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IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, Vol.

15 Issue 4, July 2012


ISSN (Online): 2230-7893
www.IJCEM.org
IJCEM
www.ijcem.org
23
Investigation of Zero Chromatic Dispersion in Square Lattice
As
2
Se
3
Chalcogenide Glass PCF
Ravindra Kumar Sharma
1
, Kirti Vyas
2
and Navneet Jaroli
3



1
M.Tech (Scholar), Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering,
Arya College of Engineering & I.T, Jaipur, India.
Ravindra.8810@gmail.com

2
Associate Professor, Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering,
Arya College of Engineering & I.T, Jaipur, India.
Kirtivyas19@gmail.com

3
Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering,
Rajdhani Institute of Technology & Management, Jaipur, India.
Navneetjaroli2085@gmail.com


Abstract
We demonstrate a method to design As
2
Se
3
glass photonic crystal
fibers with flattened dispersion. Here, three new square lattice
with seven layer As
2
Se
3
glass photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are
designed and proposed. The numerical investigation shows that a
square lattice PCF shifting of zero and flattened dispersion
wavelengths toward higher wavelength range with the remove
first air hole ring. A scalar effective index method (SEIM) and
transparent boundary condition (TBC) are used for comparing
zero dispersion.
Keywords: Effective refractive index (n
eff
), photonic crystal
fiber (PCF), scalar effective index method (SEIM), Transparent
boundary condition (TBC), chromatic dispersion.
1. Introduction
Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) [1-3] or holey fibers usually
arranged in a square/ hexagonal structure of air channels
running down the length of the core material (silica, As
2
Se
3

glass etc.) based fiber surrounding a central solid core. In
these years PCF is very attracted in the research group
because of their unique properties, such as polarization and
dispersion properties. The dispersion properties of large
core square lattice chalcogenide As
2
Se
3
glass PCF is find
out using scalar effective index method (SEIM) [4-6] and
also compared with the Ge- doped square core
chalcogenide As
2
Se
3
glass PCF. In optical communication,
dispersion plays an important role as the information
transmitting capacity of the fiber. Therefore it becomes
attracting for study its dispersion properties. A bandgap
photonic crystal fiber was made by knight et al. [7] for first
time in 1998.
On the basis of these works, we designed a square
lattice As
2
Se
3
glass PCF with large core (figure-2) and first
Ge doped ring (figure-3) and compared with conventional
square lattice seven ring PCF.
2. Proposed Structure
Figure 1 shows the conventional square lattice seven ring
As
2
Se
3
glass PCF. In this PCF we normally find one
missing air hole, which make solid core of the PCF. Now
we remove the four corner air holes in the first ring and
doped Ge material in the remaining air holes in the first
ring as shown in figure 2. In the third design we remove
the first air holes ring, which makes large core As
2
Se
3
glass
square lattice PCF. We can control the dispersion property
of PCF by varying air hole diameter d, air hole spacing
^, core material and core diameter area [8].


IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, Vol. 15 Issue 4, July 2012
ISSN (Online): 2230-7893
www.IJCEM.org
IJCEM
www.ijcem.org
24

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
i
i A
n


2
1
2
2
2
1
Figure 1 A Square lattice conventional As2Se3 glass PCF [9].
The wafer chosen is of chalcogenide As
2
Se
3
glass with
2.82 refractive index and air holes refractive index is 1.0

Figure 2. A square lattic PCF with Ge doped in first ring four air holes,
d=1.0 m, pitch ^ = 2 m [10].

Figure 3. A Square lattice As2Se3 glass PCF with large core.
3. Modeling and Analysis
3.1 Scalar Effective Index Method (SEIM)
The scalar wave equation is
[
t
+(k
2
n
2
-
2
)] = 0 (1)

Where
t
is transverse laplace operator in cylindrical
coordinates,
K = 2/, is free space wavelength, and is the
propagation constant.
Boundary condition equation for air holes is

1
= AI
0
(WR) Air hole (2)

2
= BJ
0
(UR) + CY
0
(UR) As
2
Se
3
glass region (3)
Where A, B and C are constants.
With parameters, U and W as follows

U
2
= k
2
a
2
(n
ch
2
- n
c1
2
) and W
2
= k
2

a
2
(n
c1
2
n
a
2
) (4)

N
ch
and n
a
are the refractive indices of As
2
Se
3
glass and air
respectively [11].

