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P2I

RESEARCH REPORT

P2I RESEARCH REPORT TRANSLATION SHIFT FOUND IN THE NOVEL ‘NO GREATER LOVE’ BY DANIELLE STEEL BY

TRANSLATION SHIFT FOUND IN THE NOVEL ‘NO GREATER LOVE’ BY DANIELLE STEEL

BY

DRA.THATHIT MANON ANDINI, M.HUM.

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF MALANG

2007

APPROVAL SHEET RESEARCH PROPOSAL PBI

1.a. Research title

: Translation Shift Found in The Novel ‘No Greater Love’ by Danielle Steel

 

b. Field of study

: Education

c. Research categorization

: I

2.

Researcher

:

a. Name

: Dra. Thathit Manon Andini, M.Hum.

b. Sex

: Perempuan

c. Golongan, Pangkat dan NIP

: III­B, Penata Muda Tk.I , 104.9109.244.

d. Fungsional degree

: Asisten ahli

e. Structural degree

: Vice Dean III

f. Faculty/departmet

: Teacher Training and Education/English

g. Research center

: Research Bureau of Muhammadiyah University of Malang

3.

Address of Researcher

:

a. Office/Telp/Fax/E­Mail

: Jl.Raya Tlogomas 246. Malang

b. Residence/ Telp/Fax/E­Mail

(0341)464318.Fax. (0341) 460435 : Jl. Tlogo Indah IA/9 Malang 65144

 

(0341)555729

5.

Research location

: Muhammadiyah University of Malang

6.

Time allocation

: 10 months

8.

Research cost

: Rp.2.000.000.(Two Millions Rupiahs)

Legalized by:

Malang, 14 Juni, 2007 Researcher,

Dean of KIP,

Drs. Fauzan, M.Pd. NIP: 104.8809. 0077

Dra. Thathit Manon Andini, M.Hum.

NIP­UMM:104.9109.244

Legalized by, Chairman of Research Bureau

DR.Ir.Wahyu Widodo,MS

NIP­UMM:110.8909.0128

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LEMBAR REGRISTRASI PERPUSTAKAAN UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini menerangkan bahwa:

Nama

: Dra. Thathit Manon Andini, M.Hum.

NIP­UMM

: 104.9109.0244.

Pangkat/Jabatan/Golongan : Penata Muda Tk.I/Asisten Ahli/ III­B

Unint Kerja

:

FIKP – Bahasa Inggris Universitas Muhammadiyah

 

Malang

Judulu Penelitian

: Translation Shift Found in The Novel ‘No Greater Love’ by Danielle Steel

Bahwa Penelitian tersebut telah terdokumentasikan di Perpustakaan Pusat

Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, dengan register No: 6.K /…… Perpus /

UMM / ……… / 2007, tanggal ………………… 2007.

/

Malang, ……………………….

Ka Perpustakaan,

Drs. Ec. Shobari, M.M.

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ABSTRACT TRANSLATION SHIFT FOUND IN THE NOVEL ‘NO GREATER LOVE’ BY DANIELLE STEEL

BY Thathit Manon Andini

Translation is an interesting thing to do because in translation, translators do many things and also get so many things. The translators face many difficulties in finding the closest equivalence. Equivalence in meaning is the main factor in translation. Good translation is that there is no any distortion in meaning. Due to those difficulties, Larson (1984:22) says that translation is a complicated process. Barnwell (1983:15) says that a good translation should be accurate, clear, and natural so it is not sound foreign. The principle in translation is the sameness meaning in the source language (TL) and the target language (TL). One of the competencies that should be possessed by translators is language competence. Other competencies are textual competence, subject competence, cultural competence, and transfer competence. To get a good translation, there are so many factors that should be remembered by translator. The two important factors are linguistics factor that cover words, phrases, clauses and sentence; non­linguistic factors cover the cultural knowledge on both source and target language culture (Nababan, 1999:20). Other difficulty in translation are related to idiomatic expression because each of the language express its own culture where it is used (Tarjana, 200:2). Another one is noun phrase. Soemarno (200:1) says that the difficulties not only the vocabulary but also the word structure. The other difficulty is in the process of transferring the meaning from source language into the target one. To find the closest equivalence: Equivalence at word level and above word level, grammatical equivalence, Textual equivalence and Pragmatic equivalence, the translators do the translation shift. Shift in translation is permitted as far as it does not change the meaning. It is the reason why the researcher wants to conduct the research on translation shift. As far as translation shift are concerned, Cardford gives two types of translation shifts, namely level shifts, and category shifts that are divided into structure­shifts, class­shifts, unit­shifts, and Intra­system shifts. In this research, it is limited in structure­shifts. This research is descriptive research. Descriptive research is design to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomenon (Ary,1979:295). According to John W. Best (1970:25) Descriptive research describes what it is. It involves the description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of conditions that exist. The data sources of this research are:1) Documents. The documents in this research is the translated novel with the title ‘Yang Terkasih’ the translation from ‘No Greater Love’ by Danielle Steel Translated by Indri Ka Hidayat. The result of this research shows that the translator did structural and class shifts in translating ‘No Greater Love’. In relation to this shift, some of them are inappropriate so it makes the meaning or the idea of the sentences are changed.

