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Complete Mechanisation of track maintenance- A critical review of deployment of Track machines.

A critical review of deployment of Track machines. Under the guidance of Shri Ajay Goyal, Sr.

Under the guidance

of

Shri Ajay Goyal, Sr. Professor(Bridge)

Sh Sunil Mittal Dy CE/TMC/JP NWR

BY

Sh Anand Singh Sr DEN/1/BSB NER

Sh Mukesh Kumar Sr DEN/PRCL/BVP WR

Course No. 821: Sr Professional Course (P.Way)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our gratitude to the, IRICEN for giving us this unique opportunity to make out this project, which may bring in some

valuable improvement Railways.

in a particular field of working on Indian

We are grateful to Sh. Ajay Goyal, SP/B & Project Guide, who most affectionately steered the project with his able & valuable counseling and guidance.

We are also grateful to Sri A.K.Yadav, SP/T & Course Director and Sh. V.B. Sood, PT/2, for their active support & kind guidance during the course of this Project.

We take this opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to Sh. A. K. Goel, Director/IRICEN and other faculty members for their kind tutelage during the entire course of Sr Professional training.

We hope this project would find a little place in the services of the Indian Railways in its various missions for continuous improvement.

INDEX

Item

Particulars

 

Page No

No.

 
 

SYNOPSIS

1

1.0

TRACK STRUCTURE ON INDIAN RAILWAY

1

2.0

TRACK MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES

 

1

3.0

PRESENT SYSTEM OF MECHANIZEDMAINTENANCE

2

4.0

ON TRACKMACHINE UNITS

 

3

4.1

History of mechanization on IR

 

3

4.2

On track machines on IR

 

5

4.3

Planning

for

Deployment

of

on

track

5

machines:

4.3.1

Deployment of tamping machines

 

5

4.3.2

Deployment of other machines

 

6

5.0

MOBILE MAINTENANCE UNITS (MMU)

 

7

5.1

Deployment of small track machines

 

7

5.1.1

MMU-I

7

5.1.2

MMU-II

9

5.1.3

Yardstick of small track machines

 

9

5.1.4

Availability of small track machine on IR

 

10

6.0

ISSUES INVOLVED IN MOBILEMAINTENANCE SYSTEM

11

 

SUGGESTIONS

REGARDING MOBILE

MAINTENANCE

12

7.0

SYSTEM

8.0

INTRODUCTION OF NEW ON-TRACKMACHINES

14

 

CONCLUSION:

 

18

COMPLETE MECHANIZATION OF TRACK MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES - A CRITICAL REVIEWOF DEPLOYMENT OF MACHINES.

SYNOPSIS:

Indian Railway system is one of the largest railway system in the world under a single management having over 63000 route Km and about 1.1 lakh track kilometers. Volume of traffic moved & its relatively low cost to common man makes Indian Railway the prime mover of the nation.

Track maintenance in the railway has undergone a sea change during the past 30 years due to continuous developments in various track components viz sleepers, fastenings and long welded rails. The use of the machines both for mechanized track maintenance as well as track laying has increased substantially in recent past with the introduction of heavy track structures to meet the challenges of growing traffic and changed socio-economic conditions.

Being fit for modern heavy track structure and givingquality out put far superior than what one can achieve manually, a complete mechanization of track maintenance has become inevitable. Similarly at present track relaying is being done manually as well as by machines, but the quality and progress of machines has outplayed what we achieve manually.

Today, Indian Railways have a large fleet of different types of new generation track machines. However due to growing traffic density, axle loads and speeds on the Indian Railways, the deployment of further new generation high performance sophisticated track machines is to be thought of on Indian Railway.

In this project efforts have been made to concise the system of complete mechanization of track maintenance by deploying on-track machines and small track machines, with shortcomings and scope for further improvement. Moreover state-of-the-art new generation high performance track machines not available on IR have also been discussed to have an insight of new machines.

1.0 TRACK STRUCTUREON INDIAN RAILWAYS:

Modern railway track structure on Indian Railway matches with the world-class railway track structure with PSC sleepers, 60 Kg 90 UTS rails, fan shaped turnouts, LWR/CWR, elastic fastenings etc. The sleeper density varies from 1660 to 1310 sleepersper kilometer.

With the Uni-gauge policy of Indian Railway the entire MG/NG track is being converted in BG at a very fast pace.

2.0 TRACK MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES:

Track maintenance means the total process of maintenance and renewal required to ensure that the track meets safety and quality standards at minimum cost. For keeping any asset in the good fetal it is utmost necessary to monitor the health of the asset and to maintain it to the required level.

Activities involved in the track maintenance are as follows:

1- Tamping of track for correction of track geometry;

a-

Tamping of plain track.

b-

Tamping of turnouts.

2- Need based spot attention; a-attention to bad spot generally on approaches of bridges , level crossing and at turnouts. b-packing of glued joints , welded joints. c-attention of switch expansion joints (SEJ). d-minor rectification of alignment.

