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Abedeen Uni Subsea Engineeing Deparment

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If R1=R2 =R3 =R4 =R5 =R6 =1K: i. Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit. ii. iii. Compute the current flowing through the circuit. Compute the voltage drop across each resistor.

Solution: Data Given: 1. R1=R2 =R3 =R4 =R5 =R6 =1K 2. Voltage across the circuit (V) = 100 Volts Let the equivalent resistance of the whole circuit be Req . We know that resistances R4, R5 and R6 are in series connection to each other so let their equivalent series resistance be Rs . From formula for computing equivalent series resistance we know that: Rs = R4 + R5 + R6 = (1 + 1 + 1) K = 3K Therefore Rs= 3 K Now Rs and R3 are in parallel connection to one another. Let their equivalent parallel resistance be Rp . From formula for computing equivalent resistance for parallel circuits we know that: 1/Rp = 1/Rs + 1/R3 Rp = (Rs.R3)/ (Rs + R3) Rp = 0.75 K

Now the circuit can be interpreted as resistance R1, Rp and R2 are in series connection to each other. Hence we can calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit. Req = R1 + Rp + R2 = (1+ 0.75+ 1) = 2.75K Req = 2.75 K Now to compute the current flowing across the circuit: Let the current flowing through the circuit be Ic Ampere. Now from Ohms Law: Voltage (V) = Ic x Req Therefore Ic = V/ Req = 100/(2750) = 0.03636 Ampere. Ic = 0.03636 Ampere Now to compute the voltage drop across each resistor: Let the voltage drop across resistors R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 be VR1, VR2, VR3, VR4, VR5 and VR6 respectively. Current flowing across resistors R1 and R2 is the same i.e. 0.03636 A Voltage drop VR1 = I c R1 = 0.03636 103 = 36.36 Volts Voltage drop VR2 = I c R2 = 0.03636 103 = 36.36 Volts Since R3 and RS are in parallel connection the voltage drop across them is the same. From Kirchhoffs voltage law we know that the sum of all voltages in a circuit is zero. Therefore the voltage drop across R3 is: VR3 = VRMS (VR1 + VR2) = 100 (36.36 + 36.36) = 27.28 Volts The current Ic splits in two parts when it enters the parallel network. Let the current flowing across resistor R3 be Ia and across the series resistors R4, R5 and R6 be Ib Amperes. Ia = VR3/ R3 = 27.28/1000 = 0.02728 A

Ib = I c - I a = 0.03636 0.02728 = 0.00908 A Voltage drop VR4 = I b R4 = 0.00908 1000 = 9.08 V Since value of current flowing through resistors R 4, R5 and R6 is the same and also the magnitudes of the resistors are same, the voltage drop across each of them will also be the same. Therefore VR4 = VR5 = VR6 = 9.08 V

The circuit parameters are as follows: R1=R2=10K L=2mH C=40F Compute: i. Current flowing through the circuit ii. Power factor SOLUTION: Data given: VRMS = 24 volts (V) Frequency of circuit (f) = 50 Hz Resistor R1 = 10 K Resistor R2 = 10 K Inductance (L) = 2 mH Capacitance (C) = 40 F Angular frequency () = 2f = 222/750 = 314.159 rad/s Inductive reactance XL = L = 314.159 2 10-3 = 0.628

Capacitive reactance XC

Let the equivalent resistance of the circuit be Req Since R1 and R2 are in parallel: (1/Req) = (1/ R1) + (1/ R2) Req = (R1 R2)/(R1 + R2) = (103 103)/(2103) = 5 K Let the total reactance of the circuit be X X = XL - XC = 0.628 79.577 = - 78.949 The negative value of reactance indicates that the reactance is capacitive. Impedance Z = = = 5000.623 IRMS = (VRMS / Z) = (24/ 5000.623) = 0.0048 Ampere IMAX = IRMS