***

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. THE BACKGROUND OF RESEARCH Translation is a target text written as a result of the translator’ comprehension of source text. As a means of communication, the translation should be accurate, clear and natural and also should be there sameness in meaning, paralellism in form. To get a good translation, there are so many factors that should be remembered by translator. The two important factors are linguistics factor that cover words, phrases, clauses and sentence; non­linguistic factors cover the cultural knowledge on both source and target language culture (Nababan, 1999:20). Other difficulty in translation are related to idiomatic expression because each of the language express its own culture where it is used (Tarjana, 2000:2). Another one is noun phrase. Soemarno (2000:1) says that the difficulties not only the vocabulary but also the word structure. The other difficulty is in the process of transferring the meaning from source language into the target one. Due to those difficulties, Larson (1984:22) says that translation is a complicated process. Barnwell (1983:15) says that a good translation should be accurate, clear, and natural so it is not sound foreign. The principle in translation is the sameness meaning in the source language (TL) and the target language (TL). One of the competencies that should be possessed by translators is language competence. Other competencies are textual competence, subject competence, cultural competence, and transfer competence. Students of English Department of teacher Training and Education of Muhammadiyah University of Malang are not only given the knowledge about teaching learning process, but also the knowledge on translation as one of optional subjects besides English Business, English for Young Learners, and American study. This subject given to the students to give the knowledge about translation. We know that translation is much needed by someone to transfer one language to another language. By giving this subject, it is hoped that it will give more chance to students to get a job other than to be a teacher as the main purpose of their studying in Faculty of teacher training and education to be a teacher. Besides, the optional subject given to the students are. In translating text, there are so many aspects that should be remembered by translator. One of them is mastering language both source language and target

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language. It is one of the reasons why the researcher conducts the research related to the students’ grammatical problems related to the linguistic aspect in English language. The problems usually faced by students are lexical problems and grammatical problems. Grammatical problems cover the problems related to the word in relation to the other word. In getting a good translation, the translators or students have to know the grammar of the two language. So that is why, according to the researcher, this research is necessary to be done. By knowing the problems, the teacher will choose the most appropriate the strategy how to solve the problem to get better students’ acquisition. Based on the previous explanation, the writer thinks that this research is necessary to be done to know the students’ grammatical problems in translating Indonesia into English and the solution taken by students. Knowing the solution done by students is very important because if they can solve their problem appropriately, they will result a good translation. By identifying their problems, the lecturer will identify it and have the solution how to improve the weaknesses. It is hoped that by joining translation class, their ability in translating will be better than before . II. RESEARCH PROBLEMS This research will be done to answer the problems (1)what kinds of translation shifts found in ‘No Greater Love’ by Danielle Steel? And (2) how is the equivalence of meaning of the translation shift ?

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CHAPTER II REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE

1. The definition of translation

Translation is not only the transferring something written in source language into target language. Munday (2000:4) says that the term translation itself has several meanings: it can refer to the product and the process. The product involves the translated text and the process involves the translator changing an original written text (source language) into written text (target language) in different verbal language. Nida and Taber (1982:12) proposes a rather complete definition of translation. According to the two experts, “Translating consisting of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.” The definition proposed by Nida and Taber contain some elements that should be taken into account by a translator in performing his/her task: reproducing the message, equivalence, natural equivalence, closest equivalence, priority on meaning and also style. According to the definition, the translator should try to reproduce the message contained in the source language into the one in the target language. In this matter, what the translator should do in translating is to create the equivalent message, not the form in the target language. Or it can be stated that an emphases should be put on the reproduction of the message rather than the conversation of the form or grammatical structures. To get such equivalent message, many grammatical and lexical adjustments should be made. Based on the two definition, it is known there are so many factors that should be considered to get a good translation. A good translation, therefore, does not sound like translation. It should be natural as if it is originally written in target language.

2. Translation as a product

The product of translation is the text as a result of transferring the content, message, meaning from one language to another. Translation as a product is seen as the translated text without knowing the process how the translators translate it. The readers just see the product itself whether it is readable, understandable or not. Barnwell (1984:15) says that translator can result a good translation if the translator can transfer the meaning of source language into target language accurately, clearly ,

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and naturally. The most important thing to be remembered by translator is the meaning because should be there sameness meaning in source language and target language.

In transferring the meaning, translators have to pay attention to the equivalence, Mc. Guire (1991:25) proposes four types of equivalence, (1) Linguistic equivalence, (2) Paradigmatic equivalence, (3) Stylistic equivalence, and (4) Textual equivalence.

