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STRESS

! Stress

! Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar

! Average Shear Stress

! Allowable Stress

! Design of Simple Connections

Equilibrium of a Deformable Body

ï Body Force

w

A x

F R w(s) C . A D A y
F
R
w(s)
C
.
A
D
A
y

ï Support Reaction

D y

s

Table 1 Supports for Coplanar Structures

Type of Connection

Idealized

Symbol

Reaction

Number of Unknowns

(1)

θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ

One unknown. The reaction is a force that acts in the direction of the cable or link.

 

Light cable

 

(2)

(2)     One unknown. The reaction is a force that acts perpendicular to the surface
   

One unknown. The reaction is a force that acts perpendicular to the surface at the point of contact.

reaction is a force that acts perpendicular to the surface at the point of contact. F
reaction is a force that acts perpendicular to the surface at the point of contact. F
reaction is a force that acts perpendicular to the surface at the point of contact. F
F
F

F

Rollers and rockers

 

(3)

of contact. F Rollers and rockers   (3) Smooth surface F One unknown. The reaction is
of contact. F Rollers and rockers   (3) Smooth surface F One unknown. The reaction is
of contact. F Rollers and rockers   (3) Smooth surface F One unknown. The reaction is

Smooth surface

F
F

One unknown. The reaction is a force that acts perpendicular to the surface at the point of contact.

Type of Connection

Idealized

Symbol

Reaction

Number of Unknowns

(4)

(4)   F y F x
 
(4)   F y F x

F

y
y

F

x

Smooth pin or hinge

 

Two unknowns. The reactions are two force components.

(5)

F

y

 
     
   
 
  F  

F

 

Internal pin

 

x

Internal pin   x Two unknowns. The reactions are a force and moment.

Two unknowns. The reactions are a force and moment.

(6)

Two unknowns. The reactions are a force and moment. (6) F y F x M Three
Two unknowns. The reactions are a force and moment. (6) F y F x M Three

F y

F x

M

Three unknowns. The reactions are the moment and the two force components.

Fixed support

ï Equation of Equilibrium

 

ΣΣΣΣ F = 0 ΣΣΣΣ M O = 0

 

ΣΣΣΣ F x = 0

ΣΣΣΣ F y = 0

ΣΣΣΣ F z = 0

ΣΣΣΣ M x = 0

ΣΣΣΣ M y = 0

ΣΣΣΣ M z = 0

F 1

ï Internal Resultant Loadings

F 1

section F 2 F 4
section
F
2
F 4

F 3

y F 2 M O N V
y
F 2
M
O
N
V

x

V M O N F 4
V
M O
N
F 4

F 3

Example 1

Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section at C of the beam shown.

270 N/m

       
 
 
          A   B   C  
          A   B   C  

A

 
A   B

B

 

C

 
3 m 6 m
3 m
6 m

ï Support Reactions

M A = 3645 Nïm

(1/2)(9)(270) = 1215 N 270 N/m A C 3 m 6 m
(1/2)(9)(270) = 1215 N
270 N/m
A
C
3 m
6 m

B

540 N

180 N/m 540 N = V C M C C 2 m 4 m 0
180 N/m
540 N = V C
M
C
C
2 m
4 m
0 =
N C

A y = 1215 N

-540(2) = -1080 Nïm =

540 N

ï Internal Loading

135 N

0 A C 3 m
0
A
C
3 m

270 N/m 90 N/m

180 N/m

N ï Internal Loading 135 N 0 A C 3 m 270 N/m 90 N/m 180

M A = 3645 Nïm

1080 Nïm

540 N

A y = 1215 N

B

8

ï Shear and bending moment diagram (1/2)(9)(270) = 1215 N 270 N/m A 3645 Nïm
ï Shear and bending moment diagram
(1/2)(9)(270) = 1215 N
270 N/m
A
3645 Nïm
B
C
3 m
6 m
1215 N
1215
V (N)
540
+
M (Nïm)
-
1080
3645
b
web
C
flanges
540 N
1080 Nïm
t
w
540 N

h

Example 2

Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section at C of the machine shaft shown. The shaft is supported by bearings at A and B, which exert only vertical forces on the shaft.

225 N 800 N/m A B D C 200 mm 100 mm 100 mm 50
225 N
800 N/m
A
B
D
C
200 mm
100 mm
100 mm
50 mm
50 mm

ï

(800 N/m)(0.15 m) = 120 N/m 225 N

Support Reactions

A B 0.275 m 0.125 0.1 m B A y y
A
B
0.275 m
0.125
0.1 m
B
A
y
y

A x

D

+ Σ M A = 0: + Σ F x = 0: + Σ F
+
Σ M A = 0:
+
Σ F x = 0:
+ Σ F y = 0:

-(120)(0.275) + B y (0.4) - (225)(0.5) = 0,

A x = 0

A y - 120 +363.75 - 225 = 0

B y = 363.75 N

A x = 0,

A y = -18.75 N,

ï Internal Loading

800(0.05) = 40 N

0, A y = -18.75 N, ï Internal Loading 800(0.05) = 40 N M C A

M C

= -18.75 N, ï Internal Loading 800(0.05) = 40 N M C A 0.2 m C
= -18.75 N, ï Internal Loading 800(0.05) = 40 N M C A 0.2 m C

A

= -18.75 N, ï Internal Loading 800(0.05) = 40 N M C A 0.2 m C
= -18.75 N, ï Internal Loading 800(0.05) = 40 N M C A 0.2 m C

0.2 m

C

N, ï Internal Loading 800(0.05) = 40 N M C A 0.2 m C V C
N, ï Internal Loading 800(0.05) = 40 N M C A 0.2 m C V C