3- Casual renewal of track components viz rail, sleeper, fittings etc. 4- Systematic over-hauling. 5- Ballast profiling. 6- Emergency repairs viz. rectification of rail /weld fractures etc. 7- Destressing of LWR tracks. 8- Transportion, loadingand unloadingof P.Way material. 9- Ultrasonic testing of rails. 10-Lubrication of elastic rail clips.

12- Maintenance of level crossings;

a-

Overhaulingof level crossing

b-

Improving visibility by removing trees, bushes etc.

c-

Maintenance of road surface.

11-Patrolling

a- Monsoon patrolling. b- Hot weather patrolling. c- Cold weather patrolling d- Security patrolling

d- Keyman daily patrolling

12- Manning caution and speed restriction boards. 13- Tree cuttingfor improved visibility. 14- Lubrication of rails and fish plated joints 15- Resurfacingof switches and crossings 16- Pre monsoon attention to drains /waterways 17- Pulling back of creep and gap adjustment 18- Attention to level crossings 19- Periodic deep screening 20- Rail welding 21- Rail cutting /drillingand chamfering 22- Minor cess repairs 23- Rail grinding

3.0 PRESENT SYSTEM OF MECHANIZED TRACK MAINTENANCE:

three-tier system of track

maintenance shall be adopted on sections nominated for mechanized maintenance. This

As per the instructions laid down in Para 228 of IRPWM

mechanized

system

of track maintenance shall

consist

of

the following 3 tiers

of

maintenance:

(i)

On track machines unit (OMU)

TTM, BCM, FRM, DGS, BRM, etc. for planned on track maintenance.

(ii)

Mobile maintenance units (MMU)

MMU-I: Rail cum road vehicle based, for spot tamping, welding, de-stressing, casual renewal etc.

MMU-II: Road vehicle based, for reconditioning of turnouts, repair of small track machines.

(iii)

Sectional gangs (SG)

Regular track maintenance activities such as patrolling, pre & post tamping attention, attention to loops & bridge approaches, greasing of ERC & fish plated joints, minor cess repair and assistance to OMU & MMU.

4.0 ON TRACK MACHINE UNITS:

4.1 History of mechanization on IR:

Indian Railways started conducting trials with various off-track tampers around 1958-60 on Delhi-Agra route of Central Railway, which is the beginning of mechanization of track maintenance in Indian Railways.

Between 1963 and 1966, Indian Railways purchased 4 Nos. of On-Track Tampers Matisa made (B-60: 1No. & BN-60: 3 Nos.). In 1965, M/s Plasser & Theurer delivered the first track maintenance machine to Indian Railways and established a permanent service depot at Faridabad in India.

In February 1968, the first track maintenance machine manufactured in India by M/s Plasser & Theurer was handed over to Indian Railways. Following types of on- track machines have been procured and commissioned on Indian Railways in past:

Type of Machine

Model No

Year

Company

Driving

Progress/

 

speed

Effective hour

 

Tamping Machines

 

Super

lining

control

06-16-

1968

Plasser &

40

400

to 500 sleepers

tamper

SLC

Theurer, Austria

 

Universal

 

06-16-

1972

-do-

40

500

to 600 sleepers

Tamper

USLC

 

Tamper single

 

08-16-

1985

-do-

60

800

to 1000Sleepers

sleeper

Unomatic

 

Tamper Double

08-32-

1986

-do-

60

1400

to

1600

Sleepers

Duomatic

Sleepers

Continuous

Tamping

09-32-CSM

1989

-do-

60

2200

to 2400 sleeper

Machine

Tamping

Express

09-3X-

2000

-do-

60

2800

to

3500

Three Sleepers

CSM

Sleepers

Tamper Double

08-32-

2003

-do-

60

1800

sleepers

 

Sleepers

Duomatic

 

Russian Tamper

VPR-

2004

Metex, Russia

60

2000 Sleepers

 

Double Sleepers

02M-18

 
 

Tie Tamping Machines – Points & Crossing Tamping Machine

 

Points & Crossing Tamper

08-275-2S

1990

Plasser &

60

1 Turnout

 

Unimat

Theurer, Austria

 

Points & Crossing Tamper

08-275-3S

1993

-do-

60

1 Turnout

 

Unimat

 
 

Tie Tamping Machines – Multi Purpose Tamper

 

Multi Purpose

Unimat

1998

 

60

1 Turnout or 600 sleepers on Straight

tamper

Compact-

M

 
 

Dynamic Track Stabilizer

 

Dynamic track

DGS-

1990

 

60

1

to 2 Km

Stabliser

62N/62PLS

 
 

Ballast Handling Machines

 

Ballast Cleaning

BCM

1970

Matissa,

40

 

Machine

Switzerland

Ballast Cleaning

RM-80

 

Plasser &

40

650

Cum.

 

Machine

Theurer, Austria

 

KBC-600

 

Kersaw, USA

   
 

RM-76

1992

Plasser &

40

550

Cum.

 

Ballast Cleaning Machine for Points & Crossing

Theurer, Austria

 

Shoulder Ballast

FRM-80

1992

Plasser &

40

550

Cum.