Question 3: Using the Power Triangle, elaborate on the concepts of Apparent (Complex) power, Active (Real) power and Reactive (Imaginary) power. Give units for each and also mention the formulae associated. Based on these definitions, comment on the concept of Power Factor giving typical design criteria for p.f. of an electrical transmission system. Solution:

The vector representation of the real power, reactive power and apparent power in form of a triangle is known as power triangle. In an AC circuit, the real power or active power can be defined as the rate of energy conversion or energy dissipation taken as an average over one or more complete cycle. It is the energy that is used to do work. Also in an AC circuit there are inductive and capacitive elements that have the capacity to store charge temporarily. This causes the energy to flow in and out from the reactive elements. This energy, which returns to the source during each cycle, is known as reactive power or also known as imaginary power. The product of the root mean square voltage and the rated current is known as apparent power (S). Unit of real power is Watts. Real power can be represented mathematically as:(Warnes 1994) Real Power (P) = V I cos Unit of reactive power is reactive volt amperes (VAR). Reactive power can be represented mathematically as: Reactive Power (Q) = V I sin Unit of apparent power is volt amperes (VA). Real power can be represented mathematically as: Apparent Power (S) = V I Where V is the voltage across the load, I is the r.m.s. current and - the phase difference between the voltage across the load and the load current. The ratio between the real power and the apparent power is known as the power factor.

Power factor = An electrical power transmission system is designed in such a way that the power factor of the system is close to unity so that all the current is utilized in doing useful work. If it is not close to unity then there is the presence of reactive power, which increases the current needed in the transmission line without producing any useful work, which eventually increases the losses in wires. For achieving unity power factor, power factor correction techniques like putting capacitors or synchronous motors in parallel to the load are implemented.(Hughes, Hiley et al. 2008)

Question 4: An 11 Km cable is used to supply a load of 10 KW at 2 KV, single-phase 50 Hz AC line at a 0.85 p.f. lagging. The cable has Resistance/Km = 2.7 and Inductance/Km = 0.8 mH. If the cable can be modelled as a simple series connection of its equivalent resistance and inductance, compute: i. Full load current ii. Transmission line efficiency considering only Joule loss (Resistive heating) iii. Sending end voltage Solution: Data Given: Length = 11 Km Voltage at load VR = 2 KV Frequency f = 50 Hz Power factor (cos) = 0.85 lagging Let load current be IR Amperes. Resistance R = (Resistance/ Km) Length = 2.7 11 = 29.7 Inductance (L) = (Inductance/Km) Length = 0.8 10-3 11 = 8.8 mH Angular frequency () = 2f = 2 50 = 314.16 rad/s Inductive reactance XL = L = 314.16 8.8 10-3 = 2.764 We know that, VRIRcos = 10KW IR = 10000/(20000.85) = 5.882 A As this is at a power factor of 0.85, the actual or total IR = 5.882 (0.85 j 0.526) IR = 5 j 3.1 A Drop along the line is drop across RL + j XL : IL ZL = (5 j 3.1)(29.7 + j 2.764) = 157.06 j 78.25

= = 0.9068 or 90.68%

Question 5: In the diagram below, two load cases for an umbilical are shown representing the installation phase (Case 1) and the operation phase (Case 2).

Other details of the umbilical and the field are as follows: 1. The strain in electrical cables (and in umbilical) should not exceed 0.2% in installation phase and 0.125% in operation phase. 2. 6 super duplex cables: Wall thickness = 2 mm Inner diameter = 26 mm 3. Umbilical: Outer diameter = 170 mm Submerged weight = 180 N/m Dry weight = 120 N/m Dry height = 23 m 4. Submerged weight of the termination unit: 850 Kg 5. Field Data: Water depth at location = 1900 m DAF = 1.3 CF = 1.15 6. Material properties: Youngs modulus: Esteel = 200 GPa Youngs modulus: ECF_Rod = 160 GPa Determine if the tension capacity of the umbilical is sufficient for the installation and the operation phases. If found insufficient, calculate the number of 10 mm diameter CF reinforcement rods required to increase the tension capacity to be adequate in both cases. Assume that insertion of the CF reinforcement rods does not change the weight of the umbilical.