V C

18.75 N

0.025 m

N C

+

= 40 N M C A 0.2 m C V C 18.75 N 0.025 m N

ΣF x = 0:

+

ΣF y = 0: F y = 0:

N C = 0

-18.75 - 40 - V C = 0, V C = -58.75 N

N C = 0 -18.75 - 40 - V C = 0, V C = -58.75

+

ΣM A = 0:

18.75(0.25) + 40(0.025) + M C = 0 M C = -5.69 Nïm

- 40 - V C = 0, V C = -58.75 N + Σ M A

11

ï Internal Loading

800(0.05) = 40 N

A C 0.2 m N 0.025 m 800(0.05) = 40 N A C 0.2 m
A
C
0.2
m
N
0.025
m
800(0.05) = 40 N
A
C
0.2
m
N

0.025 m

M C = -5.69 Nïm

= 40 N A C 0.2 m N 0.025 m M C = -5.69 Nïm N

N C = 0 V C = -58.75 N

18.75

5.69 Nïm

= 40 N A C 0.2 m N 0.025 m M C = -5.69 Nïm N

0

58.75 N

18.75

Example 3

The hoist consists of the beam AB and attached pulleys, the cable, and the motor. Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section at C if the motor is lifting the 2 kN load W with constant velocity. Neglect the weight of the pulleys and beam.

1 m 2 m 0.5 m 0.15 m 0.15 m D A C W
1 m
2 m
0.5 m
0.15 m
0.15 m
D
A
C
W

B

1 m 2 m 0.5 m 0.15 m 0.15 m D A C W
1 m
2 m
0.5 m
0.15 m
0.15 m
D
A
C
W

W = 2 kN

B

1 m 0.15 m T C = 2 kN N C C M A C
1 m
0.15 m
T C = 2 kN
N C
C
M
A
C
V C

W = 2 kN

+

Σ F x = 0: F x = 0:

2 + N C = 0 N C = -2 kN

+ Σ F y = 0: -2 - V C = 0, V C =
+
Σ F y = 0:
-2 - V C = 0,
V C = -2 kN
+
Σ M C = 0:

M C - 2(0.15) + 2(1.15) = 0

M C = -2 kNïm

14

Example 4

Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section at G of the wooden beam shown . Assume the joints at A, B, C, D, and E are pin-connected.

Assume the joints at A , B , C , D , and E are pin-connected.

B

C

G E D 0.6 m 4 kN/m 0.6 m 2 m
G
E
D
0.6 m 4 kN/m
0.6 m
2 m

6.5 kN

A

Assume the joints at A , B , C , D , and E are pin-connected.

1 m

ï Support Reactions Two - force B C F BC 6.5 kN E y 1
ï Support Reactions
Two - force
B
C
F
BC
6.5 kN
E y
1 m
G
E
E
x
A
D
4 kN/m
0.6 m
0.6 m
2/3 m
(1/2)(2)(4) = 4 kN
(2/3)(2) = 4/3 m
+

+

Σ M E = 0:

4(4/3) + 6.5(3.2) - F BC (1) = 0,

F BC = 26.1 kN

+ Σ F x = 0:

+ Σ F x = 0:

26.13 + E x = 0

E x = -26.1 kN,

+ Σ F y = 0:

+ Σ F y = 0:

-6.5 - 4 + E y = 0

E y = 10.5 kN

26.13 + E x = 0 E x = -26.1 kN, + Σ F y =

ï Internal loadings acting on the cross section at G

B

50.19 o F BD
50.19 o
F BD

F AB

= 34.02 kN

o

M C

section at G B 50.19 o F BD F AB = 34.02 kN o M C

N C

at G B 50.19 o F BD F AB = 34.02 kN o M C N

F BC = 26.13 kN

34.02 kN =

6.5 kN

F BA

Joint B

= -21.78 kN

= 26.13 kN 34.02 kN = 6.5 kN F BA Joint B = -21.78 kN G
= 26.13 kN 34.02 kN = 6.5 kN F BA Joint B = -21.78 kN G
= 26.13 kN 34.02 kN = 6.5 kN F BA Joint B = -21.78 kN G

G

0.6 m

kN 34.02 kN = 6.5 kN F BA Joint B = -21.78 kN G 0.6 m

+ ΣF x = 0:

+ Σ F x = 0:

-F BA sin50.19 o + 26.13 = 0 F BA = 34.0 kN, (T)

+ Σ F y = 0:

+ ΣF y = 0:

39.81

= 0 F B A = 34.0 kN, (T) + Σ F y = 0: 39.81

C

A

F B A = 34.0 kN, (T) + Σ F y = 0: 39.81 C A

V

-F BA cos50.19 o -F BD = 0 F BD = -21.8 kN, (C)

Member AG

o - F B D = 0 F B D = -21.8 kN, (C) Member AG

+

ΣM G = 0:

M G -34.02 sin39.81 o (0.6) + 6.5(0.6) = 0

M G = 9.17 kNïm

+ ΣF x = 0:

+ Σ F x = 0: 34.02 cos39.81 o + N G = 0

34.02 cos39.81 o + N G = 0

N G = -26.1 kN

+ Σ F y = 0: -6.5 + 34.02 sin39.81 o - V G =

+ ΣF y = 0:

-6.5 + 34.02 sin39.81 o - V G = 0

V G = 15.3 kN

Example 5

Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section at B of the pipe shown. The pipe has a mass of 2 kg/m and is subjected to both a vertical force of 50 N and a couple moment of 70 Nïm at its end A. It is fixed to the wall at C.