 

Cleaning Machine

Theurer, Austria

 

KSC-600

1986

Kersaw, USA

40

550

Cum.

 

Shoulder Ballast

FRM-85

2004

Plasser &

40

550

Cum.

Cleaning Machine

Theurer, Austria

 

Ballast

regulating

BRM 66-4

1989

Kersaw, USA

50

1

Km

Macine

BRM C 56-3

   

60

 
 

Track Relaying Machines

 

Track Relaying

PQRS

1972

Plasser &

5

1 st hr

= 20P

 

Machine

2000-I

Theurer, Austria

2 nd hrs.= 17P 3 rd hrs = 14P

 

(5T) &

 

201(9T)

 

Track Relaying

TRT

1989-90

Tamper

5

1

Km.

in

2

Hr.

40

Train

P-811S

Corporation,

Minutes

 

USA

 

Machine for Turn out renewal

T-28

1992

Ameca, Italy

10

Depends

on

site

Conditions

 
 

Special Purpose Machine

 

Mobile Flash Butt Welding Plant

K-355

1987

Plasser &

60

 

APT

Theurer, Austria

Rail Grinding

SX-11

1990

Loram, USA

60

 

Machine

4.2

On track machines on IR: The Zone wise distribution of on track machines available

on Indian Railway is given in Annexure-I. Total type wise distribution of various on track machines available on Indian Railway is as given below:

Sr No.

Type of Machine

TOTAL Numbers

1

Tamping express (09-3X)

12

2

Continuous tamping machine CSM

51

3

Work site tampers (WST)

68

4

UNIMAT

54

5

Multi purpose tampers (MPT)

9

6

Ballast cleaning machine (BCM)

61

7

Shoulder ballast cleaning machine (SBCM)

29

8

Plasser quick relaying system (PQRS)

39

9

T- 28

25

10

Track relaying train (TRT)

8

11

Dynamic track stabliser (DTS)

62

12

Ballast regulatingmachines (BRM)

27

4.3 Planning for Deployment of on track machines:

As per para 5.1.1 of IRTMM by 30th September of every year, Sr. DENs/Co-ordination of divisions will send to the CTE(MC) their Annual Requirement plan for track machines based on maintenance needs, track renewal needs, availability of blocks etc., for the next year commencing from April. Likewise the construction organisations will project to the CTE(MC) their needs for gauge conversion, doubling, new lines etc,. The requirement plan shall cover all the track machines such as TRT, PQRS, T-28 etc., for track laying/renewal sites, tampers for rear packing and maintenance packing, as well as special machines such as BCM, SBCM, DTS, Ballast Regulators etc.

Requirement of the divisions and the construction organisations shall be examined at the Zonal HQ and a 'DRAFT' machine deployment programme is issued by 31st January. On receipt of' the "Pink book" and passing of Budget, the draft plan is revised to suit the works included in the Pink Book, The finalised deployment plan will be sent to all concerned by 31st March every year.

4.3.1 Deployment of tamping machines:

(i) Tamping Cycle:

As per the instructions given in para 5.7 of IRTMM the tamping charts shall be maintained at divisional level and at HQ for monitoring the frequency of Tamping. The track structure, prescribed tamping cycle, last tamped periods (2 cycles) and condition of the track (CTR values of Standard Deviation values) will have to be incorporated in the charts.

The tamping cycle currently in existence is as follows which may have to be reviewed from time to time:

(a) On PSC sleepers, the frequency of tamping will be once in two years or passage of 100

GMT oftraffic whichever is earlier.

(b) On other than PSC sleepers, frequency of tampingwill be once in one year.

The above approach of laying down the tamping cycle based on time elapsed or at the most traffic carried, does not take into account the track condition. The track condition shall be the prime criteria for deciding the deployment of track. The track condition can be measured by deploying various monitoring equipments like OMS, TRC, Oscillograph car etc. Absolute track surveying can be one by using the automated, computer-assisted EM-SAT track survey car.

(ii) Deployment of tamping machine based on TRC results:

The systematic through tamping shall be done based on tamping cycle. However apart from systematic through tamping based on tamping cycle, the deployment of tamping machine at any time shall be based on TRC results as perthe instructions issued by PCE-WR.

Just after the TRC run the analysis of TGI value is required to be carried out Km wise and block wise to identify the stretches to be attended by machine as per following details and the tamping machine shall be deployed from one end to other end to attend the identified stretches:

(i)

TGI value in between 80 & 50: The Kms/blocks having TGI value less than 80 due to curves are identified and the curves are to be measured. If the curve requires the complete realignment then tamping machine can be planned.

(ii)

TGI value is between 50 & 36: If the TGI value for a particular Km is between 50 & 36 planned maintenance is required to be carried out. The stretches of more than 200 m length shall be identified and attended with tamping machines.

(iii)

TGI value is less than 36: The Kms where TGI is less than 36, needs to be attended on urgent basis with tamping machine. Further before deploying the machine, the spot with larger defects is to be attended with off track tampers.