3. The Nature of Linguistic Meaning and Equivalence

The principle in translation is the sameness meaning in the source language (TL) and the target language (TL). For the message to be ‘equivalent’ in ST and TT, the code­units will be different because they belong to two different sign systems (language). Jakobson in Munday (2000:37) says that ‘Equivalence in difference is the cardinal problem of language and the pivotal concern of linguistic.’ He, further, says that the problem of meaning and equivalence thus focuses on difference in the structure and terminology of language of languages rather than on any inability of one language to render a message that has been written in another verbal language. The difference can be in the grammatical and lexical form. Dullay et all ( 1982:148) says that the problems often found in translation is the errors taxonomies have been based on the linguistic item. This linguistic category

taxonomies classify errors or problems according to the either or both the language component or the particular linguistic constituent the error affects. Language components include phonology (pronunciation), syntax and morphology. Morphology involve indefinite article, possessive case, third person singular verb, simple past tense, past participle, and comparative adjective. Syntax involves noun phrase, verb phrase, Verb­and –verb construction, word order, and some transformation.

4. Translators

In daily life, someone will say that a translator is someone who can translate or transfer from one language into the target one. It can be explained from the translation. Translation is a means of communication. It is an intercultural verbal activity . Translator is someone that can transfer the meaning from one language into

the target one by considering linguistic factors. Nord (1997:17) says

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“Translators enable communication to take place between members of different culture communities. They bridge the gab between situations where differences in verbal and non­verbal behavior, expectations, knowledge and perspectives are such that there is not enough common ground for sender and receiver to communicate effectively by themselves”.

Another way of characterizing translators is by looking at their professional

status and the nature of their daily working practice. On the basis of professional status,

translator can be categorized into amateur, semi­professional, and professional

translators. Amateur translators are those who do translation as hobby. Professional

translators, in contrast, are translators to earns money rather than a hobby

(Robinson,1997:33). Semi professional translators are between the professional

translators and amateur translators.

Based on the nature of their daily working practice (Nababan, 2004:66) says that

‘Translator can also be characterized as part­time translators and full­ time translator. Part­time translators generally do translation as a second job. Full­time translator, in contrast, earn money by working solely as translator. This division implies that part­time translators may be semi­ professional translators while full­time translators are professional translator.’

5. Translator’s Competence

Translating in a complex activity. Larson (1984:22) says ‘Translation is a

complicated process. However, translator who is concerned with transferring the

meaning will find that the receptor language has a way in which the desired meaning

can expressed, even though it may be very different from the source language form’.

Translation, of course, cannot be separated to two aspects, they the aspects of

linguistics and the aspects of non­linguistics. Nida (1975:95) says ‘The actual

process of translating can be described as a complex use of language; but the

scientific study of translating can and should be regarded as a branch of comparative

linguistic, with a dynamic dimension and focus upon semantics’.

Based on the explanation above, to be able to translate well, there are so

many aspects that should be remembered by translators. They have to have

knowledge to enable them to translate.

The work of translating is not only transfer the meaning from SL into TL.

Besides the language knowledge (SL and TL), the translator should posses cultural

knowledge, language style used in SL and TL as well as the process of translation.

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Nababan says (2004:70) that translators should be competent in (1) Language competence, (2) Textual competence, (3) Subject competence, (4) Cultural competence, (5) Transfer competence.

6. Transation and habit.

Translation covers two activities, those are remembering facts and remembering feeling. Translator has own the information and then how to perform in action. Translator work has to be clear, accurate, and understandable. The process of

transferring is not easy work. He has to find the closest meaning of the source language in the target language. To get the points, there so many thing that the

translator to be considered. Beside the linguistic aspect, non linguistic aspect is also important. Another thing that is very important is experience and habit.

7. Translation Shifts

Shift is something unavoidable in translation. In his attempt to transfer the meaning from one language (SL) to another (TL) by means of the universally known practice of translation, the translator faces a plethora of linguistics, stylistic and even

cultural problems. In this case, Popovic (1970;79) says that ‘this transfer is not performed directly and is not without difficulties.’ This means that the act of translation can be analyzed along range possibilities, which bring about a number of shifts in the linguistic, aesthetic and intellectual values of the source text (ST).

8. Catford and the introduction of translation shifts.

As far as translation shifts are concerned, Catford defines them as ‘depatures from formal correspondence in the process of going from the SL to the TL. Catford argues that there are two main types of translation shifts, namely level­shifts, where

the Sl item at one linguistic level (grammar) has at a different level (e.g. lexis), and category shifts which are divided into four types:

1. Structure shifts, which involve a grammatical change between the structure of ST and that of the TT;

2. Class­shifts, when a SL item is translated with a TL item which belongs to a different grammatical class, i.e. a verb may be translated with a noun;

3. Unit­shifts, which involve change ranks;

4. Intra­system shifts, which occur when ‘SL and TL process system which approximately correspond formally as to their constitution, but when

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translation involves selection of a non­corresponding term in the TL system’. For instance, when the SL singular becomes a TL plural. 9. English Sentence Structure 10. Indonesian Sentence Structure

11.THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH Based on the research problems. The purpose of this research are (1)what kinds of translation shifts found in ‘No Greater Love’ by Danielle Steel? And (2) how is the equivalence of meaning of the translation shift ?

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CHAPTER III THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH

The significance of this research is, theoretically, this study can give the knowledge to the readers or students about the theory of translation especially shift in translation; practically, the readers or the students will know the way how to translate well because they can shift appropriately.