x

z C 0.75 m B 0.5 m 50 N D y 1.25 m 70 Nïm
z
C
0.75 m
B
0.5 m
50 N
D
y
1.25 m
70 Nïm
A

ï

Free-Body Diagram

z

(M (M ) ) B B z z (F B ) z (M (M (F
(M
(M
)
)
B
B
z
z
(F
B ) z
(M
(M
(F
B
B
) y
) y
B ) y
(F
B
W BD = 9.81 N
0.25 m
B ) x
(M
(M
)
)
B
B
x
x
W
AD
D
50 N
x
0.625 m
y
70 70
Nïm
Nïm
0.625 m
A
ï Equilibrium of Equilibrium

W BD = (2 kg/m)(0.5 m)(9.81 N/kg)

= 9.81 N

W AD = (2 kg/m)(1.25 m)(9.81 N/kg)

= 24.52 N

Σ F x = 0:

(F B ) x = 0

Σ F y = 0:

(F B ) y = 0

Σ F z = 0:

(F B ) z - 9.81 -24.525 -50 = 0,

Σ (M B ) x = 0:

(M B ) x + 70 - 50(0.5) - 24.525(0.5) - 9.81(0.25) = 0,

Σ (M B ) y = 0:

(M B ) y + 24.525(0.625) + 50(1.25) = 0,

Σ (M B ) x = 0:

(M B ) z = 0

(F B ) z = 84.3 N

(M B ) x = -30.3 Nïm

(M B ) y = -77.8 Nïm

ï Free-Body Diagram

(F B ) x = 0

(M B ) x = -30.3 Nïm

(F B ) y = 0

(M B ) y = -77.8 Nïm

(F B ) z = 84.3 N

(M B ) z = 0

x

70 70

z 84.3 N 77.8 Nïm 9.81 N B 0.25 m 30.3 Nïm 24.5 N D
z
84.3 N
77.8 Nïm
9.81 N
B
0.25 m
30.3 Nïm
24.5 N
D
50 N
0.625 m
y
Nïm
Nïm
0.625 m
A
Stress
Stress
z +z Face +y Face y +x Face
z
+z Face
+y Face
y
+x Face

x

z

σ z

By compatibility, σ x = σ' x τ zy -x Face τ σ' x σ
By compatibility,
σ x = σ' x
τ
zy
-x Face
τ
σ' x
σ y = σ' y
zx
τ' xy
σ z = σí z
τ
yz
τ' yx
τ' xz
τ
τ xy = τ' xy
σ' y
xz
σ y
τ
τ
yx
τ yx = τ' yx
xy
τ' yz
y τ zx = τí xz
σ
-y Face
x
τ' zx
τ' zy
σ' x ∆y∆z
τ' xy ∆y∆z
σ' z
-z Face
τ' yx ∆x∆z
y
x
σ' y ∆x∆z
Top View
σ y ∆x∆z
τ yx ∆x∆z

x

σ x yz

τ xy yz

22

σ' σ' ∆y∆z ∆y∆z x x τ' τ' ∆y∆z ∆y∆z xy xy ∆x∆z ∆x∆z O
σ'
σ' ∆y∆z
∆y∆z
x x
τ' τ'
∆y∆z
∆y∆z
xy
xy
∆x∆z
∆x∆z O
τ' yx
τ' yx
y
σ' y
σ' y
∆x∆z
∆x∆z
σ
∆x∆z
∆x∆z
σ y
y
τ
τ
∆x∆z
∆x∆z
yx
yx
τ τ xy ∆y∆z
∆y∆z
xy
σ
σ
∆y∆z
∆y∆z
x
x

+

x

ΣF y = 0: F y = 0:

ΣF x = 0: F x = 0:

∆y∆z ∆y∆z x x + x Σ F y = 0: Σ F x = 0:

+

ΣM O¥ = 0:

- σ' y xz + σ y xz = 0

σ' y = σ y

σ x yz - σ' x yz = 0

σ x = σ' x

(τ xy yz)(x) - (τ yx xz)(y) = 0

τ xy

= τ yx

z

z

σ z ∆x∆y τ zy ∆x∆y σ z ∆x∆y τ zx ∆x∆y τ yz ∆x∆z
σ z ∆x∆y τ zy ∆x∆y
σ z ∆x∆y
τ zx ∆x∆y
τ
yz ∆x∆z
σ' x ∆y∆z
∆z
σ
∆x∆z
σ
y ∆x∆z
τ
xz ∆y∆z
y
σ' y ∆x∆z
τ
yx ∆x∆z
τ
xy ∆y∆z
y
σ
x ∆y∆z
y
σ
x ∆y∆z
∆x
∆y
x
σ' z ∆x∆y
x
z τ zy ∆x∆y τ' yz ∆x∆z τ yz ∆x∆z y x τ' zy ∆x∆y
z
τ
zy ∆x∆y
τ' yz ∆x∆z
τ
yz ∆x∆z
y
x τ' zy ∆x∆y
z τ' xy ∆y∆z τ' yx ∆x∆z τ yx ∆x∆z y x τ xy ∆y∆z
z
τ' xy ∆y∆z
τ' yx ∆x∆z
τ
yx ∆x∆z
y
x
τ xy ∆y∆z
x
z τ zx ∆x∆y τ' xz ∆y∆z τ xz ∆y∆z y τ' zx ∆x∆y
z
τ
zx ∆x∆y
τ' xz ∆y∆z
τ
xz ∆y∆z
y
τ' zx ∆x∆y

24

Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar

ï Assumptions

The material must be

- Homogeneous material

- Isotropic material

P

material must be - Homogeneous material - Isotropic material P P Internal force Cross-sectional area External
material must be - Homogeneous material - Isotropic material P P Internal force Cross-sectional area External