(iii) Points andCrossing Tamping Machine:

The deterioration of Points & crossing area is more as compared to the plain track due to the geometry of the structure. The deployment of P&Ctamping machine can be based on GMT passed or the minimum time interval as per the following frequency:

(a) On PSC sleepers, the frequency of tamping will be once in two years or passage of 100

GMT oftraffic whichever is earlier.

(b) On other than PSC sleepers, frequency of tampingwill be once in one year.

4.3.2 Deployment of other machines:

(i) Ballast Cleaning Machine:

As per the laid down instructions the deep screening is to be carried out once in 10 years. However, the need of deep screening shall be assessed based upon the clean ballast cushion available so as to ensure the effective tamping& drainage.

(ii) Ballast Regulating Machine:

The ballast regulating machine can be deployed after unloading the ballast in the section. The ballast insertion programme is to be chalked out and accordingly the machine can be

deployed. This machine is to be deployed with ballast cleaning machine and also after track renewal work.

(iii) Dynamic Track Stabiliser:

The dynamic Track Stabiliser helps to achieve consolidation while regaining the resistance to lateral displacement. This helps in relaxing the speed restrictions expeditiously and extension of maintenance cycle and thus constitutes an economically sound measure.

The machine should be used in maximum settlement mode at renewal or deep screening sites. On maintenance site, it should be used in controlled settlement mode. The DTS should be deployed immediately behind the tamping machine. Hence the frequency shall be kept as same that of the tampingmachine.

5.0 MOBILE MAINTENANCE UNITS (MMU):

5.1 Deployment of small track machines:

There is no laid down frequency of deployment of small track machine. In fact a frequency cannot be fixed as primarily these machines caters to spot attention or to the requirement of work sites. The type of small track machine to be deployed depends on the type of track maintenance work to be performed.

As per three-tier system of track maintenance two types of Mobile maintenance units (MMU) are to be provided as per P.Way manual:

o

MMU-I one for each PWI’s section

o

MMU-II one for each sub division

5.1.1 MMU-I: It is rail cum road vehicle based maintenance unit. One no of MMU-I is to be provided with each PWI in charge with a jurisdiction of 40-50 kms double line or 90-100 Kms single line for the following activities:

(i) Need based spot tamping: This is a part of directed track maintenance (DTM).

With the use of off track tampers concrete sleeper / flat bottom sleeper track can be tamped with an average progress of 40 to 50 sleepers per hour. During tamping, correction of lateral alignment, vertical profile and cross-level can be done by using hydraulic track lifting and slewing device (TRALIS). Alternatively cross-level alone can be corrected by using hydraulic/mechanical jacks.

(ii) In situ rail welding

(iii)

Casual renewals and repairs except planned renewals

(iv)

Over haulingof level crossings

(v)

Replacement of glued joints

(vi)

Rail cutting/drilling and chamfering

(vii) Permanent repairs to factures (viii) Creep or gap adjustments involving machines

(ix)

Distressing of LWR/CWR

(x)

Loading/ unloading of materials

Deployment of small track machines for the above track maintenance activities of MMU-I is given below:

Sr. No

Maintenance activity

 

Small track machine required

Qty

1

Need based

spot

1- Off track hand held tamper with generator

1

set

   

tamping with lifting & lining

2-Hydraulic/mechanical lifting jack

4

sets

3-Hydraulic track lifting cum slewing device

2

sets

2

In situ rail welding

 

1-Rail welding equipment

2

sets

 

2-Weld trimmer

1

set

3- Rail profile weld grinder

1

set

3

Casual renewals and repairs except planned renewals

1- Rail cutting machine (Abrasive/saw type)

1

set

2-Rail drilling machine

1

set

3-Track lifting jack (Hydraulic/mechanical)

4

set

 

4-Various track tools like crow bars, beaters, rake ballast, rail tongue etc.

As per

requirement

4

Over hauling of level crossings

1-Track lifting jack (Hydraulic/mechanical)

4

sets

2-Hydraulic track lifting cum slewing device

2

sets

 

3- Off track hand held tamper with generator

1

set

4-Various track tools like crow bars, beaters, rake ballast, rail tongue etc.

As per

requirement

5

Replacement of glued joints

1- Rail cutting machine (Abrasive/saw type)

1 set

2-Rail drilling machine

1 set

 

3-Rail welding equipment

2 set

4-Weld trimmer

1 set

5-Rail profile weld grinder

1 set

6

Rail

cutting

/drilling

1- Rail cutting machine (Abrasive/saw type)

1 No

and chamfering

 

2-Rail drilling machine

1 No

 

3- Chamfering kit

1 set

7

Permanent

repairs

to

1- Rail cutting machine (Abrasive/saw type)

1 set

factures

2-Rail drilling machine

1 set

 

3-Rail welding equipment

2 set

4-Weld trimmer

1 set

5- Rail profile weld grinder

1 set

6-Hydraulic rail tensor

1 set

8

Creep

or

gap

1-Rail creep adjuster

1 set

adjustments

involving

2-Gap gauge

1 No

9

machines

 

Distressing

of

1- Rail cutting machine (Abrasive/saw type)

