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CUSTOMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS SERVICE QUALITY PROVIDED BY TABUNG HAJI SEREMBAN

INSTITUT PENGURUSAN PENYELIDIKAN UNIVERISTI TEKNOLOGI MARA 40450 SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR MALAYSIA

BY: ZUHAIRAH HASAN RIDHAWATI HJ. ZAKARIA

OCTOBER 2009

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CUSTOMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS SERVICE QUALITY PROVIDED BY TABUNG HAJI SEREMBAN

BY: ZUHAIRAH HASAN RIDHAWATI HJ. ZAKARIA

OCTOBER 2009

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Tarikh

1 Oktober 2009

No. Fail Projek :

Penolong Naib Canselor (Penyelidikan) Institut Pengurusan Penyelidikan Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam

Ybhg. Prof., LAPORAN AKHIR PENYELIDIKAN CUSTOMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS SERVICE QUALITY PROVIDED BY TABUNG HAJI SEREMBAN

Merujuk kepada perkara di atas, bersama-sama ini disertakan 3 (tiga) naskah Laporan Akhir Penyelidikan bertajuk CUSTOMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS SERVICE QUALITY PROVIDED BY TABUNG HAJI SEREMBAN oleh kumpulan Penyelidik dari Fakulti Pengurusan Perniagaan.

Sekian, terima kasih.

Yang benar, ZUHAIRAH HASAN Ketua Projek Penyelidikan

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PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS

ZUHAIRAH HASAN Project Leader

SIGNATURE

RIDHAWATI HJ. ZAKARIA Project Member

SIGNATURE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim,

Firstly, this research paper could not have been possible without the grace of Allah S.W.T. thank you for giving us the joys of love and the pain of sorrows, the will to fight and the strength, patience and guidance to endure. The successful completion of this paper was also due to the kind and dedicated support, guidance and contribution given by many individuals. Alhamdulillah, we manage to complete our task with the meaningful experience to us.

In addition, special thanks to Tuan Haji Nasir B. Mohd Yusoff as a manager of Tabung Haji for his cooperation in giving me specific guideline regarding this research project. Our most heartfelt gratitude goes to our beloved parents. Their tireless support, both morally or financially their kind understanding, courage, love and personal attention towards the completion of this project will not be forgotten. May Allah bless them with good life and happiness in this world and hereafter.

Last but not least, heartiest thank you to our friends that support and help us during the completion of this assignment. Their sincere and kind help has really enhanced our spirit, determination and enthusiasm to go on with this assignment until the end. Thank you very much, everybody, for such beautiful memories and words of encouragement.

Thank you, wassalam.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Letter of Submission of Research Report Registered Members Acknowledgement Table of Content List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations Abstract

ii iii iv v ix x xi xii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 Service Quality Background of Study 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Overview of Lembaga Tabung Haji Service In Tabung Haji Overview of Lembaga Tabung Haji Seremban 1 2 2 5 6 8 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14

Problem Statements Research Questions Research Objectives Hypotheses 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 The relationship between reliability and customer perception The relationship between responsiveness and customer perception The relationship between assurance and customer perception The relationship between empathy and customer perception The relationship between tangible and customer perception

1.7

Conceptual Framework 1.7.1 Dependent Variable

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1.7.2 1.7.3 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11

Independent Variables The Model of Theoretical Framework

16 17 18 19 20 21

Significant of the research Scope of Study Definition of Terms Limitations of Study

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 2.2 2.3 Perception Customer Perception Customer Perception towards Service Quality 2.3.1 2.4 Service 2.4.1 Service Characteristics 2.4.1.1 Perishability 2.4.1.2 Inseparability 2.4.1.3 Intangibility 2.4.1.4 Variability/ heterogeneity 2.5 Service Quality 2.5.1 The importance of quality 2.5.1.1 Quality increases productivity 2.5.1.2 Quality is all pervasive 2.5.1.3 Quality leads to better performance in the market place 2.5.1.4 Quality means improved business performance 2.5.1.5 The customer is king 2.6 2.7 Quality SERVQUAL 2.7.1 Reliability Contributing factors influencing perceptions of service quality 22 23 26 28 29 31 31 31 31 32 33 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 41 45

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2.7.2 2.7.3 2.7.4 2.7.5 2.8

Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangible

46 47 48 49 50

GAP Model

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Organizations and Subject Research Design Population Sampling Procedure 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5 Sampling Size Sampling Technique 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 56 57 58 58 58 59

Data Collection Method 3.5.1 Primary Data 3.5.1.1 Questionnaire 3.5.2 Secondary Data 3.5.2.1 Internal Data 3.5.2.2 External Data

