Sei sulla pagina 1di 34

Instructions and template for technical reports and graduation work

This document contains guidance and, additionally, a template for creating project reports and graduation work for use in technical subjects within the Department of Information Technology and Media at Mid Sweden University. Following the six page introduction there is a report template, which outlines our requirements for submitting diploma works and project reports. Simply erase the introductory instructions, and replace the text paragraphs in the template with your own text. The main aim of the template is to assist you as a student in writing a well structured report and also to ensure that you work methodically. The aim is not to burden you with detailed regulations. The template follows the graphical profile of Mid Sweden University, for example typeface, and gives examples concerning how to formulate reference lists, captions, mathematical equations, etc., according to established practice. It is, however, not a requirement that you follow the typographical design of the template but it is important that the typography used follows a consistent formula.

The report's aim


The report is the key to presenting the results of a technical project. In such a report, new knowledge and experiences gained during the project's duration are shared with interested parties. Project reports often function as a basis for decisionmakers and will also provide essential information to those continuing with a project. Many students present reports from graduation work in connection with employment interviews. If the writing of a report occurs at the start of a project it can assist the author to structure information and to approach the assignment in a systematic and analytical manner. The report presents the author's own key analysis and well supported conclusions, rather than documenting design- and programming work in detail, or to present background information available in other documents.

Mid Sweden University Department of Information technology and media (ITM)

Introductory instructions Page 2 (6) Template revision date: Error: Reference source not found

The report's scope


A 10 point exam work report should normally contain between 4 000 to 8 000 words of your own written text (which corresponds to approximately 20 to 40 sides when using this template), and a 20-point report between 6 000 and 12 000 words (approximately 30 to 60 sides), excluding appendices. The report may also contain a number of illustrations. The text may not contain irrelevant padding and should only contain factual contents that aim to answer the problem posed by the report, and to support and explain its results and ultimate conclusions. Materials that are recycled from the author's previous reports may not dominate the report. Results and conclusions must be new. To retrieve text from other sources without stating its source reference is considered to be an act of plagiarism and therefore cheating, which may be reported to the University's disciplinary board. Quotations should only be used in exceptional cases, and should be clearly indicated, i.e. within quotes. In ordinary circumstances, it is usual to review the sources, i.e. summarise and restate the source using in ones own words.

Layout
If a report follows an established layout the reader can then identify and easily understand the report's structure and follow it logically. A template can assist the author in presenting the work in a well structured manner, in accordance with official guidelines. The template can also assist the author to work methodically and analytically. Scientific magazines require that research articles follow the IMRaD-format in order to be valid for publication. Similar requirements are usually necessary for essays, graduate reports and dissertations within the academic world. This means that the document must contain the following sections Introduction, Method, Result and Discussion, usually in that order, although this may vary within different scientific traditions. The discussion (D) contains the author's own analysis and conclusions. The author's conclusions should be supported by objective observations, which are to be presented in the results section (R). The research methodology, assumptions, models and procedures that have been used in order to gain results are to be presented in the method section (M), to enable the reader to interpret and

Mid Sweden University Department of Information technology and media (ITM)

Introductory instructions Page 3 (6) Template revision date: Error: Reference source not found

check the results. Whatever is presented in the report should be aimed at responding to the problem specified in the introduction (I). Many companies have their own systematic methods as to how technical development projects should be carried out and documented. Software design traditionally often follows the so called waterfall model, including Requirements specification, Design, Implementation and Testing. The companies may also request that exam reports present Need analysis, Problem analysis, Evaluation of alternative solution proposals, Recommended solution, Consequence-analysis, User-guidance, and Proposals for further development. The following outline aims to reflect both the academic and industrial culture:
Table 1: Swedish and English outline for scientific and technical reports. English Card board front page (only required for theses not project courses) Title page Abstract Acknowledgements / Foreword Table of Contents Terminology / Abbreviations / Notation 1. Introduction 2. Theory / Related work 3. Methodology / Model 4. Design / Implementation 5. Results 6. Conclusions / Discussion References Appendices Swedish Ev. Frtryckt kartongframsida (krvs vid examensarbeten ej p projektkurser) Titelblad Sammanfattning Abstract Ev. Frord Innehllsfrteckning Ev. Terminologi / Frkortningar / Notation 1. Inledning / Introduktion 2. Teori / Bakgrundsmaterial 3. Metod / Modell 4. Ev. Konstruktion / Implementering 5. Resultat 6. Slutsats / Diskussion Kllfrteckning Ev. Bilagor