P

material must be - Homogeneous material - Isotropic material P P Internal force Cross-sectional area External
material must be - Homogeneous material - Isotropic material P P Internal force Cross-sectional area External
material must be - Homogeneous material - Isotropic material P P Internal force Cross-sectional area External
material must be - Homogeneous material - Isotropic material P P Internal force Cross-sectional area External
material must be - Homogeneous material - Isotropic material P P Internal force Cross-sectional area External

Internal force

material must be - Homogeneous material - Isotropic material P P Internal force Cross-sectional area External

Cross-sectional area

External force

P

x

z P P ∆F = σ∆A σ σ σ σ x y y P P
z
P
P
∆F = σ∆A
σ
σ
σ
σ
x
y
y
P
P
+ ↑
= Σ
F ;
dF
=
σdA
F Rz
z

A

P = σA

σ =

P

A

Example 6

The bar shown has a constant width of 35 mm and a thickness of 10 mm. Determine the maximum average normal stress in the bar when it is subjected to the loading shown.

12 kN

A BC 9 kN 4 kN D 9 kN 4 kN
A
BC 9 kN 4 kN
D
9 kN
4 kN

35 mm

22 kN

12 kN

A BC 9 kN 4 kN D 9 kN 4 kN
A
BC 9 kN 4 kN
D
9 kN
4 kN

35 mm P (kN)

30

22 12
22
12

x

10 mm 30 kN σ 35 mm 30 kN P BC σ = σ =
10 mm
30 kN
σ
35 mm
30 kN
P BC
σ
=
σ
=
=
max
BC
A (0.035 m)( 0.01 m)

= 85.7 MPa

22 kN

12 kN

A BC 9 kN 4 kN D 9 kN 4 kN
A
BC 9 kN 4 kN
D
9 kN
4 kN

35 mm σ (MPa)

85.7

62.9 34.3
62.9
34.3

x

10 mm 30 kN σ 35 mm 30 kN P BC σ = σ =
10 mm
30 kN
σ
35 mm
30 kN
P BC
σ
=
σ
=
=
max
BC
A (0.035 m)( 0.01 m)

= 85.7 MPa

22 kN

Example 7

The 80 kg lamp is supported b two rods AB and BC as shown . If AB has a diameter of 10 mm and BC has a diameter of 8 mm, determine which rod is subjected to the greater average normal stress.

C A 5 3 4 60 o B
C
A
5
3
4
60
o
B

ï Internal Loading

y F F BC BA 5 3 60 o B 4
y
F
F BC
BA
5
3
60
o
B 4

x

80(9.81) = 784.8 N

+

→ Σ

+ ↑ Σ

F

y

F

x

= 0;

= 0;

F

BC

(

4

5

)

F

BC

(

3

5

)

+

F

BA

cos 60

o

F

BA

sin 60

o

=

0

784.8

F BC = 395.2 N,

F BA = 632.4 N

=

0

C ï Average Normal Stress A 5 d = 10 mm 3 4 60 o
C
ï Average Normal Stress
A
5
d = 10 mm
3
4
60 o
B
d = 8 mm
F
395 .2 N
σ BC
= =
= 7.86 MPa
BC
2
π (0.004 m)
A BC
F
632 .4 N
σ BA
= =
= 8.05 MPa
BA
2
π (0.005 m)
A BA

The average normal stress distribution acting over a cross section of rod AB.

8.05 MPa 8.05 MPa 8.05 MPa
8.05 MPa
8.05
MPa
8.05
MPa

632.4 N

31

Example 8

Member AC shown is subjected to a vertical force of 3 kN. Determine the position x of this force so that the average compressive stress at C is equal to the average tensile stress in the tie rod AB. The rod has a cross-sectional area of 400 mm 2 and the contact area at C is 650 mm 2 .

. The rod has a cross-sectional area of 400 mm 2 and the contact area at

B

A

. The rod has a cross-sectional area of 400 mm 2 and the contact area at

3 kN

x

. The rod has a cross-sectional area of 400 mm 2 and the contact area at

C

. The rod has a cross-sectional area of 400 mm 2 and the contact area at
. The rod has a cross-sectional area of 400 mm 2 and the contact area at

200 mm

200 mm
F AB 3 kN x A C 200 mm ï Internal Loading F C +
F AB
3 kN
x
A
C
200 mm
ï Internal Loading
F C
+ ↑ Σ
F
= 0;
F
+
F
−3 = 0
− − − −(1)
y
AB
C
+
Σ M A = 0:
-3(x) + F C (200) = 0
------(2)

ï Average Normal Stress

σ =

F

F

C

AB

=

400

650

F

C

= 1.625

F

AB

− − − −(3)

Substituting (3) into (1), solving for F AB , the solving for F C , we obtain

F AB = 1.143 kN

F C = 1.857 kN

The position of the applied load is determined from (2);

x = 124 mm

33

Connections

ï Simple Shear

A

P

V
V

V

A

P A C B D P ττττ avg
P
A
C
B
D
P
ττττ avg

V

τ

avg

=

V

A

ï Single Shear

ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P

P

P

P P
P
P

Top View

P

P
P
ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P

Side View

ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P

V = P

P

ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P
ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P
ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P

P

P

P P
P
P

Top View

P

ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P

P

ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P
ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P

Side View

V = P

ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P
ï Single Shear P P P P Top View P P Side View V = P

