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# Electrnica 3 Oscillators and Multivibrators

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Oscillators
Summary LC basic oscillator Barkhausen criterion Ring oscillator Multivibrators

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Harmonic oscillators
An oscillator can be defined as a device that generates a

sinusoidal or any other type of repetitive signal. An harmonic oscillator is generally characterized by being capable of generating a sinusoidal signal, or nearly sinusoidal, with a well defined frequency. In contrast, the rest of the oscillators group is given the name of relaxation oscillators. The most important features associated to an oscillator are: amplitude and frequency stability, output power and harmonic content (a variation in frequency is called drift)

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Oscillators
Tuned oscillator - LC resonant circuit
energy
L C

diL d dvL d 2 vL vL = L = L C = LC 2 dt dt dt dt

vL

jL

## d 2 vL vL d 2 vL 2 + = 0 ; + vL = 0 0 2 2 dt LC dt vL = V1e j0t + V2 e j0t = V sin 0t s 2 + 0 = 0 s1 , s2 = j0 ; ideal

2

-j/C
s 2 + 2s + 0 = 0 0 >
2

s1 , s2 = j 0 2
2

0,5

j0 ; real

LC Oscillator: low phase noise, large area Power is usually supplied by DC bias to the devices that convert the bias power into signal power in the form of a negative, nonlinear conductance or as regenerative feedback.
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Oscillators
energy

iC + iR + iL = iN
R L C

iN

vL

set iN=0 to obtain a homogeneous equation in the inductor current. A trial solution of the form iL=Kest leads to the characteristic equation Case (GL)2-4LC<0, there are two complex conjugate roots and the zero-input response is the underdamped form

1 diL (0 ) 1 = vC (0 ) = V0 dt L L d 2 iL di LC 2 + GL L + iL = 0 dt dt iL = ke st s1 , s2 = GL
2

d 2 iL di LC 2 + GL L + iL = iN dt dt Initial conditions, i L (0 ) = I 0

(GL )2 4 LC
2 LC

s 2 + 2s + 0 = 0 0 > s1 , s2 = j 0 2
2

0,5

j0 ; real

iL (t ) = e t ( K1Cos0 t + K 2 Sin0 t ) t 0
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Harmonic oscillators
Assuming some initial energy in the system, the natural response is a sinusoidal signal with frequency:
C L QL>5 RP=QL2Rs Rs C RP L

1 = o 1 2 4Q
With magnitude dumping of:

=
p1 , p2 =

o
2Q

o
2Q

j o 1

1 4Q 2

o =

1 LC Q = o RP C

How to keep a sustained oscillation? Active mode: Using an active element that replaces the dissipated energy in Rs (or Rp). Some sort of feedback is needed. a sort of negative resistor is needed.
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Harmonic oscillators
C Rs L

-Rs

R1

v = i

R1 R3 R2

R2

R1 R3 Ri = R2
C RP L R3 -Rp

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Oscillators
Barkhausen Criterion
Vi(s) Vo(s)

Vo ( s ) H ( s) = Vi ( s ) 1 + H ( s )G ( s )

H(s)

1+ H(s)G(s) = 0
G(s)

H(s)G(s) = 1

Vo ( s ) H (s) = Vi ( s ) 1 + H ( s )G ( s )

s = j 0

H ( j0 )G ( j0 ) = 1 H ( j0 )G ( j0 ) = 180

Self-sustaining oscillation the loop gain slightly exceeds unity at the resonant frequency, the phase shift around the loop is n2 rad (where n is an integer), the oscillation is sustained even if Vi=0.
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Oscillators
Barkhausen criterion regenerative feedback
G<0
Coupling network Coupling network

Filter

The inverting amplifier grants a rad (180 deg.) phase shift. To meet the requirements of the second criterion, the filter block provides an additional rad phase shift for a total of 2 rad (360 deg.) around the entire loop. By design, the filter block inherently provides the phase shift in addition to providing a coupling network to and from the amplifier. The filter block also sets the frequency of oscillation, using a tuned circuit (inductor and capacitor) or crystal. The amplifier provides for the replacement of the dissipated energy.

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Oscillators
Vi(s)

+ +

H(f)

Vo(s)

vof

saturation

G(f) |GH|>1

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Harmonic oscillators
Tuned oscillator
It is possible after a simple inspection to

Av
v1
C RP R3= RP

vo

## For a null phase in the system, L and C

should not be noticed during oscillation. That happens at the resonant frequency, (infinite impedance):
For a sustained oscillation the losses at

Rp needs to be compensated. That is accomplished if the amplifier is able to replace that energy by sensing v1 and by trying to keep its function (sinusoid). Once there is an attenuation of from the output to v1, Av=2!