Choose the appropriate heading from those separated by / in the table. For details about each section, see the template that follows these introductory instructions. If the author can justify the use of an alternate outline, if for example by request of the tutor, this is only acceptable after confirmation has been obtained from the examiner. It is important however that the author follows the philosophy of the above structure, in particular for both C and D level theses, as a survey according to a scientific systematic method is required in those cases.

Mid Sweden University Department of Information technology and media (ITM)

Introductory instructions Page 4 (6) Template revision date: Error: Reference source not found

Language
The text should be written so that it is readily understandable to another student with similar background. The report should be typed using a word processor and the language should be grammatically correct. As a matter of course dictionaries should be consulted and consideration given to the correct writing protocols. If the text is contradiction free and consistent in its use of terms, concepts, abbreviations, etc., the risk of misunderstandings is reduced. The author should proofread the document and correct any language errors before the final version of the report is handed in. Allow a friend to offer feedback on the texts' language and clarity.

MS Word-template automatic features


The remainder of this document constitutes a template for the word processor program Microsoft Word, for versions Office 97 and later. The template utilises the possibilities offered by the program to auto-format, which can prove helpful when writing long reports. Although there are a few exceptions, the templates' automatic features are also compatible with the free open-source software OpenOffice. State the main heading, sub-heading and authors name on the front page (the title page) of the report. Replace the text within the square brackets [], with your own information. Then remove the brackets. The main- and subheadings plus the authors name written on the title page are shown automatically at the top of each page, and are updated in connection with print-out and previews. This is similar to what happens when (Ctrl-A) is selected and the F9 key pressed. Check that the page headings are correct after you have changed the title page! The date in the page header states when the document was last saved. Headings, source list, character texts, table texts and equation numbers are numbered automatically. The last three are however not updated until they are used in conjunction with a print-out, preview or if you select all and press the F9 key. The table of contents and cross references (i.e. character references and source references) are updated automatically. However this does not occur until a print-out or preview are requested or until F9 has been pressed.

Mid Sweden University Department of Information technology and media (ITM)

Introductory instructions Page 5 (6) Template revision date: Error: Reference source not found

If anything referring to a cross reference is removed then the reference is replaced by an error message. Always check that the automatic links have not been replaced by error messages before the report is sent out to tutors or examiners for review. In the templates' chapter 2 examples are found concerning formulation of source references, quotations, character numbering, tables, mathematical equations etc. It has been placed in this chapter because it is here that they are usually encountered for the first time and since the examples' use auto-format, certain sections would not have functioned if they had been placed in the introductory instructions. The template's auto-format function requires the use of the paragraph styles Heading 1 or section 1 for chapter sections, Heading 2 or section 2 for subheadings, etc. Choose paragraph styles from the drop-down menu style. The paragraph format Body text is used for the report's main text. The format alters a rows' paragraph spacing, aligns the left- and right margins and automatically splits up long words by means of hyphens. At certain times, i.e. in tables and text blocks in illustrations, straight margins, paragraph intervals, or automatic breaks may not be required and in such cases the paragraph format should instead be set to normal. The chapter section is displayed at the top right hand corner of the page. However, it is possible that this can cause an error message to occur when using the Swedish versions of Word if the paragraph format Stycke 1 is used instead of Heading 1. If the automatic break sets hyphens and line-breaks in the wrong place it is possible to insert soft hyphens into any word requiring hyphenating by setting the I-beam pointer to the correct break, and pressing Ctrl+hyphen. The soft hyphen is hidden if the word is not to be hyphenated at that point. Kenneth Berg, Magnus Eriksson Translated to English by Kevin Gater and Fiona Wait Sundsvall Error: Reference source not found

Mid Sweden University Department of Information technology and media (ITM)

Introductory instructions Page 6 (6) Template revision date: Error: Reference source not found