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CHAPTER IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1. Research Design

This research is descriptive qualitative research. Descriptive qualitative research is design to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomenon. Descriptive research describes what it is. It involves the description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of conditions that exist. This research belongs to descriptive qualitative research, since the data are information about students’ grammatical problems in translating Indonesian into English and the way how they solve their problems. The key instrument of this research in the researcher herself, so the researcher can get information as much as possible both predicable and unpredictable data as Moleong says (2001:123).

2. Location of the Research This research is done in Muhammadiyah University of Malang.

3. Data Sources

Data sources in qualitative research is man, event and attitude, documents. Moleong says that books, scientific books, biography, and journal can be used as a

data sources. The data sources of this research are:

a. Documents The documents in this research is the novel ‘No Greater Love’ by Danielle Steel? And ‘Yang Terkasih’ by Indri K Hidayat.

4. Data Collection

The technique to get the data are making a note of document. Sources data in this research, the novel ‘No Greater Love’ by Danielle Steel? And ‘Yang Terkasih’ by Indri K Hidayat.

5. Data analysis technique

In this research, the researcher uses interactive data analysis. According to Sutopo (2002:96) there are three steps in this model, they are (1) reduction of data, (2) presentation of data , (3) drawing conclusion or verification.

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Reduction of data is the step of choosing , focusing, simplifying and data arranging of gathered data. The selected data is to be given a sign in order make researcher easier to analyze the data. In this research, there are two kinds of data, they are oral data and written data. Data presentation is an important information in a research. Written data presentation is the translated text by the students. While oral data is the oral data contains the information about the difficulties faced by the students in translating the English text into Indonesian. Drawing conclusion or verification is the last step in the research. After data have been available, drawing conclusion is done. If the researcher does not satisfied yet on her conclusion, she can do the data collection to complete the data. In this condition, it seems that qualitative research process run in around activities.

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CHAPTER V

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

5.1. Findings

In this chapter, the researcher presents the finding and discussion based on

the data analysis. This finding covers (1) Structure shifts, which involve a

grammatical change between the structure of ST and that of the TT; (2) Class shifts,

when a SL item is translated with a TL item which belongs to a different

grammatical class, i.e. a verb may be translated with a noun; (3) Unit shifts, which

involve change ranks; (4) Intra­system shifts, which occur when ‘SL and TL process

system which approximately correspond formally as to their constitution, but when

translation involves selection of a non­corresponding term in the TL system’, for

instance, when the SL singular becomes a TL plural.

This finding presents the possibility finding of the four translation shift in No

Greater Love.

5.1. Findings

(SL2,TL2)

SL : There were eleven people in the enormous dining room, and it was so cold

that Edwina could barely more her finger.

TL : Padahal dalam ruang makan luas itu ada sebelas manusia. Udara di situ

dinginnya bukan main sampai jari Edwina kaku, hampir tak bisa digerak­

gerakkan.

SL

TL

There

­

Were

­

Eleven

sebelas

People

manusia

In

dalam

The

­

Enormous

­

Dining room

ruang makan

And

­

It

udara

Was

­

So

bukan main

Cold

dingin

That

sampai

Edwina

Edwina

Could

­

Barely

hampir tidak

14

More

­

Her

nya

Finger

jari

Based on the contrastive analysis above, it is known that the translator did the

structural shift and also class shift. The Translator changes from one sentence

becomes two sentences. The translator also changes the subject of the sentence. The

Subject of the first sentence is eleven people, and the second sentence is It. It can be

said that the translator did the class shift that eleven people becomes it. The shift

found in the translation does not change the meaning of the sentence. It is allowed,

but the sentence become not effective.

(SL3,TL3)

SL : She glanced down at them and caught the gleam of her engagement ring in

the morning sunlight, and then smiled, as she glanced across the table at her

parents.

TL : Gadis itu mengerling jemarinya. Cincin pertunangannya kemilau ditimpa

sinar mentari pagi. Dia lalu tersenyum sambil melempar pandang kearah

kedua orang tuanya yang duduk di seberang meja.

SL

She Glanced down At them And Caught The Gleam Of Her Engagement Ring In The Morning Sunlight And Then Smiled As Glance Across The Table At Her Parents

TL

Gadis itu mengerling jemarinya ­ ­ ­ kemilau ­ pertunangannya Cincin ­ ­ sinar mentari pagi ­ lalu tersenyum sambil melempar pandang ke arah ­ meja ­ kedua orang tuanya

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Duduk Di seberang On the above translation, the translator translates from one sentence to three

sentences. Of course there is change of the structure of the two sentences (SL and

TL).

In the SL the structure of the sentence is S + V + Complement. In the TL the

subject becomes two, they are gadis and cincin pertunangannya. This structural

changes in this translation does not change the meaning but the problem is the

sentence is not effective. In translation, the translator also did the class shift that

Glance becomes melempar pandang.

(SL4,TL4)

1.

SL:

Even with his eyes cast down at his plate, she could see the mischief at the

 

corner of her father’s mouth.

 

TL:

Walaupun tampak serius menghadapi piring sarapannya, garis­garis jenaka

 

di sudut di mulut ayahnya tak bisa disembunyikannya.