1 set

 

LWR/CWR

2-Rail drilling machine

1 set

 

3-Rail welding equipment

2 set

4-Weld trimmer

1 No

5- Rail profile weld grinder

1 set

   

6-Hydraulic rail tensor

2

set

7-Destressing rollers & wooden mallet

Complete set

10

Loading/ unloading of materials

1- Rail dolley

6

Nos

2- Mono rail wheel borrow

2

Nos

11

Communication

1-walkie talkie

4

Sets

2-portables field telephones

4

Sets

12

Inspection gadgets

1-Inspection kit

1

No

2-Gauge- cum- level

1

No

 

3-Rail thermometer

1

No

4-Vernier calipers

1

No

5-Micrometer

1

No

13

Safety

and

protection

1-Warningsystem

1

Set

   

equipments

2-Red banner flag

As

per

 

3-Red hand signal flag

protection

 

4-Green hand signals flag

rules.

 

5-Detonators

 

6-Gas cutting equipments with accessories

1 set

 

5.1.2 MMU-II : It is Road vehicle based. One MMU –II is to be provided with each sub division to cater to the needs of all PWI units under one sub-division for the following activities:

(i) Reconditioning of Turnouts

(ii) Minor repairs to the equipments ofMMU-I

Requirement of small track machines for the above track maintenance activities of MMU-II is given below:

Sr

Category

 

Name of equipment

Qty

A

Points

and

crossing

1-Welding generator

1

Set

reconditioningequipment

 

2-Arc welding equipment

1

Set

 

3-Hand held rail grinder

2

Sets

B

For

minor

repairs

to

1-Spanner of sizes

2

Sets

equipments

 

2-Turfer

2

Sets

 

3-Files of sorts

2

Sets

4-Bench drill

2

Sets

5-Vice bench

2

Sets

6-Bench grinder

2

Sets

5.1.3 Yardstick of small track machines: As per Indian Railway Small Track Machine Manual (IRSTMM) yard stick for holding of small track machine has been fixed for different types of small track machines. The yardstick is given as below:

S.

TYPE OF MACHINE

 

QUANTITY

No.

 

1.

Abrasive Rail Cutter

3 per SE (Suburban)

1 per SE (Other than suburban)

1 per ART

2.

Abrasive Rail Cutting Wheel

As required

3.

Rail Cutting Machine (Saw Type)

2

nos. per SE (other than Suburban)

   

1

per ART

4.

Hacksaw Blade for cutting Rails

As required

5.

Rail Drilling Machine

2 per SE (Suburban)

1 per SE (other than suburban)

1

per ART

6.

Chamfering Kit

1 per SE

7.

Hydraulic Rail Tensor (non-infringing type), 70 t capacity

2

per SE

8.

Hydraulic Rail Bender (Jim Crow), Heavy duty

1

per SE

9.

Hydraulic Rail Joint Straightener

1

per Sub division

10.

Rail Creep Adjuster

1

per SE

11.

Hydraulic Sleeper Spacer

2

per SE

12.

Concrete Sleeper Breaker with Angle Grinder

1

per ART

13.

Concrete Sleeper Drilling Machine

1

per Division

14.

Portable DC Welding Generator

1

per SE

15.

Double Action Weld Trimmer for AT Welding(Power Pack Version)

1

per Welding-unit

16.

Rail Profile Weld Grinder

1

per Welding-unit

17.

Heavy Duty Hydraulic Extractor for Jammed ERCs

1

per SE

1

per ART

18.

Toe Load Measuring Device (Mechanical)

1

per SE

19.

Electronic Toe Load Measuring Device

1

per SE

20.

Mechanical Track Jack

2

per gang/unit

21.

Hydraulic Track Jack

4

per gang/unit

22.

Portable track lifting & slewing device (TRALIS)

2

per SE

23.

Self Propelled light weight Trolley

1

per AEN

24.

Powered Material Trolley

1

per SE

25.

Light Weight Rail (Mono) cum Road Trolley

2

per gang

26.

Jib Crane Attachable to BFR-BRH for handlingconcrete Sleeper

As required

27.

Attachment for Rail Dolly for PRC sleeper

4

per SE

28.

Powered Rail Hauling System

1

per PQRSsite

29.

Hand Held Off Track Tamper

3

per SE

30.

Portable Ballast Cleaner (Semi- Mechanised)

1

per gang

31.

Portable Shoulder Ballast Compactor

1

per SE

5.1.4 Availability of small track machine on IR : Assuming 100 track km to be

maintained by each PWI unit, total PWI unit on IR for 1.1 lacs track km comes out to be

1100.