THE TEMPLATE STARTS HERE ERASE THE ABOVE INTRODUCTORY INSTRUCTIONS

Mid Sweden University The Department of Information Technology and Media (ITM) Author: [ Authors name ] E-mail address: [authors e-mail address] Study programme: [Study programme, credit points] Examiner: [Dr. Anders Andersson, e-mail address] Tutors: [Bertil Bertilsson, organisation X, e-mail address] Scope: 0 words inclusive of appendices Date: 2013-02-12

[Place for illustration]

[B.Sc. Thesis/ M.Sc. Thesis/ project report within Computer Engineering/Electrical Engineering A/B/C/D, course, X points]

[ Title ]
[ Subtitle ]

[ Authors name ]

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Abstract 2013-02-12

Abstract
The abstract acts as a description of the reports contents. This allows for the possibility to have a quick review of the report and provides an overview of the whole report, i.e. contains everything from the objectives and methods to the results and conclusions. Examples: The objective of this survey has been to answer the question. The survey has been conducted with the aid of. The survey has shown that Do not mention anything that is not covered in the report. An abstract is written as one piece and the recommended length is 200-250 words. References to the report's text, sources or appendices are not allowed; the abstract should stand on its own. Only use plain text, with no characters in italic or boldface, and no mathematical formulas. The abstract can be completed by the inclusion of keywords; this can ease the search for the report in the library databases. Example: Keywords: Human-computer-interaction, XML, .Net, C#.

ii

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Abstract 2013-02-12

Acknowledgements / Foreword
Acknowledgements or Foreword (choose one of the heading alternatives) are not mandatory but can be applied if you as the writer wish to provide general information about your exam work or project work, educational programme, institution, business, tutors and personal comments, i.e. thanks to any persons that may have helped you. Acknowledgements are to be placed on a separate page.

iii

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Table of Contents 2013-02-12

Table of Contents
Instructions and template for technical reports and graduation work..................................................1 The report's aim........................................................................1 The report's scope....................................................................2 Layout 2 Language 4 MS Word-template automatic features.....................................4 Abstract....................................................................ii Abstract....................................................................ii Acknowledgements / Foreword..................................iii Acknowledgements / Foreword..................................iii Table of Contents......................................................iv Terminology / Notation..............................................vi Terminology / Notation..............................................vi Acronyms / Abbreviations........................................................vi Mathematical notation.............................................................vi Introduction..............................................................1 Introduction..............................................................1 1.1 Background and problem motivation..................................1 1.2 Overall aim / High-level problem statement........................2 1.3 Scope 3 1.4 Concrete and verifiable goals / (Low-level) Problem statement.................................................................3 1.5 Outline.................................................................................4 1.6 Contributions.......................................................................4 Theory / Related work................................................5 Theory / Related work................................................5 1.7 Definition of terms and abbreviations.................................5 1.8 To review or to quote..........................................................6 1.9 References and source references......................................6 1.10 Automatically numbered source references......................8 1.11 Illustrations........................................................................9 1.12 Mathematical formulas......................................................9 Methodology / Model................................................11 Methodology / Model................................................11

iv

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Table of Contents 2013-02-12

Design / Implementation..........................................13 Design / Implementation..........................................13 Results....................................................................15 Results....................................................................15 Conclusions / Discussion...........................................16 Conclusions / Discussion...........................................16 References.............................................................18 References.............................................................18 Appendix A: Documentation of own developed program code..................................................................19 Appendix A: Documentation of own developed program code..................................................................19 Example of Appendix subheading.........................................19 Appendix B: Mathematical deductions.......................20 Appendix B: Mathematical deductions.......................20 Appendix C: User manual.........................................21 Appendix C: User manual.........................................21 Appendix D: Result of questionnaire survey..............22 Appendix D: Result of questionnaire survey..............22

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Terminology / Notation 2013-02-12

Terminology / Notation
(Choose one of the headline alternatives.) A possible list of terms, abbreviations and variable names with brief explanations may be placed after the table of contents, or at the end of the report, but is not required. An alternative is to include a subject index at the end of the report. Note that although a term is explained in the list of terms, it should also be explained in the chapter text where it is used the first time.

Acronyms / Abbreviations
ACK AWGN Acknowledge. Verification of a correctly transferred message. Additive White Gaussian Noise.