 

SL

TL

Even

walaupun

with

his eyes

­ ­

­

tampak serius

cast down

menghadapi

at

his plate

­ piring

­

she

sarapannya

could

­

see

­

the mischief

­ garis­garis jenaka

at the corner of her father’s mouth

di sudut di mulut ayahnya

­

tak bisa disembunyikan

Based on the analysis above, it can be seen that the translator adds and omits the

information that causes the changes of the message of the SL sentence. It can be seen

in the word tampak serius and tak bisa disembunyikan. The two informations are not

found in the SL. She did the structural shift. In SL, the subject of the sentence is

She that preceded by adverb clause. In TL, the subject of the sentence is garis­garis

jenaka. In this translation, the shift is not appropriate and disposible.

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(SL5,TL5)

SL: And she was sure that beneath the table, he was holding her mother’s hand.

TL: Edwina sudah bisa menebak – di kolong meja, tangan ayah dan ibunya pasti

sedang bergenggaman.

SL

TL

And

She

­ Edwina

Was sure

sudah bisa menebak

That

Beneath the table He Was holding

­ di kolong meja ­ ­

­

tangan ayah dan ibunya

­

pasti sedang bergenggaman

The translation above, the translator also did unnecessary addition and omission.

The translator did not do the structural shift. In the SL, the Subject of the sentence

is She,and in the TL the Subject is Edwina.

(SL6,TL6)

SL:

playfully, and their friends liked to say that it was no wonder they had six

children.

TL: Memang begitulah mereka, terlebih kalau mereka sedang tidak

Left to themselves, they were always teasing and laughing, and whispering

diperhatikan siapa­siapa – saling menggoda , tertawa, berbisisk­bisik,

cekikikan geli. Tak heran mereka punya enam anak, begitu kawan­kawan

mereka berkomentar.

SL

TL

­

Memang begitulah mereka

Left to themselves

terlebih kalau mereka sedang tidak

diperhatikan sispa­siapa

They

­

Were

­

Teasing

saling menggoda

And

­

Lauging

tertawa

And

­

Whispering

berbisik

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Playfully

cekikikan geli.

and

their friends liked to say that it was nowonder they had six children

­ Tak heran mereka ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ mereka punya enam anak

In the above translation, it can be seen that the translator did the class shift. It can

bee seen in the word Teasing that was translated into saling menggoda. In this

translation there is a change from word into phrase and this phrase become reciprocal

expression that was not found in the TL.

(SL7,TL7)

SL: At forty­one, Kate Winfield still looked like a girl.

TL: Meskipun usianya sudah 41, Kate Winfield masih mirip gadis remaja.

SL

TL

­

Meskipun

At forty­one

usianya sudah 41

Kate Winfield

Kate Winfield

still

masih

looked like

mirip

a girl.

gadis remaja

The example above shows that the translator did the structural shift. It can be

seen that the translator change structure of SL. In the SL, the sentence consists of one

adverb clause At forty­one and one main clause Kate Winfield still looked like a girl.

In TL, the translator changes the meaning of the adverb clause as something

contradictive. It is not found in the SL. And in this translation, the translator did

addition in the word a girl becomes gadis remaja.

(SL8,TL8)

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SL: She had a lithe figure and slim waist, and walking behind them at a distance, it was often difficult to discern Kate from her oldest child, Edwina, who was also tall and had shining dark hair and blue eyes. TL: Perawakannya ramping luwes. Dilihat dari belakang saat dia dan putri sulungnya, Erwina, berjalan berdampingan – sulit dibedakan mana yang ibu dan mana yang anak. Edwina juga berperawakan semampai dengan rambut hitam berkilau dan sepasang mata biru jernih.

In this translation, the translator did a class shift in translating phrase She had a lithe figure. This phrase is translated into perawakannya. There is a change from phrase into noun. So it is categorized in class shift. In this translation, the translator also did structural shift. She did the a grammatical change between the structure of ST and that of the TL In the SL , there is only one sentence but in TL there are two sentences. So, it can be said that there are two subject in TL. And also the translator changes the active voice in the SL int0 passive voice in the TL. It was found also that translator did the addition the phrase blue eyes becomes biru jernih. This change actually does not change the meaning but it is categorized no accurate translation.

(SL9,TL9)

SL:

They were very close, as the entire family was.

TL:

Hubungan ibu dan anak itu sangat dekat.

In this translation, the translator did class shift and structural shift. The translator change the clause They were very close becomes Hubungan ibu dan anak itu sangat dekat. And also, the translator did the structural shift that in the SL there is adverb clause but not in the TL. This change cause the meaning of the sentence is not transferred well. And also the idea is also changed.

(SL10,TL10)

SL: It was a family in which people laughed and talked and cried and hugged and joked, and great mischief was conducted daily.

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TL: Keluarga Winfield keluarga yang hangat. Kehidupan mereka sehari­hari diwarnai dengan canda tawa, obrolan, tangis, saling peluk, goda menggoda yang tiada hentinya.