P

35

ï Double Shear P P/2 P/2 P P
ï Double Shear
P
P/2
P/2
P
P

Top View

P

P
P
ï Double Shear P P/2 P/2 P P Top View P P Side View V =

Side View

ï Double Shear P P/2 P/2 P P Top View P P Side View V =

V = P/2 V = P/2

P

P

P/2 P/2 P P
P/2
P/2
P
P
P/2 P/2 P P Top View P P Side View V = P /2 V =

Top View

P

P/2 P/2 P P Top View P P Side View V = P /2 V =

P

P/2 P/2 P P Top View P P Side View V = P /2 V =
P/2 P/2 P P Top View P P Side View V = P /2 V =

Side View

P/2 P/2 P P Top View P P Side View V = P /2 V =
P/2 P/2 P P Top View P P Side View V = P /2 V =

V = P/2 V = P/2

P

36

Normal Stress: Compression and Tension Load

ï Tension Load P a b P¥ a b P t b d
ï Tension Load
P
a
b
a
b
P
t
b
d

P

A = bt σ @ a − b t
A = bt
σ @
a
b
t

Section a-a

P

a =

P

bt

A = (b-d)t

P P σ = @ b − b d ( b − d ) t
P
P
σ
=
@ b
b
d
(
b
d
)
t
t
b

Section b-b

37

ï Bearing Stress

t b¥ d P P b b¥
t
d
P
P
b
P/2 P P/2
P/2
P
P/2

t

ï Bearing Stress t b¥ d P P b b¥ P/2 P P/2 t d A

d

ï Bearing Stress t b¥ d P P b b¥ P/2 P P/2 t d A

A bearing = dt

Bearing Stress

σ

bearing

=

P

dt

P

σ = normal ( b − d ) t t dθ d θ P σ
σ
=
normal
(
b
d
)
t
t
d
θ
P
σ
=
bearing
dt
∫ 90
°
d
+
P −
)
t
cos
θdθ
=
0
ΣF x = 0:
b (
° σ
− 90
2
d
90 °
(
)
t
σ
b sin
θ θ
d
= P
2
90 °
P
=
σ bearing
o
td sin 90
b

b

σ bearing

=

P − − − − −*

td

39

ï Axial Force Diagram for Compression Load on Plate

ï Axial Force Diagram for Compression Load on Plate b t d P P Tension -P

b

ï Axial Force Diagram for Compression Load on Plate b t d P P Tension -P
t
t
d P P Tension -P -P
d
P
P
Tension
-P
-P

Compression

Normal Stress :

Bearing

Stress

P

σ =

σ

(

bd

bearing

)

t

=

,

P

dt

compression

ï Axial Force Diagram for Tension Load on Plate

ï Axial Force Diagram for Tension Load on Plate b t a d P P Tension

b

ï Axial Force Diagram for Tension Load on Plate b t a d P P Tension
t
t

a

d P P Tension P P Compression + P − Normal Stress : max σ
d
P
P
Tension
P
P
Compression
+ P
Normal
Stress
: max
σ =
,
tension
τ
(
b −
d
)
t
P
Bearing
Stress
σ
=
P/2
bearing
dt
P
τ
P
P/2
− Shearing
Stress
τ =
t
2 at
a

41

ï Shearing Stress on pin

P

P

Single Shear
Single Shear

P

P

ï Shearing Stress on pin P P Single Shear P P P P P τ =
ï Shearing Stress on pin P P Single Shear P P P P P τ =
ï Shearing Stress on pin P P Single Shear P P P P P τ =

P

P
P
P τ =
P
τ =

A

ï Shearing Stress on pin P P Single Shear P P P P P τ =

P

ï Shearing Stress on pin P P Single Shear P P P P P τ =

P

P P
P
P
ï Shearing Stress on pin P P Single Shear P P P P P τ =

P

ï Shearing Stress on pin P P Single Shear P P P P P τ =

P

P

P/2

Double Shear
Double Shear

P/2

P

P/2

P/2

P
P
P P/ 2 Double Shear P/ 2 P P /2 P /2 P P/ 2 P/

P/2

P P/ 2 Double Shear P/ 2 P P /2 P /2 P P/ 2 P/

P/2 2

P/2 P/2 P P/2
P/2
P/2
P
P/2

P/2

P/2
P/2

τ =

τ =

P / 2

A

P / 2

A

P/2

P/2

P

P/2

x

Pure Shear

z ∆z ∆x ∆y
z
∆z
∆x
∆y

Section plane

y

τ zy τ yz τ yz τ zy
τ zy
τ
yz
τ yz
τ zy

Pure shear

τ zy = τ yz

Example 9

The bar shown a square cross section for which the depth and thickness are 40 mm. If an axial force of 800 N is applied along the centroidal axis of the barís cross-sectional area, determine the average normal stress and average shear stress acting on the material along (a) section plane a-a and (b) section plane b-b.

800 N

a 20 mm b b 30 o 20 mm a
a
20 mm
b
b
30 o
20 mm
a

40 mm800 N a 20 mm b b 30 o 20 mm a ( a )

800 N40 mm a 20 mm b b 30 o 20 mm a ( a ) section

a 20 mm b b 30 o 20 mm
a
20 mm
b
b
30 o
20 mm

a

(a) section plane a-a

a 800 N N = 800 N a N 800 N σ = = =
a
800 N
N = 800 N
a
N 800 N
σ
=
=
= 500 kPa

A (0.04 m)( 0.04 m)

τ avg

= 0

( a ) section plane a-a a 800 N N = 800 N a N 800
( a ) section plane a-a a 800 N N = 800 N a N 800
( a ) section plane a-a a 800 N N = 800 N a N 800

500 kPa

( a ) section plane a-a a 800 N N = 800 N a N 800
( a ) section plane a-a a 800 N N = 800 N a N 800

