dJo eapl lsarnd aql Jo -ua1d alqrssod ge yo raqdrc lel+uassaaql a)H sr (acnpord ar{l Jo uorlsuapuor ar{l ar{l pup uorsnlord aql aJaq) uoqe}ouuoJ 1o rar;ru8rs aql lasuas palouap 'uolllolruoJ dllrexa +ou saop ,,f,1ua1d,, Jo auras se :arnleu w ,,t(1ua1d,,.ranor 'pazrleroads ,rl.rn*", ,egrrrynd'n a.l,eqsparJru8rsasaql roJ'dllnrrgrp e sI sIL{I a8reqo a>lel ol seq qrIrIM 1ou sr srsdleue aql 'o luaurour aql le uaql Jo 'uot4andatd dreurpro a8en8uel rtuurlnc) a'qa:(/huad 'rh unt '/i1ntuar1a11 "3nnd.re1n1a* rural aql *or; ,pio^ dq paleu8rsap aq dpo uer srar{}o aql lnq


a?nwlaqttortroqqd:Sf HIUVg



"figures" are never more than formal relations of elements. This rhetoric could only be establishedon the basis of a quite considerableinventory, but it is possibie nor,rrto foresee that one will find in it some of the figures formerly identified by the Ancients and the Classics:18 the tomato, for example, signifies ltalianicify by metonymy and in another advertisement the seguence of three scenes (coffee in beans, coffee in powder, coffee sipped in the cup) releasesa certain logical relationship in the same way as an asyndeton. It is probable indeed that among the metabolas (or figures of the substitution of one signifier for anotherle), it is metonymy which furnishes the image with the greatest number of its connotators, and that among the parataxes (or syntagmatic figures), it is asyndeton which predominates. The most important thing, however, at least for the moment, is not to inventorize the connotators but to understand that in the total image they constitute discontinuousor better still scatteredtraits. The connotators do not fill the whole of the lexia, reading them does not exhaust it. In other words (and this would be a valid proposition for semiology in general),not all the elements of the lexia can be transformed into connotators; there always remaining in the discourse a certain denotation without which, precisely, the discoursewould not be possible.Which brings us back to the secondmessage or denoted image. ln the Panzanl advertisement, the Mediterranean vegetables, the color, the composition, the very profusion rise up as so many scattered blocks, at once isolated and mounted in a general scene which has its own space and, as was seen, its "meaning": they are " set" in a syntagm which is not theirsand which is that of thedenotation. This last proposition is important for it permits us to found (retroactively) the structural distinction between the second or literal message and the third or symbolic message and to give a more exact description of the naturalizing function of the denotation with respect to the connotation. We can now understand that it is preciselythe syntagm of the denoted message which "naturalizes" the systemof the connoted message. Or again: connotation is only system, can only be defined in paradigmatic terms; iconic denotation is only syntagm, associates elements without any system: the discontinuous connotators are connected, actualized, "spoken" through the syntagm of the denotation, the discontinuous world of symbols plunges into the story of the denoted scene as though into a lustral bath of innocence. It can thus be seen that in the total system of the image the structural functions are polarized: on the one hand there is a sort of paradigmatic condensation at the level of the connotators (that is, broadly speaking, of the symbols), which are strong signs, scattered,"reified"; on the other a syntagmatic'flow'at the level of the denotation-it will not be forgotten that the syntagm is always very closeto speech,and it is indeed the iconic "discourse" which naturalizes its symbols. Without wishing to infer too quickly from the image to semiology in general, one can nevertheless venture that the world of total meaning is torn internally (structurally) between the system as culture and the syntagm as nature: the works of mass communications all combine, through diverse and diversely successful dialectics, the fascination of a


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