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A Report on Theoretical Model Of Concentrated Solar Power Pumps

By S Bhanu Prakash Reddy B.E (Hons.) Mechanical, BITS Pilani

Prepared for the fulfillment of internship in Efficient Carbon Under the supervision of Pradeep Palelli - Partner, Efficient Carbon Harsha Yadav - Co-Founder, Efficient Carbon

June 2012

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I would like to thank Pradeep Palelli and Harsha Yadav for their invaluable guidance and support throughout the work. They have been a great source of inspiration all the way. I would also like to extend my heartfelt thanks to all the people associated, directly or indirectly with this project for their valuable suggestions and constant motivation throughout the project.

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The project intends to build a low cost Concentrated Solar powered pump to help farmers get reliable, inexpensive and clean power when they need the most. Even though there are multiple systems available currently, they range at around 1.5Lakhs INR per HP. We are looking at reducing it to approximately Rs. 50,000 60,000 INR per HP through technical innovations. Striling engine is the heart of the system that generates mechanical work from heat input. Fresnel lens is used to trap the Solar light on to the point focused heat cap of engine. Striling engine shaft output is connected to the alternator which converts mechanical output of Striling Engine to Electricity. Alternators electrical output is connected to motor starter which supplies the required power for motor and pump equipment.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgement Abstract 1. Introduction 2. Concentrated Solar Power Pumps 3. System Components 3.1. Solar Concentrator 3.2. Striling Engine 3.3. Alternator 3.4. Battery 3.5. Motor and Pump 4. Economics of the System 5. Competition analysis 6. Manufacturers of components required for the engine 7. Collaboration 8. Alternatives for the project 9. The way forward 5 6 6 6 7 14 16 16 19 21 22 24 25 25

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Concentrated Solar power Pumps

1. Introduction: Solar Pumping: Solar Pumping is prevalent in India and abroad but most of the solar pumps are based on Photo Voltaic technology. There are more than 7,000 solar powered pumps in India. Currently, the market price of 2 to 3 HP solar PV pump is in the range of Rs.3.5lakhs and Rs.4.5lakhs. This leads to an approximate cost of 1.5lakh per annum. Cost of solar panels is the single biggest contributor to this huge price as it is more than 50% of the total cost in most cases. The remaining components of the solar pump set are the pump, cables, controller, mounting structure and other accessories which account for the remaining cost. A solar PV powered pump generally consists of the fluid pump, a controller to adjust speed and output power according to input from solar panels, an electric motor and solar photo voltaic panels. DC and AC pumps are being used specific to the purpose. An inverter is needed for an AC solar pump setup to convert DC from solar array to AC. So, DC solar pump set costs lesser than AC powered pumps. But high rated power applications are generally made to run on AC. The cost of solar pumping system per HP has to be lowered as 1.5lakh is a huge burden on farmers. Hence any pumping system that can offer a price of 50,000 INR-60,000 INR per HP is suitable for the Indian markets. Wind Pumping: Wind pumps are very less prevalent in India due to its disadvantages as a standalone system. But few American manufacturers have succeeded in making 16 feet diameter wind pump that can lift up to 1.7 liters per second with a 24 to 32 km/h wind velocity [1]. It is difficult in a country like India to have that high wind speed. It can be considered as a hybrid supportive along with solar but
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biomass proves to be effective solution when its availability is prevalent in the surroundings. 2. Concentrated Solar Powered Pumps: CSP is the principle of concentrating large area of solar power onto a small space which gets more heat intensified and the output is generated in various forms. It has got immense potential to add power to grids and also to various off grid purposes. Solar pumping using CSP is in the very nascent stages of production and is an effective solution once the product is developed. Striling engine is the technology that was developed 200 years ago and is simple to use. Parabolic dishes or a point focus Fresnel lens can be used to concentrate solar power at a point. This heat input is given to the Stirling engine and gets converted to mechanical motion in the form of flywheel rotation. This mechanical motion is produced by the piston translation inside the cylinder and piston movement is produced by the displacer motion due to expansion and contraction of gases relative to temperature. This temperature difference is initiated by heat input from biomass and solar energy and it is maintained by regenerator connected in between the hot and cold ends. This is how Stirling engine generates mechanical power and beta configuration engine is selected for the above purpose. Beta Stirling engine differentiates from alpha and gamma engines by having displacer and piston in the same cylinder which makes it simpler configuration. Many companies are pursuing research on Stirling engines for low utility of 1kw25kw. 3. System components: 3.1. Solar Concentrator: Large scale power generation plants use concentrators like parabolic trough, parabolic dish Stirlings, concentrating linear Fresnel reflector, and solar power tower.
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Small scale applications with less than 10 KW rated power can be powered using Striling engines. Striling engines require heat input to provide shaft output. This heat input can be concentrated on to engines hot end by Fresnel lens or Parabolic dishes. As parabolic dishes need huge steel structures to lie upon, Fresnel lens is a simple solution with lesser costs compared to parbolic dish equipment. Fresnel lens has large aperture and short focal length compared to conventional lens. It is much thinner, larger, and flatter, and captures more oblique light from a light source. They are light in weight compared to other lens of same power. So supporting structures need not be huge and hence the concentrating system along with lens costs lesser. 3.2. Striling Engine: It is a heat engine that converts heat energy to mechanical work. It works on the principle of temperature difference between hot and cold ends, causing cyclic expansion and contraction of working fluid. Generally, helium or air is used as working fluid 3.2.1 Key Components:

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Image source: a. Hot Side Heat Exchanger: Convective heat transfer occurs between hot cylindrical wall and working fluid. This acts as a heat input for Stirling engine. Hot cylindrical wall is made up of stainless steel, mild steel and titanium (higher end engines) generally. The material selection is based on three factors Melting Point of the hot cylindrical wall is to be high in order to prevent it from melting when heat is added to the wall. Conduction Coefficient (k) has to be optimized with respective to the heat transfer to the cold end. The high value of this coefficient results in heat transfer to the cold end which results in reduction of temperature difference between hot
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and cold ends. The low value of this coefficient results in very less heat transfer to the working fluid which is also not suggestible. Expansion Coefficient value has to be low in order to prevent expansion of the hot cylindrical wall which leads to disturbances in the equipment. b. Regenerator: It is an internal heat exchanger and provides temporary heat storage between the hot and cold ends of the engine. It retains the heat within the system from escaping to atmosphere. The primary purpose of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by recycling internal heat which would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly. As a secondary effect, increased thermal efficiency yields a higher power output from a given set of hot and cold end heat exchangers. c. Cold Side Heat Exchanger: Depending on the size and temperature difference required, type of cold side heat exchanger is to be selected. The low wattage (tens of watts) engine requires no coolant and environment temperature is sufficient enough to cool the cold cap. The medium and higher end uses fins, heat radiators and water circulating pumps depending on the cold end temperature required. d. Displacer Piston: It is used to move the working gas between hot and cold heat exchangers. Generally, it is a loose fit within the cylinder and allows the working gas to pass around it as it moves to occupy the part of the cylinder beyond. As the gas expands inside the hot cap, it pushes the displacer piston towards the cold end. The contraction of working gas at the cold end and pushing force from the power piston moves the displacer piston towards the hot end. e. Power Piston:

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Depending on the configuration of the Striling engine, presence of power piston and its shaft base location can be determined. Heat transfer to the hot end expands working fluid and pushes the displacer piston which will push the power piston. The working fluid pushed to the cold end gets contracted and the momentum of the machine, usually enhanced by a flywheel, pushes the power piston the other way to compress the gas. 3.2.2 Configuration: Depending on the way they move air between the hot and cold sides of the cylinder, Striling engines are divided into three configurations: a. Alpha Configuration is conceptually the simplest Stirling engine configuration. It has two pistons in separate cylinders which are connected in series by a heater, regenerator and cooler. Applications include medium to large scale purposes like cryo coolers, submarines etc

Image source: b. Beta Configuration engines use displacer-piston arrangement with displacer and power piston located on the same shaft. Applications include small to medium purposes like heat pumps and solar power generation

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Image source: c. Gamma Configuration engines also use displacer-piston arrangement but they are located in the different cylinders. It is in principle similar to beta configuration and can be used for similar applications depending on the output.