3.6 3.7

Statistical Method Data Analysis and Interpretation

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS OF THE STUDY 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Reliability Analysis Descriptive of the Respondents Research Question 1 Research Question 2 Research Question 3 64 65 73 75 81

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4.6

Correlation

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CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 5.2 5.3 Introduction Conclusion of the study Recommendation 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 Maintaining the level of reliability Improving Service Quality Encouraged Customer Complaint Handling Customer Complaint Adopt relationship marketing Educate the staffs 87 87 89 89 90 90 92 93 94

BIBLIOGRPAHY APPENDIX

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LIST OF TABLES

Title

Table 4.1: Table 4.2: Table 4.3: Table 4.4: Table 4.5: Table 4.6: Table 4.7: Table 4.8: Table 4.9:

Reliability of the study variables Frequency and Percentage of Respondent by Gender Frequency and Percentage of Respondent by Age Frequency and Percentage of Respondent Based on Personal Income Frequency and Percentage of Respondent by Education Level Frequency and Percentage of Respondent by Occupation Frequency and Percentage of Respondent By Number of Visits Frequency and Percentage of Respondent by Nature of Visits Frequency and Percentage of Respondent by Method of Investment

64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Table 4.10: Level of customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban Table 4.11: Level of service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban Table 4.12: Level of Service Quality Based on Reliability Dimension Table 4.13: Level of Service Quality Based on Responsiveness Dimension Table 4.14: Level of Service Quality Based on Assurance Dimension Table 4.15: Level of Service Quality Based on Empathy Dimension Table 4.16: Level of Service Quality Based on Tangibles Dimension Table 4.17: Relationship Between Service Quality Provided by Tabung Haji Seremban And Customer Perceptions Table 4.18: Rules of Thumb of Correlation Coefficient Size 81 83 73 75 76 77 78 79

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.6.3: Figure 2.8.1:

Theoretical Framework Gap Model by Parasuraman

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

TH PFC

Tabung Haji Pilgrims Fund Corporation

THCC Tabung Haji Contact Centre ATM Automated Teller Machines

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ABSTRACT

Tabung Haji (TH) birth from the idea of working paper presented by the Royal Professor Ungku Aziz titled, Plan to Improve the Economy of Prospective Pilgrims in 1959. The function s of this organization are to enable Muslims to save gradually to support their expenditure during pilgrimage and for other beneficial purposes, to enable Muslims to have active and effective participations in investment activities permissible in Islam through their savings and to protect, safeguard interests and ensures welfare of pilgrims during pilgrimage by providing various facilities and services.

The purpose of this research is to study the customer perceptions towards the service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban. The research used the service quality (SERVQUAL) dimensions. There are 5 dimensions in SERVQUAL which are reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangible. This dimension will be used to identify customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban as quality services depend on the Tabung Haji Seremban employees performance and their ability to provide the services. In this study, the methods used are questionnaire to identify the relevant information regarding the study on customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban. 100 questionnaires were given to respondents to answer the questionnaire. The result on customer perception towards service quality will suggest whether the Tabung Haji Seremban may need changes or improvement in their service performance in order to be able to provide continuously quality services and achieve their motto and quality policy.

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Service Quality

Service quality is a key concept in todays f iercely competitive marketplace. The issue of service quality has received considerable attention in marketing literature (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry, 1985, 1988). In todays competitive environment, ignoring the quality issue is tantamount to corporate suicide (Young, 1987, 1990). According to Lewis and Mitchell (1990) the 1990s will be the era in which service quality predominates within the service sector.

It is probably a truism to remark that from the markets viewpoint quality attainment is a desirable thing. People expect quality. Although as one is frequently reminded in the literature, quality is always relative to consumers expectations and of course price (Daly, 1990). Bitrana and Lojo (1993) argue that the quality of service depends not only on offering products that meet consumers needs and delivering them efficiently, but also on creating an atmosphere and overall experience that is satisfying. Therefore, service quality is important no matter what market segment is targeted.

The quality of services is much more difficult to measure, inspect, and control than the quality of manufactured goods (Gummesson, 1993). Three characteristics of services account for this difficulty: intangibility, heterogeneity and simultaneity (Lovelock 1983; Shostack 1987; Sasser et al. 1978). The intangible nature of service products makes it difficult for service firms to measure their characteristics and ascertain whether they meet specifications. This is because consumers cannot evaluate services before purchasing them (Zeithaml et al. 1985; Bitner 1990). Service products are heterogeneous because customers and servers are critical components of the product

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

and they are diverse individuals that cannot be completely standardized and controlled (Bitran and Lojo 1993; Jackson, Beidell and Lunsford 1995). Simultaneously refers to the fact that services are produced and consumed at the same time thereby preventing firms from inspecting their product before it is sold to their customers (Dotchin and Oakland 1994).