SL

TL

It

Keluarga Winfield

 

Was

­

A

family

keluarga

In

which

yang

People Laughed and talked and cried and huge And great mischief Was Conducted daily

­ hangat ­ ­ ­

In above translation, the translator tries to translate communicatively, because the translator change the idea of SL. It can be seen when She gives the information that Keluarga Winfield keluarga yang hangat . It seems that she infers from that family condition that the family in which the people laughed and talked means keluarga yang hangat. So fat about meaning is not so changed but it is not allowed that the idea is not accurate. In this case, it can be said that the translator did both structure shift and class shift.

(SL11,TL11)

SL : It was difficult now for Edwina to keep a straight face as she watched her brother George make clouds of vapor with his breath in the arctic dining room, which their uncle Rupert, Lord Hickham, liked to keep slightly colder than North Pole. TL : Melihat George, adiknya, membuat uap dengan mengembus­embuskan napas dalam udara dingin, Edwin hamper tak bias menahan rasa geli. Dengan susuah payah, dia berusaha agar wajahnya tetap berkesan serius. Paman Rupert, Lord Hickham, memang suka mengatur suhu di dalam rumahnyambeberapa derajad di bawah suhu normal kutub utara.

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(SL12,TL12)

SL:

The Winfield children were used to none of.

TL:

Keluarga Winfield tidak biasa begini.

SL

TL

The Winfield

Children

Keluarga Winfield

Were

­

­

­ tidak

Used to

biasa begini

None of

­ In the above translation, it is known that the translator tries to translate communicatively by changing the structure of the SL. In this case, the translator did the structural shift. In this translation the translator omitted some information, that is, children. Due to the omission, the message of the SL is not transferred well.

(SL13,TL13)

SL: They were used to the comforts of their American life in the warmer climate of California. TL: Mereka sudah biasa hidup santai ala Amerika dalam cuaca hangat California.

SL

TL

They

Mereka

Were used to

sudah biasa

To

­

The comforts of

hidup santai

Their American life

ala Amerika

In the

dalam

Warmer climate

cuaca hangat

Of California

California

21

Based on the contrastive analysis, it is known that the translator did class shift. The translation of of California becomes California. In this change, the translator changes nous phrase to noun.

(SL14,TL14)

SL: They had come all the way from San Francisco a month before to stay with their aunt and uncle, and announce Edwina’s engagement. TL: Sebulan yang lalu mereka sekeluarga datang dari San Francisco, berkunjung dan menginap di rumah Bibi dan Paman, mengumumkan pertunangan Edwina.

SL

TL

­

Sebulan yang lalu

They

­

­

mereka sekeluarga

Had come All The Way From San Francisco Amonth Before To stay With Their Aunt and uncle And Announce Edwina’s engagement

datang ­ ­ ­ dari San Francisco ­ ­ berkunjung dan menginap di rumah ­ Bibi dan Paman ­ mengumumkan pertunangan Edwina

(SL15,TL15)

SL: Their tries to England seemed to be repeating themselves.

22

TL: Pertalian dengan Inggris seakan berulang dalam sejarah keluarga.

SL Their tries To England Seemed To be repeating Themselves

TL Pertalian dengan Inggris seakan berulang dalam sejarah keluarga

(SL16,TL16)

Kate’s sister, Elizabeth, had married Lord Rupert twenty­four years before, and she had come to England to be the second viscountess and the mistress ofHavermoorManoor.

TL: Kakak perempuan Kate, Elizabeth, menikah dengan Lord Rupert 24 tahun silam dan pindah ke Inggris sebagai viscountess kedua sekaligus nyonya rumah Havermoor Manoor.

SL:

SL

TL

Kate’s sister

Kakak perempuan Kate

Elizabeth

Elizabeth

had married

menikah

­

dengan

Lord Rupert

Lord Rupert

twenty­four years before and had come to England to be viscountess and

24 tahun silam dan pindah ke Inggris sebagai viscountess

­

­ kedua

the mistress of Havermoor Manoor

nyonya rumah of Havermoor Manoor.

23

(SL17,TL17)

SL: At twenty­one, she had met the much older Lord Hickham when he had come to California with friends, and she’d been swept off her feet.

Pada usia 21, Elizabeth berjumpa dengan Lord Hickham yang usianya jauh lebih tua ketika bangsawan Inggris itu melawat ke California bersama rekan­rekannya. Elizabeth langsung jatuh cinta pada pandangan pertama.

TL:

(SL18,TL18)

SL: More than two decades later, her nieces and nephews found it difficult to understand the attraction. TL: Kini, lebih dari dua decade setelahnya, kemenakan­ kemenakan Elizabeth sulit mengerti apa yang begitu menarik hati bibi mereka pada pribadi suamimya 5.2. Discussion

24

CHAPTER VI

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusion

This chapter presents the conclusion that was derived from the data analysis in chapter V. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the translator did the structural and class shift. Based on the data, it can said that the translator did mostly the structural and class shift. The shifts that were done mostly did not change the meaning, but there were some of the shifts change the meaning or the idea of the SL. It was suggested that it was no necessary for the translator did such kind of shift if the shift changes the meaning.