As per above yard stick typical Requirement and availability on one of the Zonal Railway is given below:

Sl

Name ofmachine

Yard stick as per IRSTMM

Requirement

Availabilty

%

No

in Southern

in Southern

availability

Rly

RLy

1

Abrasive rail cutter

1

per SE

100

5

5

2

Rail drilling machine

1

per SE

100

58

58

3

Double action weld trimmer

1

per

100

12

12

welding unit

4

Rail profile weld grinder

1

per

100

25

25

welding unit

5

Hydraulic track jack

4

per gang

2000

62

3.1

6

Mechanical track jack

2

per gang

1000

82

4.1

7

Toe load measuring device

1

per SE

100

31

31

8

Portable DC weld generator

1 per SE

100

19

19

9

Hydraulic tensor

2 per SE

200

13

6.5

10

Hydraulic rail bender

1

per SE

100

4

4

11

Hydraulic sleeper spacer

2 per SE

200

1

.5

12

Rail creep adjuster

1 per SE

100

6

6

13

Portabletrack lifting and slewing device

2 per SE

200

0

0

14

Portable ballast cleaner

1

per gang

500

3

1

15

Hydraulic clip extractor

1

per SE

100

4

4

16

Concretesleeperdrilling

1

per

5

2

40

device

division

Data of small track machine availability on Southern Railway is indicative only. The pattern on Indian Railway is more or less similar and one thing can be said that present availability of small track machine is grossly inadequate and requires priority attention in this regard.

6.0 ISSUES INVOLVED IN MOBILE MAINTENANCE SYSTEM :

(i) Poor adoption of MMU :

The present problems regardingthe poor adoption of mechanized maintenance usingsmall track machines is due to the following reasons:

- Poor knowledge regarding maintenance

- Difficulty in transport of equipments

- Frequent breakdowns

- Problem of repairs

- Non availability of petrol and other consumables

- Shortage of trained and skilled manpower

- Lack of initiative in use of small track machines

(ii) Experience with RCRV: For MMU-I rail cum road vehicle has been specified for mobility and it was introduced on ALD & KTT division for experiment. Following are the

constraints with RCRV;

(i)

Its movement on rail is on paper line clear, due to track circuiting and axle counter problem.

(ii)

Excessive down time of the machine as the know how of repairs of this machine is not locally available. HavingAMC with the supplier M/s Phooltas, Patna has not been found satisfactory & workable.

(iii)

Infringement at Level crossings during on-tracking/off-tracking, and infringement on adjacent track on double line section will require 5-10

minutes block on both up and down lines

(iv)

Pay load limit of present RCRV is only 3.5 tonnes, hence constraint in

movement of man, material & machinery.

constraint in movement of man, material & machinery. 7.0 SUGGESTIONS REGARDING MOBILE MAINTENANCESYSTEM: For

7.0 SUGGESTIONS REGARDING MOBILE MAINTENANCESYSTEM:

For implementation of stipulated system of mobile maintenance following is suggested:

(i)

Availability of small track machines: Availability of small track machine as per yard stick be ensured by stipulated time for complete mechanisation. Since as per manual CE/TMC is given procurement power in respect to small track machines centralized supply of small track machine along with 3 year AMC be arranged from Zonal Railway HQs.

(ii)

Separate unit for small

track

machine maintenance: Since these machines

primarily involve low power generators, small

electrical & hydraulic circuit, it is not possible to maintain these machines unless a dedicated maintenance unit for small track machine is provided with each ADEN unit. Following small track machine maintenance unit is proposed;

mechanical

engine, preliminary

Sl

Post

No

Qualification

Yardstick

No

1

SSE/

1

Degree/ Diploma in Mech/ Elect/ Automobile

1 per Div for independent monitoring of small track

(SMTMC)

       

machines in the division.

2

SE/JE

1

Diploma in Mech/ Elect/ Automobile

1 per ADEN

(SMTMC)

3

Fitter (Mech)

1

ITI

1 per ADEN

4

Fitter (Elect)

1

ITI

1 per ADEN

4

Helper

2

8 th Pass

2 per ADEN

Each ADEN shall have small track machine maintenance depot under SE/JE as mentioned above who shall ensure proper maintenance along with necessary inventory planning.

(iii)Mobility of small track machines: The duties assigned to MMU-I indicate that the maximum workload of transporting Small Track Machines (STMs), handling new/released track material and man power are assigned to it. Therefore, reliable transportation for MMU-I is one of the key issues for ensuring success of this system.

Due to the constraints of RCRV, it is suggested that transportation separately by rail and road is to be provided.

Transportation by rail, a self-propelled rail mobile vehicle (RMV) comprising 8-wheeler unit with a long platform, driving cab, a crane (of about 2.5 T capacity) and covered/open space is suggested to be provided per ADEN. On KRCL rail mobile vehicle (RMV) is being used and is quite successful.

Transportation by road : One truck per ADEN for MMU-II and one pick up van ( eg TATA mobile) round the clock with every in-charge PWI for MMU-I is to be provided. On BSB division of NE Railway contract for provision of truck with every ADEN and provision of Tata mobile (Pick up van ) with each in-charge PWI round the clock has been made. Most of the small track machines are easily transportable by Pick up van.

Hence for day to day working the MMU-I has to move with required machines with Pick up van and in special circumstances truck & Rail vehicle available with ADEN are to be utilized on planned basis.