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Harmonic Oscillator
Wien-Bridge oscillator
R2 R1

R2 1 1 A( jo ) ( jo ) = + R 1 1 3 + j CR 0 0CR

+ C R

1 o = ; RC

R2 =2 R1

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Oscillation control
It is impossible to impose the exact conditions for oscillation.

The solution passes by giving a gain > 1 when the signal has a small amplitude, and a gain < 1 for the large portion of the signal. Eventually a sustained oscillation is obtained.

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Harmonic oscillator
R22 R22 R1

A( jo ) ( jo ) = 1
In-between state

A( jo ) ( jo ) > 1
Low signal level

A( jo ) ( jo ) < 1

+ C R

## High signal level

' R22 // R22 <2 R1

R22 > 2; R1

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Harmonic Oscillator
Phase delay based oscillator Negative feedback. To verify the Barkhausen criterion a total shift of 180 is needed, at a single well defined frequency. Then three singularities are imposed (together of a gain equal to one).

C + R

KR

A(s ) (s ) =

## K 6 5 1 1+ + + sRC (sRC )2 (SRC )3

= 1 o =
j

1 ; K = 29 6 RC

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Oscillators
Can this circuit be an oscillator?
H1H2
1 2

H1

H2

1800

## If gm1RP1gm2RP2 1, the circuit oscillates

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Oscillators
Ring oscillator
A
INV1

INV2

INV3

tp N stages with delay t 2N=T Easy to integrate, high phase noise Rarely used in RF systems Often used in high speed data links

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Oscillators
Ring oscillator
INV1 INV2 INV3

Ai ( s ) =

Ao 1+ s

inverter gain

H (s) =

3 A0

s + 1 0

Open-loop gain

Design requirements:
The 3 inverters intrinsically ensure a 180 phase shift gain.
3 A0 2 1 + osc 0 3

=1

## The frequency dependent phase must provide another 180 shift.

Sinusoidal oscillation.
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2 v(t ) 1 k + v(t ) = 0 v(t ) = v(t ) 2 t k
R

## The solution of this equation is a sinusoid

K=RC

cos((1/k)t) R

sin((1/k)t) R

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Amplitude control made at this stage.
2R

The output of the first integrator presents a typical 1% distortion. The sin(.) is even better because of the extra filtering performed by the second integrator.

2R 2R

Non-inverting integrator

2R

Integrator (invertor)

cos((1/k)t)

v/2R

+ 2R

sin((1/k)t)

The adjustment can place the poles into the right side.
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Oscillators
Regenerative feedback basic architecture of transistor based

oscillators
Z(j)

-1

GmVx

+
C 1/G L

+ +
-1 -Gm
Z(j)

Vx

Barkhausen criterion for oscillation at resonance frequency GmZ(j0)=1 Assuming Gm is purely real, Z(j0) must also be purely real

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Oscillators
Regenerative feedback
Rp
L C

+ +
-1 -Gm
Z(j) 90 0 -90 0

Issue GmRp needs to exactly equal 1 Magnitude condition achieved making |GmRp|=1

+ +
-1
-Gm

Z(j)

20

30

Transistors transconductance is non-linear and presents saturation characteristics Harmonics are produced but are filtered out by the resonant circuit The Barkhausen criterion must be verified at fundamental frequency
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Colpitts oscillator
Tuned oscillator Negative feedback but three singularities

L C1 C2

vo(t)

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Colpitts oscillator
L
vo(t)

v(t) v(t)
C2

C1

## v (t ) g m v(t ) = sC1vo (t ) + o + sC2 v(t ) R 1 sC2 v(t ) = vo (t ) vo (t ) = 1 + s 2 LC 2 v(t ) 1 sL + sC 2

This is the exact value for oscillation. In reality, one do gmR > C2/C1 and let the transistor non-linearity to shape the magnitude.

o =

C1C2 L C +C 2 1 C gm R = 2 C1

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Colpitts oscillator

Choong-Yul Cha, and Sang-Gug Lee A Complementary Colpitts Oscillator in CMOS Technology IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 53, NO. 3, MARCH 2005

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Hartley Oscillator

vo(t)

v(t) v(t)
L2

o =
gm R =

L1

1 C (L1 + L2 ) L1 L2

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Hartley oscillator
Simplified analysis
1 C (L1 + L2 )

Z= for o =
vo(t) v1(t) vo(t)

C

L2

L1

## At the resonant frequency:

V1 = L2 ( g m RV1 ) L1

## This is true if: gmR=L1/L2

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Crystal oscillator
Rs L Cp Cs
Cp: shunt capacitance Cs: motional capacitance L: motional inductance R: motional resistance

L 1 = s Q= s RC R

1 CsC p Cs + C p

s =

1 LC s

## The circuit shows two resonant frequencies. Within the series

resonance the equivalent impedance of the crystal is very small (Rs). The second resonance frequency is defined by the LC series in parallel with Cp. Under these circumstances, the equivalent impedance is very high.