40 mm800 N a 20 mm b b 30 o 20 mm ( b ) section

800 N40 mm a 20 mm b b 30 o 20 mm ( b ) section plane

a 20 mm b b 30 o 20 mm
a
20 mm
b
b
30 o
20 mm

(b) section plane b-b

a

800 N

b

800 N

V = 800 cos30 o = 692.82 N 30 o b 30 o
V = 800 cos30 o = 692.82 N
30 o
b
30 o

N = 800sin30 o = 400 N

x 40 mm
x
40 mm

30

o

sin 30

o 40

=

x

;

x

=

80 mm

o = 400 N x 40 mm 30 o sin 30 o 40 = x ;

σ

o = 400 N x 40 mm 30 o sin 30 o 40 = x ;

τ avg

σ

State of Stress @ b-b

o 40 = x ; x = 80 mm σ τ avg σ State of Stress

b

216.51 kPa

b 125 kPa

τ avg

N 400 N

=

=

= 125 kPa

A (0.04 m)( 0.08 m)

V 692 .82 N

=

=

= 216 .51 kPa

A (0.04 m)( 0.08 m)

Example 10

The wooden strut shown is suspended form a 10 mm diameter steel rod, which is fastened to the wall. If the strut supports a vertical load of 5 kN, compute the average shear stress in the rod at the wall and along the two shaded planes of the strut, one of which is indicated as abcd.

c b 20 mm 40 mm
c
b
20 mm
40 mm

5 kN

c b 20 mm d 40 mm a
c
b
20 mm
d
40 mm
a

5 kN

ï Average shear stress in the rod at the wall

V = 5 kN 5 kN d = 10 mm
V = 5 kN
5 kN
d = 10 mm

τ avg

V 5 kN

=

=

A π (0.005 m)

2

= 63 .7 MPa

5 kN 63.7 MPa
5 kN
63.7 MPa

ï Average shear stress along the two shaded plane

V = 2.5 kN

b a
b
a

c

d

V = 2.5 kN

τ avg

5 kN

V 2.5 kN

=

=

= 3.12 MPa

A (0.04 m)( 0.02 m)

3.12 MPa 5 kN
3.12 MPa
5 kN

Example 11

The inclined member show is subjected to a compressive force of 3 kN. Determine the average compressive stress along the areas of contact defined by AB and BC, and the average shear stress along the horizontal plane defined by EDB.

5 4 3
5 4
3
50 mm
50 mm

80 mm

25 mm

40 mm

3 kN

ï The average compressive stress along the areas of contact defined by AB and BC :

5 4 3 50 mm
5 4
3
50 mm

80 mm

3 kN

3 kN

5 4 3 5 3 1.8 MPa
5 4
3
5
3
1.8 MPa
4
4

1. 2 MPa

25 mm

3 kN

40 mm

F AB = 3(3/5) = 1.8 kN

2 MPa 25 mm 3 kN 4 0 m m F A B = 3(3/5) =

F BC = 3(4/5) = 2.4 kN

V = 1.8 kN

F

1.8 kN (0.025 m)(0.040 m)

2.4 kN (0.050 m)( 0.040 m)

AB

σ

=

1800 kPa

=

=

1200 kPa

=

1.8 MPa

AB

=

A

AB

F

BC

=

σ

1.2 MPa

BC

=

A

BC

=

51

ï The average shear stress along the horizontal plane defined by EDB :

5 4 3
5 4
3

3 kN

3 kN

5 4 3 50 mm F AB = 3(3/5) = 1.8 kN F BC =
5 4
3
50 mm
F AB = 3(3/5) = 1.8 kN
F BC = 3(4/5) = 2.4 kN

80 mm

25 mm

40 mm

V = 1.8 kN

τ avg

V 1.8 kN

=

=

A (0.04

m)( 0.08 m)

= 0.562 MPa

= 562 .5 kPa

1.8 kN 0.56 MPa
1.8 kN
0.56 MPa

Allowable Stress

F.S =

P fail

P allow

F S

.

=

σ fail

σ allow

6. Design of Simple Connections

A =

P

σ allow

A =

V

τ allow

F S

.

=

τ fail

τ allow

ï Cross-Sectional Area of a Tension Member

P

P

τ P P A =
τ
P
P
A =

allow

σ allow

F S . = τ fail τ allow ï Cross-Sectional Area of a Tension Member P
a a
a
a

ï Cross-Sectional Area of a Connector Subjected to Shear

P

ï Cross-Sectional Area of a Connector Subjected to Shear P P P P τ τ τ

P

P

P
P

ττττ allow

A =

V = P

ï Required Area to Resist Bearing

τ allow A = V = P ï Required Area to Resist Bearing ( σ b

(σ b ) allow

P A = (σ ) b allow
P
A =
)
b
allow

P

σ allow

54

ï Required Area to Resist Shear by Axial Load

ï Required Area to Resist Shear by Axial Load P Uniform shear stress (τ allow )

P

Uniform shear stress (τ allow ) d P P l = τ π d allow
Uniform shear stress (τ allow )
d
P
P
l =
τ
π
d
allow

Example 12a

The control arm is subjected to the loading shown. (a) Determine the shear stress for the steel at all pin (b) Determine normal stress in rod AB, plate D and E. The thickness of plate D and E is 10 mm.