(iv)

Modification in small track machine: A recent development of common electrical power pack for operation of rail drilling machine, rail cutting machine (both saw type and abrasive disc type ), weld trimmer and rail profile weld grinding machine

makes these machines lighter in weight

and operator-friendly. The common power

pack will considerably reduce the maintenance works as the prime movers of these machines are electrical motors in place of individual I.C. Engines

(v)

Provision of AMC for small track machine: In line with provision of AMC for On track machines, there is requirement of comprehensive maintenance cover for small track machine. It is suggested that one AMC contract for small track machine be provisioned at divisional level.

(vi)

Creation of manpower: For performing the job as

assigned to MMU-I, ITI

trained/skilled staff is required for operation of small track machines.

(vii) Creation of imprest: An imprest of minimum Rs 10,000/- per PWI in-charge is to be provided for small repairs and purchase of spares & consumables.

(viii) Training of staff: There is very little awareness of functioning, troubleshooting of small track machine. It is proposed that a regular course at IRTMTC /ALD be initiated.

8.0 INTRODUCTION OF NEW ON-TRACK MACHINES:

For the need of growing traffic density, running of higher axle load trains and increasing speed of passenger trains following new generation machines are suggested for introduction on Indian Railway:

(i) Dynamic Tamping Express (09-4X) : The 09-4X Dynamic Tamping Express incorporates a continuous-action four-sleeper tamping unit, paired with two stablising units on an articulated trailer. It has a transfer speed of 120 Km/hr, a set up time of about 2-3 minutes, and achieves an output of upto 2600 meter/hr.

2-3 minutes, and achieves an output of upto 2600 meter/hr. The new features of the 09-4X

The new features of the 09-4X Dynamic Tamping Express are the four-sleeper track- tamping units, which for the first time enable four sleepers to be tamped in one cycle. Additionally the units are in split design so that, if required, in the case of irregular sleeper spacing, work can be performed as a two-sleeper or single sleeper-tamping machine.

For the maintenance of lines with a high density of traffic, this brings a new definition of maintenance speed.

The subsequent application of the stabilising units achieves a perfection condition of the track geometry, as well as compactingthe ballast, with a simultaneous increase of the track's resistance to lateral displacement. Thisproduces absolute uniformity in the treatment of the track.

(ii) Points & crossing tamping machine (Unimat 09/4S): It is a multi-function tamping machine with four rail tamping capability in switches and cross-overs and has fully automatic track lifting, lining, and cross-leveling capabilities. It is specially designed for the stringent requirements of a high density, high tonnage railway.

capabilities. It is specially designed for the stringent requirements of a high density, high tonnage railway.

(iii) Ballast cleaning machine (RM 800 Super 3S & RMW 1500) : Conventional ballast cleaning machines featuring one excavation chain and one screen, such as RM

80,

one excavation chain and one screen, such as RM 80, RM 800 Super 3S achieve a
one excavation chain and one screen, such as RM 80, RM 800 Super 3S achieve a

RM 800 Super 3S

achieve a screening output of 500-700 Cum/hr.

starting with the RM 800, which is equipped with two screens and a large excavation chain

that is continuously adjustable in width.

Thus new machines have been developed,

The RM 800 was followed by machines of RM 900 series, which achieve an output between 800 and 1000 cum/h. Today state-of-the-art are the RM 800 Super 3s, equipped with three screens and one excavation chain, and the RMW 1500 which is equipped with three screens and two excavation chains, and has an excavation capacity of 1500 cum/h.

(iv) Mechanised Formation Rehabilitation: On Railway lines without a sound sub structure, track maintenance intervals will decrease, which leads to reduction in the service life of track components. Moreover due to the formation problems speed restrictions are required to be imposed due to deficiencies in longitudinal and cross levels.

On Indian Railways running of higher axle loads viz CC+8+2 & CC+10+2 etc have already been permitted on the age-old formation. Moreover the feeder routes of DFC are to be strengthened for runningof 25T axle loads. It has been observed in the field that formation has started giving the problem due to higher axle loads and soil problems, which require the rehabilitation of formation.

At present Indian Railway is not having any machine for formation rehabilitation and looking to the requirement there is a need to procure these machines. There are following latest developed machines available for formation rehabilitation:

(i) AHM 800 R : (Incorporating ballast recycling )

(i) AHM 800 R : (Incorporating ballast recycling ) Plasser & Theurer designed the AHM 800

Plasser & Theurer designed the AHM 800 R excavating machine, which incorporated for the first time a process for material recycling into a heavy-duty machine. This machine has been in service for the rehabilitation of existing lines on Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) since 1994. The results can certainly be termed as very good, and it has achieved an average annual output of approx 50 Km.