Mathematical notation
Symbol G(x) kISI Description CRC generator polynomial Degree of Inter-symbol-interference

vi

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

Introduction
During your previous education, you have probably come across relatively well defined problem types as formulated by teachers, textbooks and teaching aids. During project courses and exam work you are required to do a great deal of the thinking by yourself in order to define and clarify the direction of the assignment. This analysis should be presented in the report's introductory chapter. By describing the problem or problem area chosen for study and the reasons behind this choice, it should then be possible to write a general introduction to the report. The introductory chapter relates to the content in the project plan that will be presented some weeks after the diploma work has started. The project plan should also contain a time plan for the work. The project plan can also mention some of the intended sources to be read and subsequently referred to in chapter 2, and also to contain some thoughts about the method (see chapter 3) chosen in order to approach the problem. The introduction (choose one of the headings) making up chapter 1, may also contain sub-headings underneath. Try to come to the core as soon as possible. In order to retain the readers interest information concerning your work must be given within the first few sentences. People only requiring a quick insight into the work will often only read the report's summary, introduction and conclusions, since these sections are usually written without the inclusion of highly technical and mathematical details.

1.1

Background and problem motivation


In this sub-chapter you should try to quickly engage the readers' interest in the problem area you have chosen to examine. Demonstrate that you are not only familiar with any minor technical problems, but also have an understanding of the context in which your problem emerges, that you can also describe it from a non-technical perspective, and that you are aware of the practical benefits of the technology you are examining or have knowledge of areas that your study relates to.

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

It is common that the first sentence contains an insightful formulation or historical retrospective. Obviously it is not possible to be absolutely certain with regards to the future, but you should express your hypothesis in a balanced and objective manner in order to appear credible. Examples: Humankind during historical times has . The use of internet and cellular telephony has grown since . The next stage in the development is expected to become . This can lead to problems with This study is an investigation of if the problem can be solved with the aid of . This technology can become especially interesting if in some years many more people, and there is a growing demand on the market after . A technical report that is typed on behalf of a company could open with: Within the organisation exists an increased need for and at the same time growing problems with. We have therefore got to implement in the assignment a preliminary study about. A solution to this problem is urgent because this can lead to a considerable reduction of costs for, increased market shares within and an improved work environment.

1.2

Overall aim / High-level problem statement


(Choose one of the headline alternatives.) The project's aim is an insightful description of the direction in which you want to work, your hopes with regards to the possible outcomes of the project, and of the projects' purpose. The hypothesis does not need to be clearly defined or concrete. It can be an objective which may or may not be resolved or achieved with any degree of certainty. It can be a problem formula of a high level, which cannot be answered by the surveys diagrams, tables and other objective results, but which can be discussed in the report's concluding chapter. Examples: the project's overall aim is to gain new knowledge within the organisation about . The project's aim is to identify the general valid principles for the connection between parameter X and Y for everybody. The project's aim is to find new technical solutions to problems in the following area: . The project's aim is to compare technology A with technology B as a solution to the needs of C. The project aims to present a decision-making basis for The project aims to investigate whether or not it is realistic to expect that technology A could be used for purpose B in the future.

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

1.3

Scope
Examples: The study has its focus on. In the survey, the effect of parameter Z is ignored, because. The survey is distinguished by the evaluation of cases F1 and F2. The survey's conclusions should however be generally valid for every.

1.4

Concrete and verifiable goals / (Low-level) Problem statement


The problem- or objective statement is a verification of the proposed formula you will use to reach your objective. The questions that are specified should be answered in the report's results, and in its conclusion. The problem statement should be so clearly defined that deciding whether or not the problem has been resolved should be an easy process. This sub-chapter is usually written after the implementation of the theoretical study in chapter 2, and should be revised at regular intervals throughout the duration of the project. It is possible that the problem statement might require to be placed after the theoretical study, if it is felt that it might be difficult for the reader to understand the concepts used. The disadvantage of such a layout is that the reader might lose interest in the subject before the core points have been made. Examples of problem statements for use in a scientific report the survey has an objective to respond to the following questions: P1: What importance has technology A compared with technology B for the performance measure Y at different values on parameter X, for cases F1 and F2? P2: Which profit gives For mathematical definitions of X and Y, see the model in chapter 3. It is then in chapter 3 that the objective numerical results will be specified, i.e. what will exist on the x and y-axis in the diagram you intend to take further. Examples of objectives for a technical report: the survey's objective is to suggest a solution to the following technical problems: the survey has further objectives to verify that the solution proposal provides useable criteria and to evaluate the proposal with respect to performance measure Y. All technical details are reserved for the structure chapter's technical requirement specifications.