Image source: 3.2.3 Mechanism: An ideal Striling engine consists of four thermodynamic process

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Isothermal expansion of working gas undergoes near-isothermal expansion absorbing heat from the hot source. Constant Volume heat removal from gas takes place as it is passed through the regenerator, where it cools and transfers heat to the regenerator for use in the next cycle. Isothermal Compression at the cold end of the engine and the working fluid undergoes near-isothermal compression rejecting heat to the cold sink. Constant-Volume process heat addition takes place as the gas passes back through the regenerator where it recovers much of the heat transferred in second stage and gets heated up on its way to the expansion space. Reference animation: 3.2.4. Calculation of various parameters of Striling Engine: Calculations are performed for beta Stirling engine as they are the most prevalent engines for small scale power output. Beta configuration engine: Working fluid = Helium Swept volume of expansion space or displacer volume Approximated to SOLO stirling engine) Bore of displacer piston =10 cm (Approximated) Stroke of displacer piston = 2 cm (Approximated) Mean pressure = 8 MPa =157.07

Hot End Cold End Maximum Temperature(Th) Temperature(Tc) Output Power

Maximum RPM at Th/Tc ratio

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923 K 873 K 823 K

323 K 323 K 323 K

6.22 KW 5.85 KW 5.46 KW

2353.8 2307.6 2259.6

Mean Pressure = 6 MPa Hot End Cold End Maximum Temperature(Th) Temperature(Tc) Output Power 923 K 873 K 823 K 323 K 323 K 323 K 4.42 KW 4.15 KW 3.88 KW Maximum RPM at Th/Tc ratio 2273.9 2229.3 2182.9

Mean Pressure = 4 MPa Hot End Cold End Maximum Temperature(Th) Temperature(Tc) Output Power 923 K 873 K 823 K 323 K 323 K 323 K 2.73 KW 2.56 KW 2.39 KW Maximum RPM at Th/Tc ratio 2165.9 2123.4 2079.2

Working fluid

= Air

Mean Pressure = 8 MPa

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Hot End Cold End Maximum Temperature(Th) Temperature(Tc) Output Power 923 K 873 K 823 K 323 K 323 K 323 K 2.80 KW 2.63 KW 2.49 KW

Maximum RPM at Th/Tc ratio 989.3 970 950

Mean Pressure = 6 MPa Hot End Cold End Maximum Temperature(Th) Temperature(Tc) Output Power 923 K 873 K 823 K 323 K 323 K 323 K 1.99 KW 1.87 KW 1747.9 Maximum RPM at Th/Tc ratio 955.8 937.1 917.8

Mean Pressure = 4 MPa Hot End Cold End Maximum Temperature(Th) Temperature(Tc) Output Power 923 K 873 K 823 K 323 K 323 K 323 K 1.22 KW 1.15 KW 1.08 KW Maximum RPM at Th/Tc ratio 910.4 892.6 874.2

The simulation results show that helium gives more output for a fixed temperature difference compared to air. However helium encounters problem in
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the case of leakage from cylinder while air has minimal problems in this case. Hydrogen is not suggestible because the leakage of it results in explosive damage to the equipment.