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Crystal oscillator
~

## The concept of electromechanic resonance can be understood as an RLC circuit.

Rs is very small => Q is a large value (Q> 20.000 are typical values)

Symbol

Rs
Friction

## Capacitor between plates

L
Crystal mass Elasticity

Cp

Cs

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Crystal oscillator
Crystal impedance as a function of frequency
X

Inductive

## Very small difference (Cs << Cp)

Z()
1,00E+07 1,00E+06 1,00E+05

wp ws
w

1,00E+04 1,00E+03

s=10 Mrd/s
(Mrd/s)
9,9 9,95 10 10,05 10,1

Capacitive

1,00E+02 1,00E+01

vo(t)

C1 C2

C s << C p +

C1C2 o LC s = s C1 + C2
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Crystal Oscillator
Pierce oscillator

## Filtering avoids harmonics.

resonance

of

the

C2

C1

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Tuned Oscillator
Differential LC tuned oscillator
L1 C1 I L2 C2

VO

/VO

Rp1

Cp1 L1 VO I

L2

Cp2

Rp2 /VO

This type of oscillator structure is quite popular in current CMOS implementations Simple topology Differential implementation (good for feeding differential circuits) Good phase noise performance can be achieved
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Oscillators
Differential LC tunned oscillator
Rp1
-1

Rp1 C p1 L1 /VO VO
VS

Rp1

Cp1 L1 VO

Cp1 L1 VO
-1/Gm1

VS

Design tank to achieve high Q Choose I bias for large swing, preventing saturation Transistor size adequate to obtain proper -1/Gm value - usually |GmRp|>1 to ensure start-up

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Oscillators
Differential LC tunned oscillator
L1 VO C1 I1 I Fundamental component is: I1(t)=2/.I.sin(0t) Resulting oscillator amplitude: A=2/ .I.sin(0t)*Rp I2 C2 L2 /VO I1 I I/2 I/2 T 2I/

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Oscillators
Frequency stability

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Multivibrators
One-shot (monostable) -

an electronic device that emits a single pulse when triggered. an electronic device that oscillates between two stable states (high and low). Commonly called a clock in digital systems. an electronic device that has two stable states (high and low) and must be triggered to jump from one to the other. Also called a flip-flop. Commonly used as temporary memory.

Free-running (astable) -

Latch (bistable) -

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Multivibrators
Monostable

/ One-shot - The one-shot, or monostable multivibrator, presents only one stable state. When triggered, it goes to its unstable state for a predetermined length of time, then returns to its stable state.
+V REXT CEXT
CX RX/CX

For most one-shots, the length of time in the unstable state (tW) is determined by an external RC circuit.

Trigger

Q
Trigger

Q
tW

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Multivibrators
Monostable /One-shot - Non-retriggerable one-shots do not

respond to any triggers that occur during the unstable state. Retriggerable one-shots respond to any trigger, even if it occurs in the unstable state. If it occurs during the unstable state, the state is extended by an amount equal to the pulse width.
Retriggerable one-shot:
Trigger Retriggers

Q
tW Triggers derived from ac Retriggers tW tW
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Retriggers tW

## Power failure indication

Multivibrators
Monostable/One-shot Example

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Multivibrators
Monostable /One-shot - Example

Recovery time

vC (t ) = VF (VF VS )e

t RC

T ( R + Ron )C

## (1 + 0,02)VDD = VDD + VD1e

Trcy ( R + Ron )C

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Multivibrators
Schmitt trigger
vc

Vref
R1

AH
vi

VTL

vi

AH

vo

R1 AH = VTH Vref = R1 + R2
vi

Av
R2

AL

Hysteresys
vo

vo

vi

AL

-A

VTH

Vref =

R1 AL = VTL R1 + R2
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Multivibrators
Schmitt trigger no inversor
R2
vi

AH
R1 +
vo vi

AL

vo

AH

R1 VTL = AH R2
vi

R1 VTH = AL R2

AL

## Actual characteristic of a comparator

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Multivibrators
Astable or Relaxation Oscillator
V R V R VTH = OH 1 ; VTL = OL 1 R1 + R2 R1 + R2
VOL VOH

## Assuming |VOH| = |VOL|

R2 + 2 R1 where T = t1 + t2 = 2 ln = RC R 2

t1 t2

f =

1 2 RC

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## Oscillators and Multivibrators

Bibliography Sedra, Smith, Microlectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press. Johns, David;Analog integrated circuit design. ISBN: 0-471-14448-7.

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