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

1.5

Outline
Briefly describe the report's outline. Chapter 2 describes

1.6

Contributions
Describe which parts of the work that you have conducted yourself, and which parts that you had help with i.e. carried out by colleagues. If the work is carried out in a group the report should then explain how the tasks were divided between authors. All co-authors should be credited in the work as a whole.

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

Theory / Related work


In the report's theory study, sometimes called Related work, there may be additional facts required for the reader's understanding of the report. At this point a summary of background material in the area should be provided, i.e. standards, scientific articles, books, magazines, documents on the web, technical reports and user manuals. Explain pedagogically with clear examples and many illustrations. It should be demonstrated that you have an awareness of the context and the background of your work in addition to that carried out by you within the project. Explain the aim of the technology that you describe, and not only how the technology works. For D-level you should display an awareness of the key research within the area, in order to ensure that your work has certain news worthiness. However it is vital that you do not deviate too much from your research problem. Your assignment is not to write a textbook. It is important to find an appropriate balance between related work and your own results. The theory study should only constitute a minor portion of a thesis. Instead of Theory or Related work, the heading may very well be a specific topic, for example The GSM standard or A survey on the research field of X". If the theoretical study section is rather brief then it is possible to include it within the Introduction chapter.

1.7

Definition of terms and abbreviations


Terms and abbreviations that are important for the reader's continued understanding are explained in this chapter. The first time you insert text that uses a concept or an abbreviation you should also explain it, even if it is already defined in the terminology section. The concept is typed using the italic style. The first time an abbreviation (abbr.) is used it is typed within the parenthesis after its explanation, as illustrated in this sentence.

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

You can provide a subject index at the end of the report, stating on which pages respective concepts are defined and discussed. In order to add a concept to the subject index, highlight the concept and press the keys Alt+Shift+I. Place the subject index just before the first appendix or after the last appendix by placing the I-Beam pointer there, and then choose Insert->Reference ->Index and Tables ->Index. 1.7.1 Example of level 3 heading Avoid too many heading levels.

1.8

To review or to quote
You review when you reproduce content using your own words. Example: Forslund [4] recommends more informative headings be used in technical reports and that one should, in particular, provide important information in the sub headings. You quote when you literally reproduce a phrase, a sentence or paragraph. Quotations under 50 words are to be placed within quotation marks. To quote Strmqvist could be a suitable illustration in this context: It may be difficult to write, but it is also fun [3]. Quotations over 50 words should be reproduced in the form of block quotations. The text block is centred on the page without quotes and in small caps. The source is stated in direct connection to the block quotation.
This is a block quotation which contains indents, small caps, straight left margin, not necessarily straight right margin, and no quotes. The block quote can be applied to more than approximately 50 words. The block quote is always completed with a source reference [3].

You can use direct quotations if you wish to reproduce established definitions of concepts, which you believe an author has formulated himself in a particularly suitable manner, when you require aid of an authority, or when you wish to demonstrate that an author is wrong.

1.9

References and source references


To reproduce a text without stating its source is to be considered as plagiarism and is thus defined as serious cheating.