3.3. Alternator: Alternator or AC generator converts mechanical power to electrical energy. It uses a rotating magnetic field with a stationary armature or a rotating armature is used with a stationary magnetic field(linear alternator).The shaft Output from Striling engine is connected to the alternator to produce electricity. For Indian usage, frequency has to be maintained at 50 Hz (+ 1 Hz variation is adjustable) and output voltage has to be in the range of specified voltage range for the equipment. The only factor that controls both frequency and output voltage is rotational speed of Striling engine shaft. For the frequency to remain constant, rotational speed of the shaft has to be maintained constant .Unfortunately rotational speed of the engine depends mainly on amount of heat input which cannot be maintained constant. So the shaft output has to be connected to gearbox as in the case of wind turbines or the multiple newer technologies like doubly fed induction generators or full-effect converters where the variable frequency produced is converted to DC and then back to AC, matching the line frequency and voltage. These newer technologies require costly equipment and cause power loss but the generated mechanical output be totally utilized by the alternator compensating the losses to a greater extent. 3.3.1 Specifications: Wattage: Depending on the stirling engine maximum output and the efficiency of alternator, maximum wattage of the alternator has to be fixed.

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Simulation is carried out alternator efficiency of 0.7 as the most of them possess a minimal efficiency of 70% and this can be scaled up easily for higher efficiencies. Alternator Efficiency 0.7 0.7 0.7 Striling Engine Output Wattage required 2 KW 3 KW 5 KW 1.5KW-2 KW 2.5 KW 4 KW

Poles: Generally 2, 4, 6 pole alternators are used. Depending on the rpm of alternator shaft, number of poles can be fixed at the frequency of 50 HZ. Equation: f = np/120 f= frequency n= rotational speed in rpm p=no of poles Frequency 50 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz RPM 1000 1500 3000 Poles 6 4 2

Rotational Speed (rpm): The rotational speeds of the alternators available are in synchronous to poles generally. The rpm has to be maintained at standard values using gearbox or aforementioned newer technologies has to be utilized to run the alternator at
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random values of speed. The alternators that are easily available in the market run at 1500/3000 rpm. Voltage: The alternator should maintain the output voltage in the specified range for pumps which lies in between 200 V-240 V. The lower and higher voltages will leads to the damage of pump equipment. 3.4. Battery: A battery is required when there is a necessity for electricity storage. Generally deep cycle batteries are preferred for off grid energy storage applications. A deep-cycle battery is a lead-acid battery designed to be regularly deeply discharged using most of its capacity. It discharges between 50% and 80% depending on the manufacturer and construction of the battery. These batteries can be cycled down to 20% charge but it is suggestible to keep the average cycle at about 50% discharge. Depending on the motor and pump rated power, battery specifications are calculated. However, an inverter is required to convert the battery DC voltage to standard AC which is required to run the existing motors used for agricultural purposes. 3.5. Motor and Pump: Electric motors provide the required shaft power for the pump. Alternator electrical output can be connected directly to the starter attached to the motor if no electricity storage is required. Alternator directly connected to electric motor will damage the motor equipment as the initial required power and torque are approximately twice and thrice the rated values respectively. The starter attached with motor acts a stabilizer for the motor. Depending on the mechanism, pumps are of two types
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A positive displacement pump causes the pumping of fluid by trapping a fixed amount of it and then forcing that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. These pumps work using an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is constant given each cycle of operation. Hand pumps used to extract ground water are an example for positive displacement pumps. Rotodynamic pump uses rotational motion to develop the required pressure to pump the water for required heads and flow rate. A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure and flow rate of a fluid. These are the most common type of pumps used to move liquids through a piping system.Submersible, Surface, monobloc are the examples for rotodynamic pumps. Depending on the required flow rate and head to be achieved, pump capacity can be fixed. 3.5.1 Pump Capacity calculation: Density of fluid: 1000kg/cu.m Acceleration due to gravity: 9.81m/s2 Pump efficiency: 0.8 Head: 100 ft Flow Rate 60 LPM 120 LPM 180 LPM Shaft Power(KW) 0.37 0.75 1.12 Hydraulic power(KW) 0.3 0.6 0.9
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Head: 300 ft Flow Rate 60 LPM 120 LPM 180 LPM Shaft Power(KW) 1.12 2.24 3.36 Hydraulic Power (KW) 0.9 1.79 2.69

Head: 600 feet Flow Rate 60 LPM 120 LPM 180 LPM Shaft Power(KW) 2.24 4.49 6.73 Hydraulic Power(KW) 1.79 3.59 5.38

The simulation results has proved that greater the depth, more shaft power is required for the pump.