φ = 10 mm B A φ = 25 mm D E φ = 25
φ = 10 mm
B
A
φ = 25 mm
D
E
φ = 25 mm
50 mm
200 mm
50 mm
25 kN
13 kN
D
E
C
5
φ = 20 mm
4
25 kN
pin C
75 mm
13 kN 3
50 mm
D E φ = 25 mm 50 mm 200 mm 50 mm 25 kN 13 kN
B A 200 mm C 5 4 75 mm 13 kN 3 50 mm
B
A
200 mm
C
5
4
75 mm
13 kN 3
50 mm

ï Reaction C

B A 200 mm C 5 4 75 mm 13 kN 3 50 mm ï Reaction

+

ΣM C = 0: F AB
ΣM C = 0:
F AB
F AB 200 mm C x 36.87 o 25 kN 13 kN C y 25
F AB
200 mm
C x
36.87
o
25 kN
13 kN
C
y
25 kN
75 mm 50 mm
75 mm
50 mm

(0.2) +13(0.075) 25sin 36.87(0.125) = 0

F AB = 4.5 kN ,

C y

+ ΣF x = 0: + ΣF y = 0:
+ ΣF x = 0:
+ ΣF y = 0:
F A B = 4.5 kN , ← C y + ΣF x = 0: +

C

C x

-4.5 - C x + 25cos36.87 o = 0

C x = 15.5 kN,

C y + 13 - 25sin36.87 o = 0

C

=

2 2 (15.5) + (2)
2
2
(15.5)
+
(2)

=

C y = 2 kN,

15.63 kN

57

φ = 35 mm (a) Shear stress B A 4.5 kN 200 mm 200 mm
φ = 35 mm
(a) Shear stress
B
A
4.5 kN
200 mm
200 mm
φ = 25 mm
φ = 25 mm
D
E
C
5
15.63 kN
φ = 20 mm
4
25 kN
13 kN
pin C
75 mm
13 kN 3
50 mm
25 kN
75 mm
50 mm

Pin C (Double shear)

15.63 kN 7.815 kN 7.815 kN V 7.815 kN C τ = = = 24.88
15.63 kN
7.815 kN
7.815 kN
V
7.815 kN
C
τ
=
=
= 24.88 MPa ⇐
C
2
A
(
π / 4)(0.02)
C

Pin D and E (Single shear)

 

V

D

13 kN

 

τ =

=

 
 

2

D

A

D

(

π / 4)( 0.025 )

V

E

25

kN

τ =

=

 
 

2

E

A

E

(

π / 4)(0.025 )

= 26.48 MPa

= 50.93 MPa

58

(b) Normal stress 4.5 kN

A D E 13 kN
A
D
E
13 kN
75 mm 50 mm
75 mm
50 mm
(b) Normal stress 4.5 kN A D E 13 kN 75 mm 50 mm φ r
(b) Normal stress 4.5 kN A D E 13 kN 75 mm 50 mm φ r

φ rod = 10 mm

200 mm

φ = 25 mm D E φ = 25 mm 50 mm 50 mm 25
φ = 25 mm
D
E
φ = 25 mm
50 mm
50 mm
25 kN
13 kN

C

15.63 kN

25 kN

Cale AB

σ

mm 50 mm 50 mm 25 kN 13 kN C 15.63 kN 25 kN Cale AB

P 4.5 kN

σ

AB

=

=

A

AB

(

π

/ 4)(0.010)

2

= 56.7 MPa

Plate D

13 kN 13 kN σ D 13 kN t = 0.01 m
13 kN
13 kN
σ D
13 kN
t = 0.01 m

0.05 m

σ D

=

=

P

A

13 kN

(0.05)( 0.01)

=

26 MPa

59

0.025 m m t = 0.01 m

0.05

φ rod = 35 mm

φ = 25 mm D E φ = 25 mm 50 mm 50 mm 25
φ = 25 mm
D
E
φ = 25 mm
50 mm
50 mm
25 kN
13 kN
Plate E
σ E
D E φ = 25 mm 50 mm 50 mm 25 kN 13 kN Plate E

50 mm

25 kN

25 mm 50 mm 50 mm 25 kN 13 kN Plate E σ E 50 mm

50 mm

25 kN

25 kN

25 kN 13 kN Plate E σ E 50 mm 25 kN 50 mm 25 kN
A D E 13 kN
A
D
E
13 kN

4.5 kN

E σ E 50 mm 25 kN 50 mm 25 kN 25 kN A D E
E σ E 50 mm 25 kN 50 mm 25 kN 25 kN A D E

200 mm

C

15.63 kN

25 kN

75 mm 50 mm P σ = E A
75 mm
50 mm
P
σ
=
E A

=

25 kN

(0.05

0.025)(0.01)

=

100 MPa

Example 12b

The control arm is subjected to the loading shown. Determine the required diameter of the steel pin at C if the allowable shear stress for the steel is τ allow = 55 MPa. Note in the figure that the pin is subjected to double shear.

B A 200 mm C 5 4 75 mm 13 kN 3 50 mm
B
A
200 mm
C
5
4
75 mm
13 kN 3
50 mm
MPa. Note in the figure that the pin is subjected to double shear. B A 200

22 kN

B A 200 mm C 5 4 75 mm 13 kN 3 50 mm
B
A
200 mm
C
5
4
75 mm
13 kN 3
50 mm
B A 200 mm C 5 4 75 mm 13 kN 3 50 mm ï Internal

ï Internal Shear Force

F AB 200 mm C x 22 kN 13 kN C y 22 kN
F AB
200 mm
C x
22 kN
13 kN
C
y
22 kN
75 mm 50 mm
75 mm
50 mm

C y

+ ΣM C = 0: + ΣF x = 0:
+
ΣM C = 0:
+ ΣF x = 0:
C y 22 kN 75 mm 50 mm C y + ΣM C = 0: +

+ ΣF y = 0:

50 mm C y + ΣM C = 0: + ΣF x = 0: + Σ

C

C x

C

F AB

(0.2) 13(0.075) 22 sin 36.87(0.125) = 0

F AB = 13.125 kN

-13.125 - C x + 22cos36.87 o = 0

C x = 4.47 kN

C y - 13 - 22sin36.87 o = 0

=

2 2 (4.47) + (26.2)
2
2
(4.47)
+
(26.2)

C y = 26.2 kN

=

26.58 kN

62

B A 200 mm C 5 4 75 mm 13 kN 3 50 mm
B
A
200 mm
C
5
4
75 mm
13 kN 3
50 mm
B A 200 mm C 5 4 75 mm 13 kN 3 50 mm ï Required

ï Required Area

26.58 kN 13.29 kN
26.58 kN
13.29 kN

A =

26.58 kN 13 kN
26.58 kN
13 kN

× 10

3

75 mm 50 mm − 6 2 = 241 .6 × 10 m 2 =
75 mm
50 mm
− 6
2
=
241 .6
×
10
m
2
=
242 mm

13.125 kN

200 mm

22 kN

22 kN

V 13.29

= 242 mm

2

=

τ allow

55

×

10

6

π

(

d

2

)

2

d = 17.55 mm

13.29 kN

Use d = 20 mm

Example 13a

The two members are pinned together at B as shown below. Top views of the pin connections at A and B are also given. If the pins have an allowable shear stress of τ allow = 86 MPa , the allowable tensile stress of rod CB is (σ t ) allow = 112 MPa and the allowable bearing stress is (σ b ) allow = 150 MPa, determine to the smallest diameter of pins A and B ,the diameter of rod CB and the thickness of AB necessary to support the load.

Top view

A

C 13 kN 5 3 A 4 B 1 m 0.6 m B
C
13 kN
5
3
A
4
B
1 m
0.6 m
B

ï Internal Force

A x

13 kN A F y BC A B 36.87 o 1 m 0.6 m +
13 kN
A
F
y
BC
A
B
36.87
o
1 m
0.6 m
+
Σ M A = 0: −13(1) +
sin 36.87(1.6) = 0
F BC
F BC = 13.54 kN
Σ F y = 0:
A
y −13 +13.54 sin 36.87 = 0
+

+

13.54 kN Σ F y = 0: A y −13 +13.54 sin 36.87 = 0 +

Σ F x = 0:

A

A y = 4.88 kN

x +13.54 cos 36.87 = 0

A x = 10.83 kN

A

A

ï Diameter of the Pins

13 kN A y = 4.88 kN F BC = 13.54 kN 11.88 kN A
13 kN
A y = 4.88 kN
F BC = 13.54 kN
11.88 kN
A
B
36.87
o
A x = 10.83 kN
B
1 m
0.6 m
A
Top view
Pin A
11.88 kN
Pin B
F BC = 13.54 kN
V A = 5.94 kN
V A = 5.94 kN
V B = 13.54 kN
V
13.54 kN
V
5.94 kN
B
A
2
A
=
=
=
157.4 mm
=
=
=
69.07 mm
B
3
2
3
2
τ
86
×
10
kN / m
τ
86
×
10
kN / m
allow
allow
π
π
2
2
2
2
(
d
)
=
157.4 mm
(
d
)
=
69.07 mm
B
A
4
4
d B = 14.16 mm, Use d B = 15 mm
d A = 9.38 mm, Use d A = 10 mm

2

66

ï Diameter of Rod

13 kN A y = 4.88 kN F BC = 13.54 kN 11.88 kN A
13 kN
A y = 4.88 kN
F BC = 13.54 kN
11.88 kN
A
B
36.87
o
A x = 10.83 kN
1 m
0.6 m
kN 11.88 kN A B 36.87 o A x = 10.83 kN 1 m 0.6 m

A BC

11.88 kN A B 36.87 o A x = 10.83 kN 1 m 0.6 m A
11.88 kN A B 36.87 o A x = 10.83 kN 1 m 0.6 m A

13.54 kN

=

13.54 kN

P

13.54 kN

=

σ

t

4

(

d

(

π

)

allow

BC

)

2

112

×

10

3

kN / m

= 120 .9 mm

2

2

= 120 .9 mm

d BC = 12.4 mm, Use d BC = 15 mm

2

ï Thickness

13 kN A y = 4.88 kN F BC = 13.54 kN 11.88 kN A
13 kN
A y = 4.88 kN
F BC = 13.54 kN
11.88 kN
A
B
36.87
o
A x = 10.83 kN
1 m
0.6 m

(

σ

b

150

t

AB

20 kN

36.87 o A x = 10.83 kN 1 m 0.6 m ( σ b 150 t

t

AB
AB

φ B = 15 mm

kN 1 m 0.6 m ( σ b 150 t AB 20 kN t AB φ

t AB

(

σ

b

150

φ A = 10 mm

A B
A
B

13.54 kN

B
B

6

P

= A 3 11.88 × 10 = (0.010 ) t AB
=
A
3
11.88
× 10
=
(0.010 ) t
AB

)

allow

×

10

11.88 kN

A
A
3 11.88 × 10 = (0.010 ) t AB ) allow × 10 11.88 kN A

= 0.00792 m

(σ b ) A

(σ b ) B

t

AB

By comparison

use

t

AB

= 8 mm

)

allow

×

10

6

=

P

A

=

13.54

×

10

3

(0.015 ) t

AB

= 0.00602 m

Example 13b

The two members are pinned together at B as shown below. Top views of the pin connections at A and B are also given. If the pins have an allowable shear stress of τ allow = 86 MPa, the allowable tensile stress of rod CB is (σ t ) allow = 112 MPa and the allowable bearing stress is (σ b ) allow = 150 MPa, determine to the maximum load P that the beam can supported.