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

A list of references are placed at the end of the report in order to give the reader overall information regarding all reviewed sources, quotes or for any other reasons that you need to refer to in the text. The sources should be carefully stated so that the reader can check if it is available in libraries or on the internet. Sometimes it might be that verbal sources and other correspondence are included in the source list, but this is unusual in technical reports. Use only sources in the list that you refer to or quote in the continuous text. All sources that are used in the source list should be linked to the report through reference in the continuous text, according to the Vancouver-system, which commonly occurs in reports regarding technical matters. According to the Vancouver-system the source list is arranged in the same order as the sources appear in the continuous text, the source reference is to be stated in the text with a figure within square brackets, i.e. [1] or [2, 3]. They should also be stated in this order in the source list. Examples of source reference: According to Eriksson [2] dynamic SFNs can provide significant performance improvements. Examples of source list according to the Vancouver-system: [2] M. Eriksson, Dynamic Single Frequency Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (J-SAC) , vol. 19, nr. 10, 2001, s. 1905-1914. Since information on the web may be frequently revised and since web links can cease to function, the date of retrieval of the information from the web page must be stated. For webbased sources, it is sometimes necessary to provide instructions as to how to find the source. Remember that the quality of material on the Internet varies. Example: [9] Post- och telestyrelsen, Ansluta trdlst www.pts.se/internetsakerhet/Sidor/sida.asp?SectionId=1966 Published 2005-04-11. Retrieved 2005-05-20. On some occasions it may prove necessary to use the Harvardsystem. In this case, the source reference is stated in the continuous text with the surname, the print year within brackets, and page reference within brackets, i.e. (Andersson, 1996, s. 3), or according to Andersson (1996:3). References are arranged in letter order after the authors

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

surnames, and can be sorted under the following subheadings: Verbal sources, written sources, web sources, other sources. Format the source list in a consistent manner. At the end of this template, the source list is presented in accordance with the Vancouver-system with examples of how you state references to book chapters, scientific articles, and articles in the daily press, verbal sources, reports, folders, manuals and technical standards.

1.10

Automatically numbered source references


It is possible to use the word processing program in order to automatically number the source list and the source references according to the Vancouver-system. In Microsoft Word this can be performed in two different ways. The first method means that you enter the source's description in the source list at the end of the document, in an automatic numbered list. Then, you indicate where in the continuous text the source reference will be placed, and choose the menu option to Insert -> Reference -> Cross-Reference -> Numbered items. An example of a reference list produced by means of this method can be found at the end of this template. An example of such a source reference: See [19]. The advantage of this method is that the source list can have an alternate order. The other way is based on the MS-Word function Endnotes, which is a form of footnotes. It is possible to create more source references through copying and pasting the reference, double clicking on it, and by modifying the source's description. Alternatively, the function to Insert -> Reference -> Footnotes -> Endnotes can be chosen. If the same reference is required to be referred to on several occasions, the function Insert -> Cross reference, as described above, must be used. If an MS Word-template other than this one is used then the end comment figure's style format must be changed so that it does not become raised. The advantage of this method is that the source list text (the end commentary) follows if the text section containing the source reference number is copied to another document. Another advantage is that the source list automatically follows the same sequence as the references, in accordance with the Vancouver-system. A third advantage is that if the mouse is held over the source reference, the end comment (i.e. the source list's text) is

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

shown in a popup-window. The disadvantage is that the source list can only be placed at the end of the document or at the end of a section but nowhere else. Each section can have its own heading page. If different heading pages are required for different chapters, and in addition there are several appendices in the same Word-document, then it is possible that this method may cause the source list not to be placed directly before the appendices.

1.11

Illustrations
All illustration (pictures, characters, diagrams, tables) in the report should be numbered and accompanied by a short text description. In addition to the text the illustration source reference should be stated, if it is not your own. Example:

Storage Storage

Documents Documents

Figure 2.1: System overview [1].

All illustrations should be linked to the report via a reference in the continuous text. Examples: the system is illustrated by the block schedule in Figure 2 .1, According to Table 3.5 etc. The references are written in English beginning with a capital letter (for example Figure), and in Swedish beginning with lower case (for example figur). In the word processing program Microsoft Word it is possible to achieve automatic figure- and table numbering by choosing the menu option Insert-> Reference -> Caption. For automatic reference to a figure, choose Insert -> Reference -> Cross reference. Choose reference type Figure. In this template, the figure text for and references to Figure 2 .1 are created with the aid of these functions.