Solution: Installation Phase: Let estimated tension on the umbilical be T1 Newton (N) T1 = (dws + hw + WT) DAF where, d = water depth ws= submerged weight of umbilical in water h = height of umbilical above sea level w = weight of umbilical WT = submerged weight of termination unit in Newton DAF= dynamic application factor Therefore, T1 = (1900180 + 23120 + 850*9.81) 1.3 = 459.028 103 N To Calculate Umbilical Stiffness for 6 super duplex cables: Umbilical Stiffness = 6 EsteelA Where, Esteel = youngs modulus of steel = 200 GPa A = Area of the steel tube = (/4) (outer diameter2 inner diameter2) =(/4) (302 262) 10-6 m2 A = 175.92910-6 m2 Therefore, Umbilical stiffness (EA) = 6 200 109 175.929 10-6 = 211114.8 103 N Allowed umbilical Stiffness during installation (Tcap) = 0.2% of Umbilical Stiffness = 0.002211114.8 103 = 422.23 103 N Tension capacity (Tcap) is less than tension T1 on the umbilical; hence 10mm diameter carbon fibre reinforcement rods will be required to increase its tension capacity. Minimum Required umbilical stiffness: (EA)min = T1/ 0.002 = (459.08 103 ) / 0.002 = 229.514 106 N Increase in stiffness required = (EA)min (EA) = 229.514 106 211.114 106 = 18.4 106 N

Stiffness provided by one reinforced carbon fibre rod (EA)CF_Rod (EA)CF_Rod = ECF_Rod ACF_Rod = 160 109 (/4) 102 10-6 N = 12.566 106 N = (18.4 106) / (12.566 106) = 1.464 2 Hence 2 Carbon Fibre reinforced rods are required to increase the tension capacity as per requirement during installation phase. Operational Phase: Let estimated tension on the umbilical be T2 Newton (N) T2 = (dws + hw) CF DAF where, d = water depth ws= submerged weight of umbilical in water h = height of umbilical above sea level w = weight of umbilical CF= catenary factor DAF= dynamic application factor Therefore, T2 = (1900180 + 23120) 1.15 1.3 = 515.416 103 N The umbilical stiffness will be the same as that calculated for the installation phase Umbilical stiffness (EA) = 6 200 109 175.929 10-6 = 211114.8 103 N Allowed umbilical Stiffness during installation (Tcap) = 0.125% of Umbilical Stiffness = 0.00125211114.8 103 = 263.895 103 N Tension capacity (Tcap) is less than tension T2 on the umbilical; hence 10mm diameter carbon fibre reinforcement rods will be required to increase its tension capacity. Minimum Required umbilical stiffness: (EA)min = T1/ 0.00125 = (515.416 103 ) / 0.00125 = 412.332 106 N Minimum number of Carbon fibre rods required = (Increase in stiffness required/ (EA)CF_Rod)

Increase in stiffness required = (EA)min (EA) = 412.332 106 211.114 106 = 201.218 106 N Stiffness provided by one reinforced carbon fibre rod (EA)CF_Rod = 12.566 106 N = (201.218 106) / (12.566 106) = 16.0128 17 Hence 17 Carbon Fibre reinforced rods are required to increase the tension capacity as per requirement during operation phase. Hence the number of 10 mm diameter CF reinforcement rods required to increase the tension capacity to be adequate in both phases is 17. Minimum number of Carbon fibre rods required = (Increase in stiffness required/ (EA)CF_Rod)

Question 6: Write a well-researched note on the Skin Effect. Use appropriate figures, tables, formulae and references where necessary.