5.2 Suggestion

Suggestions

In this study, practical and theoretical suggestions are offered.

Theoretical Suggestions

Translating means transferring messages, ideas, content or meaning from the source language into the target language. Therefore, theoretically, in order to enable the translators to find equivalence between the two languages, ideal translators must be good bilinguals. In the sense that they should master either the source language or the target language. On the basis of the research findings, that the translator of the novel with title ‘Greater no Love’ did the shift and sometimes the shift is not appropriate, therefore, it is suggested that the lectures of translation focus their attention on grammatical items, for example, they ask the students to reread books on grammars. Then, to improve the students’ sense of language, it is suggested that the students should be given a lot of practice in translating. Practical Suggestions

It is clear that the translator has problems in translating from English into Indonesian in terms of structural and class shift. On the basis of the findings, some practical suggestions are given to the teachers, students and other researchers. For the teachers. Two suggestions are offered here. The first is that the teacher gives materials appropriate with students’ level of , especially grammar. The

25

choice of materials should be based on the assumption that the TL (English) features) which are similar with the ones of SL will be easy and those that are different will be difficult. The second is that the teacher should choose appropriate methods in their teaching­learning activities. The methods should be intended to enhance students’ skills in coping with translation problems, especially grammatical problems, they face.

For the students. It was found that in the novel, especially in the Indonesia version were found the inappropriate shift, so it is necessary suggest the students to do shift as far as it does not the change, the idea of the SL meaning So, it is reasonable to suggest that the students improve their knowledge on Translation shift. The knowledge may be useful for anticipating the grammatical problems arising from translation. For other researchers. It is clear that the were some problems shift. So, other researchers are advised to do similar research with different text types in order to see the shift problems in a more detailed manner.

VII. RESEARCHER’S CURRICULUM VITAE

Thathit Manon Andini was born in Kediri, July 21, 1963. She started Elementry School, then finished high school in 1971­1980. She graduated from Faculty of Letters Jember University in 1990. She took her Post­graduate program at Sebelas Maret University Surakarta , Linguistics Program focused on Translation Study. She has thought in Muhammadiyah University, Faculty of Teaching Training and Education, English Department from 1991 up to know.

26

REFERENCES

Baker, Mona. 1992. In Other Words. A Course Book on Translation. London:

Routledge

Barnwell, Katherine G.L. 1984. Introduction to Semantics and Translation. England:

Summer Institute of Linguistics

Bell, Roger T. 1991. Translation and Translating : Theory and Practice. New York:

Longman

Dollerup, Cay and Lindegard, Annete. 1994. Teaching Translation and Interpreting

2. Philadelphia: John Benjamin Publishing Company.

Hatim, Basil and Mason, Ian. 1990. Discourse and The Translator. London:

Longman.

……………….……………. 1999. The Translator as Communicator.London:

Routledge

Leonardi, Vanessa, 2003.Equivalence in Translation: Between Myth and Reality.

Journal. http:/accurapid.com/journal/14equiv.htm. (05/03/2003)

Machali, Rochayah. 2000. Pedoman Bagi Penerjemah.Jakarta: Grasindo

Marshall.C. and Grechen B. R . 1995. Designing Qualitative Research. London:

Sage Publication.

Mildred, Larson.L.1984. Meaning­Based Translation. Boston: University Press of

America.

Munday, Jeremy.2000. Introducing Translation Studies. London: Routledge

Nababan, M.Rudolf. 1999. Teori Menerjemahkan Bahasa Inggris. Jogyakarta:

Pustaka Pelajar.

…………………… 2004. Translation Process, Practices, and Product of

Professional Indonesian Translators. Disertasi. New Zealand: Victoria

University of Wellington.

Nord, Christiane. 1997. Translation Theories Explained: Translating as a Purposeful

Activity. Manchester: St.Jerome.

Robinson, Douglas. 1978. Becoming a Translator. New York: Routledge

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Soemarno, Thomas. 2001. Menafsirkan Frasa Nomina dan Kalimat. Surakarta:

Muhammadiyah University Press.

……………………

1999.

Makna Dalam Penerjemahan, Seminar Nasional

Semantik I. Surakarta: UNS Press.

Sri Samiati Tarjana,M. 2000. English Idiomatic Expression and Some Problems of Translating Them into Indonesian. Modul Mata Kuliah.

Sutopo, HB. 2002. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University Press.

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APPENDIXES

Data Translation Shift ‘No greater Love’

2. SL : The only sound in the dining room was the ticking of the large, ornate clock on the mantelpiece, and the occasional muffled rustling of a heavy linen napkin. TL : Hanya detak jam besar kuno di rak perapian yang kedengaran di ruang makan, terkadang diselingi generisik gesekan serbet kain katun.

3. SL : There were eleven people in the enormous dining room, and it was so cold that Edwina could barely more her finger. TL : Padahal dalam ruang makan luas itu ada sebelas manusia. Udara di situ dinginnya bukan main sampai jari Edwina kaku, hamper tak bias digerak­ gerakkan.