1.12

Mathematical formulas
Mathematical formulas should be centred, or alternatively indented by approximately a centimetre. They should be numbered, and then placed to the right. The variable name is usually in italics. References to equations are given with 9

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

reference to the equation number, except when references are at the start of a sentence. All variables are defined in the continuous text. See the following examples: The effect Pi , j that is transferred from base station i to the mobile telephone j is modelled according to the following:
Pi , j = C PG i i, j di ,j

(2.1)

where Pi is the base station broadcast effect; di , j is the distance between the base station and the mobile; is an exponent that is 2 in free space and approximately 3 to 4 in a town settlement; C is a factor that depends on aerial strengthening, channel frequency and aerial height; and Gi , j is a stochastic variable that represents the fading. In the word processing program Microsoft Word, inserts can be formulated by choosing Insert -> Object, and then Equation Editor. Automatic equation numbering can be achieved by copying the above equation numbering, and by placing it after each equation. The numbering is updated by selecting the equation numbering and by pressing the button F9, or in connection with a print-out. Example of reference to an equation: On the basis of Eq. ( 2 .1) it is realised that the received effect is proportional to the transmission effect. Automatically updated references to equation numbers can be achieved via Word's bookmark function. Select the first equation number beside the equation, choose Insert -> Bookmark, name the equation, i.e. the equation effect in our case, and click on the button add. Choose the page function Insert ->Reference -> Cross reference -> Bookmark, and choose the equation name from the list.

10

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

Methodology / Model
With regards to C- and D-level diploma work, it is insufficient to merely perform a practical construction or programming project. A systematic survey must also be carried out, e.g. an evaluation and analysis of the design or program. The survey should result in objective facts, preferably in the form of tables and diagrams, into which your own conclusions are inbuilt. The survey can be a verification of a design that meets the requirement specification, or a comparison of competing alternatives. It is acceptable to allow users to answer a questionnaire or be interviewed. It is also possible to evaluate web-pages and other user interfaces according to usability criteria. The method section is the point at which your chosen method and intended procedure during the research are discussed. Refer to the problem wording in the introduction chapter. It is possible, for example, to write problem P1 is attempted through the method M1 and problem P2 through The section will not be a chronological diary filled with irrelevant details, but should contain information given in such a way that it is understandable to the reader and enables him/her to interpret your results and repeat your work, i.e. in order to check the results. Here, the tools, assumptions, mathematical models, performance measures and assessment criteria are presented. It is also at this point that the means adopted for the evaluation and verification of the computer programs and technical solution proposals are presented. This can include a test plan to check that the structure works and criteria to assess its usefulness. In research reports regarding natural science and technology this chapter is often called Model, System Model or Simulation Model. Justify your choice of methodology/model. This choice is very important, because it could be the actual key to the result of your research. Comment on the method's possible weaknesses and problems that may arise during actual implementation. In your report, you should depending on what the report is about find information about what you have investigated and how you have gathered and processed data. Possible questionnaires, interview questions and such like can be presented as appendices. Detailed descriptions concerning

11

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

experimental formats of possible interest to those wanting to repeat the experiment should also be included at this stage.

12

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

Design / Implementation
The Design or Implementation chapter often appears in technical reports, but not always in scientific reports. Here, the analysis of the problem position is implemented and a technical requirement specification is formulated. At this stage, the most important principles in the suggested solution alternatives are described and formulated in preparation for evaluation at a later point in the report. The description is placed sometime before, but generally after the methodology -/model chapter. The reader is seldom interested in extremely detailed documentation of computer program code, algorithms, electrical circuit diagrams, user guidance, etc. Such details are placed in the appendices. An exam work or a project course can sometimes appear to be an almost overwhelming amount of information because it is so extensive, and this may cause anxiety with regards to where to start. One way to facilitate big projects is to use the top-down-method , i.e. to divide the problem up or the structure into smaller problem parts or system parts, and to state specification requirements, problem analysis and solution proposal for each part. Eventually small and concrete information will have been identified with similar characteristics to those found in your previous studies. It is not always practically possible to apply the top-downmethod, since the problem may be too complex and it is initially difficult to visualise the complete overview. It might prove necessary to alternate between top-down - and the bottom-up-method. The latter means that you start with parts already known to you and, from simple problems that have been tackled previously, utilise this knowledge for aspects that you expect to resolve at a later stage of the project. Gradually increase these parts into the bigger systems and problems and then pursue the direction of project's objective. The top-down-method has the advantage of giving the report a solid structure, which makes it easier for the reader. The documentation therefore often follows the top-down-method. It is thus possible to divide the structure part into several chapters, and to name them after each problem part and

13

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

system part, i.e. Specific requirements, Algorithms, User interface, Program documentation, Prototype and Implementation.