Sequence of work during formation rehabilitationusing the AHM 800 R

of work during formation rehabilitationusing the AHM 800 R No hindrance to adjacent track even during

No hindrance to adjacent track even during operations

No hindrance to adjacent track even during operation

Removal

of

the

top

layer

of

ballast

using

during operation Removal of the top layer of ballast using excavating chain 1 and transport to

excavating chain 1 and transport to the crushing plant Excavation of the remaining ballast bed material using excavating chain 2 and transport of the spoil Smoothing the formation crown Breakingthe ballast material in the crushing plant and transport to the mixer Production of a sand-gravel mixture for the formation protective layer in the mixing plant adding new FPL material and water Continual adjustment and checking of the water content of the sand-gravel mixture for an ideal degree of consolidation of the FPL Insertion of geotextiles, geogrid or PVP formation rehabilitation slabs is possible Insertion of the sand-gravel mixture for the formation protective layer in the required thickness Regulating and consolidating the sand-gravel mixture to the prescribed degree using large plate compactors Supply of the required material using towed MFS material conveyor and hopper units

Results and quality control

Finished metre outputs of up to 250 metres per day (previously not thought possible) were achieved in two-shift operation with this machine.

The AHM 800 R itself enables considerable savings during formation rehabilitation, for example:

Installation of a protective layer without removing the existing track. Recycling of the old track ballast, thus fewer transport costs, savings of up to 50% new material, fewer costs for transport to and from the site, dumping, specialist disposal, recultivation and energy. Option for simultaneous insertion of geotextiles in one operation. Workingoutput of 40 to 80 m/h, depending upon the thickness of the new protective layer Rail services not hindered on the adjacent track. Reduction of track possessions by up to 50%,thus reduction of operational hindrance costs. Complete worksite operation includingtransport of material to and from the worksite only in the track under repair, thus less environmental damage, no construction of temporary access roads, no road traffic.

Besides these advantages which come directly from the application of the machine, the installation of a high quality formation protective layer such as that produced by the AHM

800 R, has wide-ranging positive effects on the maintenance costs. The properly installed protective layer with geotextiles brings a high initial quality of the track with an additional quality reserve. The maintenance expenses are minimised and the service life of the track extended.

(ii) RPM 2002 / RPMW2002-2

Formation rehabilitation machine with integrated ballast recycling

The RPM 2002 and RPMW 2002-2 built by Plasser & Theurer are machines of the latest design for fully mechanised installation of a formation protective layer, followed by placement of the ballast layer, using recycled ballast material.

Optimum ballast cleaning and processing

ballast material. Optimum ballast cleaning and processing Excavation - smoothing the earth formation - installation of

Excavation - smoothing the earth formation - installation of a newprotective layer laidon a geotextile

- installation of a newprotective layer laidon a geotextile Unrolling the geotextile The movements of material
- installation of a newprotective layer laidon a geotextile Unrolling the geotextile The movements of material

Unrolling the geotextile

layer laidon a geotextile Unrolling the geotextile The movements of material within the machine are performed

The movements of material within the machine are performed in direct lines and without unnecessary detours. The ballast excavating chain picks up the top layer of ballast (the recyclable part of the old ballast bed). The required excavating depth can be adjusted exactly. This ensures that as much re-useable ballast can be reclaimed as possible. The RPMW 2002-2 separates the ballast from cohesive material using a star screen (system Wiebe) as well as a high pressure water spraying unit before it is processed by the cone crusher and the vibrating screen for re-use.

The formation excavating chain removes the remaining material down to the earth formation with a maximum excavation output of 800 cubic metres per hour. Excavation width, excavation depth and formation crossfall can be adjusted exactly and steplessly.

The resulting subsoil formation is consolidated using smoothing devices. If required, a geotextile can now be laid. A slewing conveyor belt distributes the FPL material uniformly across the entire width. The profiling device grades the material deposited and six plate consolidators compact the FPL material to make the finished formation protective layer.

The recycled ballast is inserted in exact quantities through distributor chutes. The packing device can be used to fill the ballast underneath the track. Other distributor devices fill the area of the tamping zones with ballast. If required, new ballast is transported from the specially adapted material conveyor and hopper unitsto the ballasting area.

To complete the working process the track is tamped. The final track geometry is measured and recorded by the plotter unit.

The advantages of the RPMW2002-2

Machine for fully mechanised installation of a formation protective layer and a ballast bed, with integrated ballast recycling High working output of approx. 100 metres per hour Operation even in short track possessions Pre-cleaning and fine cleaning of the old ballast Enhanced cleaning quality due to use of a rail-mounted star screen unit and a high pressure water spray unit Crushingplant to sharpen the old ballast Material transport only in the track under repair Transport of new material in MFS units Integrated levelling, lifting, lining and tamping

CONCLUSION:

(i)

Complete & effective mechanization of track maintenance is the need of the hour. The deployment of on track machines is to be judiciously planned for its optimum utilization.

(ii)

For implementation of mobile maintenance system we have to establish the effective system of maintenance of small track machines. The mobility of mobile maintenance units is to be improved by providing rail vehicle & appropriate road vehicle

(iii)

The manpower required for the mobile maintenance system is to be specified and selection/recruitment procedure is to be established. There is a need of mass recruitment of ITI trained staff for operation and maintenance of machines.

(iv)

Due to growing traffic and availability of less maintenance blocks, we have to go for procurement of latest state-of-the-art new generation high performance machines. For running of higher axle loads the issues of formation rehabilitaion can be addressed by introduction of formation treatment machines.