It is often difficult for management to be present during every service delivery, and so it must depend heavily on employees to complete the customer interaction satisfactorily. For example, if a problem arises, they know about it after the fact, and only if the firm is lucky to have a customer will take the time to complain. Otherwise, the firms customer base could be eroding without their knowledge, because dissatisfaction spreads very fast by word-of-mouth (Bitran and Lojo, 1993). Service quality is a measure of how well the delivered service level matches consumer expectations (Donaldson and Runciman, 1995). This quality depends on the size and direction of the gap between expected and perceived service (Bolton and Drew, 1997, p. 309).

1.2

Background of the study

1.2.1

Overview of Lembaga Tabung Haji

In line with the concept of Islam as Addeen, a complete religion for this world and the after-life, everything that has been commanded by Allah SWT will benefit mankind on earth and during Judgement Day. With such belief and strong determination to perform their pilgrimage, Muslims have been inspired to gather wealth to finance their journey to the Holy Land.

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

To refrain them from involving elements of usury an illegal practice in Islam Malaysian Muslims in the past had resorted to various traditional; means of saving and keeping their money for the sacred journey. There were also those who sold their livestock, properties and inheritance to earn sufficient fund for their pilgrimage. Such practices caused negative financial and social implications on them and their families during and after their pilgrimage. This is besides damaging the rural economic structure and threatening the national economic growth.

The scenario became a driving force for the government to draw up a scheme hat could help Malaysian Muslims to save gradually for their pilgrimage. The effort saw the birth of the Pilgrims Fund Corporation that was established in November 1962 and commenced operation on September 30, 1963. Its existence was also strongly attributed to a working paper presented by the Royal Professor Ungku Aziz titled, Plan to Improve The Economy of Prospective Pilgrims in 1959.

To help boost its services and facilities to the prospective pilgrims, the corporation undergoes a merger with Penang-based Pilgrimage Affairs Management office in 1969 resulting in the formation of the Pilgrimage Management and Fund Board or better known as Tabung Haji. Objectives of this new entity, established under Act 8 of Pilgrimage Management and Fund Board 1969 are:

To enable Muslims to save gradually to support their expenditure during pilgrimage and for other beneficial purposes. To enable Muslims to have active and effective participations in investment activities permissible in Islam through their savings. To protect, safeguard interests and ensure welfare of pilgrims during pilgrimage by providing various facilities and services.

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

With such objectives in mind, Tabung Haji is highly determined to provide excellent and comprehensive services with premium quality to satisfy the pilgrims need prior, during and after their pilgrimage. This is evidence of Tabung Hajis commitment and dedication, not only as an alternative entity in managing Muslims investments that are done in accordance to the Islamic teaching. Tabung Haji (TH) had done whatever it supposed to take in order to meet the customer satisfaction towards their service. Not to be left behind in the ever evolving corporate world and massive globalization activities, TH has taken efforts to strengthen its position in the domestic market and international arena to enable it to enjoy a lion share of the investment opportunities. Strategies taken include providing effective and efficient services that will not compromise to matters regarding quality.

TH has launched its new corporate is more consumer-friendly and portrays its uniqueness as a giant Islamic corporate body. On the other hand, as to make it easier for all Muslims in Malaysia to sign up with TH account. TH had taken an action to operate their branches in nationwide, included Sabah and Sarawak. As to sustain the quality service towards their customer, TH also recently had came up with new idea known as THCC (Tabung Haji Contact Centre). THCC is functioning as a tele-centre, whereby clients can make call at anytime and anywhere regarding of Hajj management. TH determined quality as a crucial thing in presenting their service quality to their customer. As far as TH concern, this organization always cares and concern about their customers needs and wants. TH did saw way to improve their quality of service is by edacate their employees to strive for excellence performance and doing continuous improvement fro time to time. Due to that, TH had organize an activity known as Minggu Kualiti, whereby this event will be held every year. This activity allowed TH to identify their productivity worker and thus directly encourage them to work hard in order to achieve the best quality service. According to TH, objective of this activity is to create competitive environment among employees so that they are competitive enough in this

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

global era. Other than that, motive of this Minggu Kualiti is to give a chance t o all their employees to keep up their endeavor in planning and implementing the innovative and systematic work. As a matter of fact, through this innovative and systematic endeavor and high cooperation from management level allowed TH employees from all level to produce a good quality at work towards their customers. This is how they build trust fro their customer by delivery a good quality service and thus strive for best performance excellence.