4. SL : She glanced down at them and caught the gleam of her engagement ring in the morning sunlight, and then smiled, as she glanced across the table at her parents. TL : Gadis itu mengerling jemarinya. Cincin pertunangannya kemilau ditimpa sinar mentari pagi. Dia lalu tersenyum sambil melempar pandang kearah kedua orang tuanya yang duduk di seberang meja.

5. Even with his eyes cast down at his plate, she could see the mischief at the corner of her father’s mouth. Walaupun tampak serius menghadapi piring sarapannya, garis­garis jenaka di sudut di mulut ayahnya tak bisa disembunyikannya.

6. And she was sure that beneath the table, he was holding her mother’s hand.

TL: Edwina sudah bisa menebak – di kolong meja, tangan ayah dan ibunya

SL:

TL:

SL:

pasti sedang bergenggaman.

7. SL:

Left to themselves, they were always teasing and laughing, and whispering

playfully, and their friends liked to say that it was no wonder they had six children. TL: Memang begitulah mereka, terlebih kalau mereka sedang tidak diperhatikan siapa­siapa – saling menggoda , tertawa, berbisisk­bisik,

cekikikan geli. Tak heran mereka punya enam anak, begitu kawan­kawan mereka berkomentar.

29

8.

SL:

At forty­one, Kate Winfield still looked like a girl.

TL:

Meskipun usianya sudah 41, Kate Winfield masih mirip gadis remaja.

9.

SL:

She had a lithe figure and slim waist, and walking behind them at a

distance, it was often difficult to discern Kate from her oldest child, Edwina, who was also tall and had shining dark hair and blue eyes. TL: Perawakannya ramping luwes. Dilihat dari belakang saat dia dan putrid sulungnya, Erwina, berjalan berdampingan – sulit dibedakan mana yang ibu dan mana yang anak. Edwina juga berperawakan semampai dengan rambut hitam berkilau dan sepasang mata biru jernih.

10.

SL:

They were very close, as the entire family was.

TL:

Hubungan ibu dan anak itu sangat dekat.

11.

SL : It was a family in which people laughed and talked and cried and hugged and joked, and great mischief was conducted daily. TL: Keluarga Winfield keluarga yang hangat. Kehidupan mereka sehari­hari diwarnai dengan canda tawa, obrolan, tangis, saling peluk, goda menggoda yang tiada hentinya.

12.

SL : It was difficult now for Edwina to keep a straight face as she watched her brother George make clouds of vapor with his breath in the arctic dining room, which their uncle Rupert, Lord Hickham, liked to keep slightly

colder than North Pole. TL : Melihat George, adiknya, membuat uap dengan mengembus­embuskan napas dalam udara dingin, Edwin hampir tak bisa menahan rasa geli. Dengan susuah payah, dia berusaha agar wajahnya tetap berkesan serius. Paman Rupert, Lord Hickham, memang suka mengatur suhu di dalam rumahnyambeberapa derajad di bawah suhu normal kutub utara.

10.

SL:

The Winfield children were used to none of.

TL:

Keluarga Winfield tidak biasa begini.

11.

SL: They were used to the comforts of their American life in the warmer climate of California. TL: Mereka sudah biasa hidup santai ala Amerika dalam cuaca hangat

California.

12. SL: They had come all the way from San Francisco a month before to stay with their aunt and uncle, and announce Edwina’s engagement.

30

TL: Sebulan yang lalu mereka sekeluarga datang dari San Francisco, berkunjung dan menginap di rumah Bibi dan Paman, mengumumkan pertunangan Edwina.

13. Their tries to England seemed to be repeating themselves. Perta;lian dengan Inggris seakan berulang dalam sejarah keluarga.

14. Kate’s sister, Elizabeth, had married Lord Rupert twenty­four years before, and she had come to England to be the second viscountess and the mistress ofHavermoorManoor.

15. TL: Kakak perempuan Kate, Elizabeth, menikah dengan Lord Rupert 24 tahun silam dan pindah ke Inggris sebagai viscountess kedua sekaligus nyonya rumah Havermoor Manoor.

16. SL: At twenty­one, she had met the much older Lord Hickham when he had

come to California with friends, and she’d been swept off her feet. Pada usia 21, Elizabeth berjumpa dengan Lord Hickham yang usianya jauh

lebih tua ketika bangsawan Inggris itu melawat ke California bersama rekan­rekannya. Elizabeth langsung jatuh cinta pada pandangan pertama.

17. SL: More than two decades later, her nieces and nephews found it difficult to understand the attraction. TL: Kini, lebih dari dua decade setelahnya, kemenakan­ kemenakan Elizabeth

sulit mengerti apa yang begitu menarik hati bibi mereka pada pribadi suamimya.

18. SL:

Lord Hickham was distant and gruff, inhospitable in the extreme, he never seemed to laugh, and it was obvious to all of them that he found it extremely unpleasant having children in his house.

TL: Lord Hickham orangnya angkuh, dingin, tak pernah tertawa, sangat gampang marah, dan sama sekali tidak berusaha menyembunyikan rasa tidak senangnya pada anak­anak tinggal di rumahnya.

SL:

TL:

SL:

TL:

31