4. Economics of the System: 4.1. Information obtained through calls: Swee technologies, Pune: They are the only company who are willing to manufacture Striling Engines in India. They are good at manufacturing low power engines but they didnt manufacture any Stirling engine at least nearer to our requirement i.e, 2-5 HP.

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Madhav, who is heading the company had specified that they have the required diagrams for manufacturing 5 HP engines but only at the cost of 20lakh rupees for an individual engine. He mentioned that the cost of engines will be reduced to 35lakhs once they are manufactured in bulk. We have discussed our project with him briefly and he is positive towards it but not sure whether concentrated solar power can provide required heat input for the engine. His expertise can be questioned in this regard as he just left a statement without any viable reason during the telephonic discussion. Infinia Coorporation: Infinia has introduced parabolic dish Striling systems of 3.2KW each in the American markets and they have satisfied various clients. American Navy has introduced their systems to produce required energy to power their unit in a territory. But they are under testing in Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon for their viability in Indian sub-continent climates. We have put up a mail regarding information and also collaboration on their power dishes. But the response was very negative from their side and they had specified that they are into collaboration with an Indian company. We have contacted the concerned company but they didnt even respond to our queries properly.

Striling Technology INC: Striling Tech is a company based out of Athens. Ohio. They have done around 100 units of Striling engine based irrigational pumps by collaborating with Striling Dynamics, Madras around 10 years ago. The specifications of engine include 5 HP output power using rice husk as a heat source. We have contacted them through telephone and email. They are very positive towards our commitment and are willing to work with us if we are really

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interested. He also specified that a single Striling Engine for R&D purpose would cost around $40,000-50,000. Craig Kinzelman, whom I spoke to is very positive towards our project and would like us to visit their plant in Ohio and discuss our requirements in detail for further proceedings regarding collaboration with them. He said that biomass is very effective for the heat input and he hasnt got much idea about concentrated solar power usage. Tara C Tripathi: He is a professor at IIT Bombay and conducts various workshops on solar technologies. He has confirmed that stirling engine usage for generating electricity is still in R & D stage and can make good market as the competition for the product is very less as of now. He has specified that current Infinia power dish Stirling systems are not suitable for Indian environment and this was revealed in the MNRE testing and also in the power plant being established by Dalmia cements using the dishes in Rajasthan. He has mentioned that a team in IIT Bombay is progressing at a fast pace towards power generation using Striling engines. Stamford Alternator Dealer (Ramulu): We have spoke to him regarding alternator and he specified that generally available alternators in India run at constant speeds of 1500 and 3000 rpm. He told that the output of alternator can be connected to motor starter as in the case of diesel generators whose shaft output is connected to alternator and then to motor starter. 4.2. Cost analysis: 5 HP Striling Engine single piece for R & D purpose will cost 20lakhs approximately and bulk price can be calculated only when we collaborate with other companies as they are not willing to reveal the price.
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Fresnel lens is about 30% cheaper than total parabolic dish mirrors and exact price could not be found as we could not find manufacturers in India. Alternator specifications containing quote is obtained from Tachometric Controls, a Pune based alternator manufacturing company. We have replied with the concerned specifications required for us and didnt receive a reply from them yet. Alternators are available in India and will not cost much. Motor and Pump are the ones that are used by farmers for their regular irrigation and hence not included in the system. Battery and Inverter are needed only when electricity storage is required and this is not a part of system as of now. 5. Competition Analysis: Striling Dynamics ltd, a Chennai based company used to manufacture biomass based Striling Engines in collaboration with Striling Technology Inc before 5 years and they are not in the market currently. An Indian company is in JV with Infina Corporation for marketing in India. However their systems are yet to proved for Indian climates. Solo Striling engine, a German company is manufacturing Stirling engines that utilize natural gas, biomass and currently experimenting solar power application as heat source. Sunpower Inc, Ohio based company is currently manufacturing Free Piston Striling Engines along with linear alternator to produce electricity. They are about to enter the market with their own technology. We have to contact them as the technology is very impressive and utilizes linear output of Striling engine and connects to linear alternator which increases efficiency. Infina Corporation as aforementioned their technology is proven for American Climates and entered India but no positive results have received yet.
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Many other Stirling engine manufacturers are willing to enter the market by generating electricity from them. But no company in our market research is manufacturing Striling engine based irrigational pumps at present. The product will definitely receive benefits once the cost per HP is around 50,00060,000 INR. 6. Manufacturers of components required for the engine: 6.1. Fresnel lens: We couldnt find any Indian manufacturer for Fresnel lens. However few companies abroad are manufacturing them. We didnt contact them as specifications of the Fresnel lens were not calculated in the duration. Kaleido Technology, a Denmark based company manufactures 60 cm diameter lens. Website link: NTKJ, a Japan based company manufactures customized Fresnel lens for concentrated solar power Website link:

6.2. Striling Engine: Striling Technology Inc, Ohio based company Communication with them is aforementioned. manufactures them.

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Website link: Sunpower Corporation, Ohio based company manufactures free piston Striling engine in wide range of output power (35W-7KW) Website link: Solo Striling engines, a German company used to manufacture Stirling engines is now acquired by Striling systems. They have customized them and recent advancements are not mentioned in the website. Website link: Infinia Corporation, an American company manufactures 3.2 KW parabolic dish Stirling engines but they are not willing to manufacture separate components of their system. Website link: Few other manufacturers: This link has various other manufacturers in Europe and other parts. This can be referred to extract more information from manufacturers.

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6.3. Alternator: Many Indian companies are manufacturing alternators and can be procured easily. Tachometric Controls, a Pune based company manufactures alternators Website link: Stamford alternators, acquired by Cummins generator technologies manufactures almost all standard specification alternators. These are more prevalent in Indian market. Website link: 7. Collaboration: Among the companies contacted, Swee Technologies and Striling Technology Inc are positive towards collaboration. Swee Technologies: The company is looking forward to work with us. However to the level of communication done with them, they are not the best one to collaborate as they dont possess the technology of Striling engines required for us and it may come out to be one way transfer from our side. Striling Technology Inc: The company has past experience working with 5 HP Striling engines and manufactured hundreds of them. Currently, they are not active in this arena but

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are willing to work again if we visit and discuss both of our terms in Ohio. We can have further discussions with them for any kind of outcome. Sunpower Corporation: The company has worked on free piston Stirling engines and possesses a patent on it. We could not contact them, but they have been working from 30 years as a part of R & D and they are about to launch in markets. They possess a very better technology for our project and can look forward to them. 8. Alternatives for the project: The existing technology for our project is innovative and can show benefitting outputs but it cannot store any electrical energy for usage in cloudy days. One suggestible alternative for this purpose is to include a battery and inverter systems in the project but maintenance cost and capital have to be beared. However, biomass has to be checked as a secondary source for heat input which removes battery and inverter systems. Electricity can be generated whenever required. Fraction of biomass and solar depends on the geographical conditions and biomass availability. Rice husk can be chosen for biomass as it is available in large amounts and has got good calorific value of 3300 kcal/kg approximately. Rice husk is burnt and generated heat is used as input to the Stirling engine. The whole system fabrication and capital cost is a challenge to be encountered in this system. 9. The way forward: Progress so far: The main focus in the duration was on Striling engine and its specifications, alternator, pump specifications and various suitable solar concentration techniques for the system. The system has been designed in the above regard
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Things to be done: Fresnel lens specifications are to be calculated and there by contact the manufacturers. Biomass viability and battery inclusion in the equipment has to be studied. Gearbox or newer technologies have to be designed specifically for the system to maintain constant rpm of the Striling engine shaft. Alternator output voltage variations are to be studied as it can damage the pump equipment. System fabrication process has to be discussed with practically experienced design engineers as it is to be made as simple as possible. Little other minor verifications are expected to encounter as the system design may have to be changed according to the climatic conditions.

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