3.2 Refractive index and Dispersion calculation
The value of refractive index of chalcogenide As
2
Se
3
glass
can be calculated by sellemier formula [12].


(5)

However for the transparency region, we can use the
sellimiers formula into Cauchy relation [13].

(6)
With the value of coefficients, A = 7.56 M, B = 1.03
m
2
, C = 0.12 m
4
.
The total dispersion, D = D
M
+ D
W
. and the waveguide
dispersion is defined as

(7)
Where is the operating wavelength and c is the velocity
of light [14].
n
d
d
D eff W
c

2
2
|
.
|

\
|
=

4 2
C B
A n + + =
IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, Vol. 15 Issue 4, July 2012
ISSN (Online): 2230-7893
www.IJCEM.org
IJCEM
www.ijcem.org
25
4. Simulation Results

Figure 4. The difference between effective refractive index of
conventional As2Se3 glass PCF, Ge doped PCF and large core PCF.





To compare of chromatic dispersion of square lattice
seven ring As
2
Se
3
glass PCF, we shows two wavelength
window first 1.2 to 2.4 m range and second 2.5 to 4.5
m wavelength range as shown in figure6.

figure 5 Shows mode field pattern of proposed As2Se3 glass large
core PCF.
The structure of the proposed As
2
Se
3
glass PCF (large
solid core) makes zero and flat dispersion compare to
conventional and Ge doped As
2
Se
3
glass PCF.


Figure 6. Material dispersion curve of As2Se3 glass PCF.

Zero dispersion is shifted towards higher wavelength range.

IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, Vol. 15 Issue 4, July 2012
ISSN (Online): 2230-7893
www.IJCEM.org
IJCEM
www.ijcem.org
26

Figure 7. The chromatic dispersion of the square lattice As2Se3 glass PCF
with ^ = 2 m for different design.

5. Conclusion

We analyzed the chromatic dispersion of a PCF where Ge
doped ring has introduced and also compare with the large
core As
2
Se
3
glass PCF. The results suggest that the
dispersion of Ge doped As
2
Se
3
glass PCF is lower then
conventional As
2
Se
3
glass PCF but higher then large core
PCF. Therefore that the proposed large core As
2
Se
3
glass
PCF can be used as low and flattened dispersion fibers.

Acknowledgments
We thank Prof. Avdesh kumar ( Principal, Rajdhani
Institute of Technology & Management, Jaipur), Prof. D.K.
Parihar and Mr. Ajay kumar bairwa , department of ECE
for valuable efforts in preparation of the project.

References
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Ravindra Kumar Sharma received the B.E. degree in Electronics
& Communication Engineering in 2008 from University of
Rajasthan, Jaipur and pursuing M.Tech. in Digital Communication
from Arya College of Engineering & I.T. He is currently Assistant
Professor in the department of E&C, Rajdhani Institute of
Technology & Management, Jaipur. He is also associate of The
Institution of Engineers (India). His current research includes
photonic crystal fiber

Kirti Vyas received the B.E. degree in E&C in 2004 from MCET,
Laxmangarh and M.Tech. in 2008 in Communication System from
MNIT,Jaipur. She is also pursuing in Ph.D. She is currently
Assistant Professor in the department of E&C, Arya College of
Engineering & I.T. Jaipur. Her current research includes antenna &
communication system.

Navneet Jaroli received the B.Tech. degree in Electronics &
Communication Engineering in 2011 from Arya Institute of
Engineering &Technology, Jaipur. He is currently Assistant
Professor in department of ECE, Rajdhani Institute of Technology
& Management, Jaipur. His current research includes
communication system.