14

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

Results
The results chapter is included when you have produced a systematic survey, i.e. an evaluation of a program that you have developed, which is required for C - and D-level diploma work. In the results chapter, objective results of the survey are presented. Consider that possible comments in this chapter should only be for clarification of a type. Your own views and subjective (personal) comments belong in the chapter conclusion/discussion. Strive to present the results, for example measurement-, calculations- and/or the simulation result, in as understandable a form as possible. The results are presented in diagram- or table form. Accounts of interviews can be summarised, but include concrete examples supporting your work. Extensive results, for example complete summaries of questionnaire results, large tables and long mathematical deductions are placed in the appendices.

15

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

Conclusions / Discussion
The conclusion/discussion (choose a heading) is a separate chapter in which the results are analysed and critically assessed. At this point your own conclusions, your subjective view, and explanations of the results are presented. If the chapter is extensive it can be divided up into a subchapter containing the analysis and including important results and consequences and a discussion section consisting of well supported conclusions. A connection to the aim of the survey and a summary and analysis of the results is of vital importance in this chapter. It provides scope for answering the results obtained from the following questions: Have the projects goals been achieved? What is the answer to the opening problem formula? Was the result as expected? What is the project's newsworthiness and most important contribution to the research or technology development? Are the conclusions general, or only apply during certain conditions? Discuss the importance of the choice of method- and model for the results. Have new questions arisen due to the result? The last question invites the possibility to offer proposals to others relevant research, i.e. proposal points for measures and recommendations, points for continued research or development for those wishing to build upon your work. In technical reports on behalf of companies, the recommended solution to a problem is presented at this stage and it is possible to offer a consequence analysis of the solution from both a technical and layman perspective, for example regarding environment, economy and changed work procedures. The chapter then contains recommended

16

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

6 Conclusions / Discussion 2013-02-12

measures and proposals for further development or research, and thus to function as a basis for decision-making for the employer or client.

17

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

References 2013-02-12

References
Here follows an example of an automatically numbered list of references according to the numbered list and cross references method, as described in chapters 2.4: [1] Svenska Datatermgruppen, Information om datatermer, http://www.nada.kth.se/dataterm/ Published 1998-08-20. Retreived 2005-04-11. (Example of reference to a webpage) [2] M. Eriksson, Dynamic Single Frequency Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (J-SAC), vol. 19, nr. 10, 2001, s. 19051914. (Example of reference to article in scientific journal) [3] S. Strmquist, Skrivboken . 4 uppl. Malm: Gleerups., 2000 (Example on reference to book) [4] L. Forsslund, Rapportering av forskningsresultat - ett rationaliseringsobjekt. Industriell teknik, 22, 1969, s. 361-363. (Example of reference to a magazine article) [5] N. Bie, Minspel p Internet. Dagens Nyheter 7 juli, 1997, sidan 5. (Example of reference to an article in a newspaper) [6] K. Berg, Inledning till kunskap, Fiktiva hgskolan, rapport nr XYZ-102, 2003, 120 sidor. (Example of reference to other report) [7] AB Benzlers. Vxelboken. Kuggvxlar, kuggremmar, kilremmar etc. Mecman. Hydraulik, SKF. Huvudkatalog. (Example of reference to a catalogue) [8] Microsoft Corporation, 1992: Microsoft Word Anvndarhandbok. Ordbehandlingsprogram fr Macintosh Version 5.0. (Example of reference to a manual)

18

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Appendix D: Result of questionnaire survey 2013-02-12

Appendix A: Documentation of own developed program code


Example of Appendix subheading

19

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Appendix D: Result of questionnaire survey 2013-02-12

Appendix B: Mathematical deductions

20

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Appendix D: Result of questionnaire survey 2013-02-12

Appendix C: User manual

21

[ Title ] - [ Subtitle ] [ Authors name ]

Appendix D: Result of questionnaire survey 2013-02-12

Appendix D: Result of questionnaire survey

22