SKIN EFFECT INTRODUCTION: In alternating current transmission system, the current distribution throughout the cross section of the conductor is not uniform. With increase in frequency of AC current, there is an increase in the nonuniformity of the current flowing through the conductor. The current density is higher at the outer surface of the conductor and decreases towards the center of the conductor. This non-uniform distribution of current within a conductor is due to the phenomenon called Skin Effect. PRINCIPLE: Electrical conductors are used to transmit electrical energy and signals, from one point to another, by using an alternating current flowing through it. The conductors are typically wires. When an AC current flows through a conductor, an alternating magnetic field is produced around the conductor. (Gonen 1988)The magnetic field produced is directly proportional to the intensity of current flowing through the conductor and hence when the current intensity in a conductor changes, the magnetic field associated with also changes. This changing magnetic field produces an electromotive force that opposes the change in the current intensity of the conductor. The magnetic flux linkage of the current is not constant throughout the conductor. The flux linkages are relatively more at the center of the conductor as compared to the conductor surface. Thus the reactance to current flow is greater at the inner surface because the inductance of an element is directly proportional to the flux linkages per ampere, which results in greater current density at the surface of the conductor and reducing density as we go towards the center of the conductor. This phenomenon is known as skin effect. The factors influencing skin effect in a conductor are: Conductor size Frequency of current transmitted Relative resistance of the conductor material

When the conductor size and the AC current frequency increase, there is a corresponding increase in skin effect occurring in the conductor. Skin effect decreases with decrease in materials relative resistance. Effective resistance of a conductor is a function of power loss and the current in the conductor. Reff = where, Reff Ploss I = Effective resistance in = Power loss in conductor in watts = Current in amperes

The effective resistance increases with skin effect. One of the ways o tackle the problem with skin effect is by stranding the conductor, thus reducing the conductor size. An important terminology associated with skin effect is skin depth. Skin depth is defined as

the depth from the surface of the cable where the current density falls to of its value at the surface of the conductor.

The above figure depicts the skin effect in a conductor for different current frequencies. From the it can be observed that as the frequency of the current increases, the current density at the center of the cable, in this case co-axial, decreases and there is a corresponding increase in current density at the surface of the cable.(All About Circuits ) FORMULAES ASSOCIATED WITH SKIN EFFECT:(Wikipedia ) AC Current density = J Ampere AC current density at the surface= JS Ampere Frequency of AC current = f Hertz There is an exponential decrease in the value of current density from its value at the surface depending on the depth d from the surface. It is as follows: J = JS where, = skin depth in meter d = depth from the surface of the conductor Also, = where, = resistivity of the conductor = angular frequency = 2f = absolute magnetic permeability

From the above formula it is clear that skin depth varies as the inverse square root of conductivity, which means that for materials with higher conductivity, the skin depth will be reduced.

The above graph plots the change in skin depth to frequency of the AC current for different materials. It is evident from the graph that skin effect is a function of frequency and as the frequency increases the skin depth decreases. PREVENTING SKIN EFFECT: There are various ways to prevent skin effect from reducing the transmission efficiency of the AC current. One way of mitigation is by using litz wire. It comprises of thin wire strands that are individual insulated and woven together. The dimension of the thin wire strands is such that they have diameter less than skin depth. Thus the individual wire does not incur skin effect loss.

The above diagram is a pictorial representation of the litz wire comprising of many individually

REFERENCES: ALL ABOUT CIRCUITS, . Available: http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_11/1.html. GONEN, T., 1988. Electric power transmission system engineering: analysis and design. New York: J. Wiley. HUGHES, E., HILEY, J., BROWN, K. and SMITH, I.M., 2008. Hughes electrical and electronic technology. 10th edn. Harlow, England: Pearson/Prentice Hall. WARNES, L.A.A., 1994. Electronic and electrical engineering: principles and practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan. WIKIPEDIA, . Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin_effect.