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Globalization (or globalisation) describes an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies and cultures have become integrated

through globe-spanning networks of exchange. The term is sometimes used to refer specifically to economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.

Modernization is a theory used to explain the process of modernization within societies. The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that, with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have. Modernization theory attempts to identify the social variables which contribute to social progress and development of societies, and seeks to explain the process of social evolution.

Globalization and modernization

Globalization can be defined as the integration of economic, political and social cultures and is related to the spreading of modernization across borders. It theorizes the development of a global economy in the sense that the world is moving in the direction of more efficient use of resources and the means of production. Mass tourism could not have developed without air travel. Annual trans border tourist arrivals rose to 456 million by 1990 and are expected to double again, to 937 million per annum, by 2010 Communication is another major area that has grown due to modernization. Communication industries have enabled capitalism to spread throughout the world. Telephony, television broadcasts, news services and online service providers have played a crucial part in globalization. With the many apparent positive attributes to globalization there are also negative consequences. Economic development can often initially highlight the disparities between a society's rich and its poor. In major cities of developing countries there exist pockets where technologies of the modernized worldcomputers, cell phones and satellite televisionexist right alongside stark poverty. This often begets an acute awareness of those in society initially or chronically left behind by economic progress. Globalization has many advocates some of which are globalists, transformationalists and traditionalists. Globalists are globalization modernization theorists so are therefore very positive about the concept. They argue that globalization is good for everyone as there are benefits for all including vulnerable groups such as women and children. This is done because globalization is typically western and it's the western values which are transmitted therefore allowing women to rights they wouldn't have had before.

Impact of Globalisation and Modernisation


On the one hand, modernization has encouraged the development of new forms of creative expression, such as film and television. These forms can be easily exported and viewed all over the world. However, a loss of culture may result from modernization. The spread of the Western culture has caused young people in non-Western countries to abandon traditional customs and values. Even languages begin to disappear as urbanization encourages people to learn a country's dominant language.


New technology has revolutionized the speed and accuracy of production. Furthermore, increased global trade allows businesses to sell their products anywhere. But increased global production may hurt domestic business when international companies can offer products at cheaper prices. The production of goods in foreign countries, where labor laws are more relaxed, amounts to exploitation in some people's view.


Natural resources such as wood, water and oil are often processed in modernized society, and skyscrapers and factories begin to transform the landscape. Environmental problems, such as climate change, are believed to be the result of industrial development and production. However, in many poorer countries, the discovery of oil and the adoption of new technologies is welcomed for the financial opportunities it presents.

Communication and Travel

New inventions such as phones, televisions and computers allow people to communicate instantly anywhere on the globe. Increased global travel allows people to visit foreign cultures for business or leisure. Contact with foreign cultures fosters international cooperation, but can also result in further loss of culture as people begin to adopt the foreign cultures and languages they are exposed to.