In addition, PFC serves as an alternative financial institution for depositors who wish to save their money in an interest-free financial system that deduct a certain portion for zakat (tithe) at every financial year-end. Tabung Haji (TH) is without a doubt Malaysias most popular label among other Muslim nations who are envious of its efficiency and success in managing Malaysian pilgrims (Mansor Lokman, NST p.2, 02/07/2004). Nevertheless, TH has to strive endlessly to face future global challenges to be ahead or at par with other financial institutions. Some of the measures taken by TH are adoption of technology, improvement of service quality, upgrading quality of human resources and implementing aggressive marketing strategy to encourage Muslims to invest for pilgrimage and future needs. Hence, TH must adopt the best approach in managing depositors fund that adheres to Syariah guidelines and simultaneously retain the confidence of loyal and potential customers.

1.2.2

Service in Tabung Haji

To maintain its competitive edge and strong position in its present economic and investment ventures, TH has made striving for world-class quality services and products as its prioritised mission, with each employee subscribing enhanced working cultures and values. Without abandoning its social

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

responsibilities, TH is highly determined to make each business ad investment venture a roaring success domestically and internationally. It has also made an impressive mark in various Islamic investment instruments such as Bonds, Corporate notes, Government Investment Certificates, Mudhaarabah Bank Account and Bill of Acceptance.

Tabung Hajis investment in subsidiaries is part of its strategy to participate directly in potential and viable sectors. Emphasis is given to the plantation, construction, real estate development, and service sectors. The four subsidiaries fully owned by Tabung Haji are: a) b) c) d) TH Plantations Sdn. Bhd. (plantation sector) TH Properties Sdn. Bhd. (real estate development sector) TH Technologies Sdn. Bhd. (construction sector) TH Travel & service Sdn. Bhd. (hajj, umrah, and tour services sector)

1.2.3

Overview of Lembaga Tabung Haji Seremban

Lembaga Tabung Haji Seremban was established and operated in June, 20 1972. Currently, TH Seremban was operated their business in Kompleks Terminal 1, Jalan Lintang Seremban. The manager of TH Seremban is Tuan Haji Mohd Nasir bin Mohd Yusoff. Serves their customers with efficient and quick services are one of their priorities and could be most important part. Thus, TH had decided and implements several strategies in order to deliver the services to customers in an outstanding manner. One of the strategies is, to provide the customer with a multi channel interface in order to make customer feel easy, and quick in dong transaction with. As a technology is rapid change in a global era, for financial institution especially in electronic banking such as

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

Automated Teller Machines (ATM), and electronic banking, TH also take the opportunity to merge with the other well known financial institutions to adopt electronic banking. As a professional and responsible corporate organisation, Tabung Haji has never failed to keep abreast with development domestically and internationally to maintain its competitive edge.

Tabung Haji (TH) birth from the idea of working paper presented by the Royal Professor Ungku Aziz titled, Plan to Improve the Economy of Prospective Pilgrims in 1959. The functions of this organization are to enable Muslims to save gradually to support their expenditure during pilgrimage and for other beneficial purposes, to enable Muslims to have active and effective participations in investment activities permissible in Islam through their savings and to protect, safeguard interests and ensures welfare of pilgrims during pilgrimage by providing various facilities and services.

The effort saw the birth of the Pilgrims Fund Corporation that was established in November 1962 and commenced operation on September 30, 1963. As a professional and responsible corporate organization, Tabung Haji has never failed to keep abreast with development domestically and internationally to maintain its competitive edge. A study to strengthen its position in the international platform and to diversify its scope and functions was conducted in 1995.

Result to such an aggressive move was the introduction of a new act, the Pilgrimage Board Act 1995 or better known as Akta Tabung Haji 1995 that came on stream on June 1, 1995. Enforcement of the new act 535 has automatically abolished the previous act and the name Pilgrimage Management and Fund Board has been changed to Pilgrimage Board (better known as

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

Lembaga Tabung Haji) effective from August 28, 1997. A more corporatelooking abbreviation, TH, was introduced to the Malaysian and international public to replace the words Tabung Haji.

The department of the TH can be divided into several categories such as depository, hajj, investment, human resources, administration, finance, information technology ad GMD/ CEO office that have their own function to make TH become success.

Thus, this paper focuses on the customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban. Besides that, the researcher wants to identify the level of customer perception towards service quality and to determine which factor that most influence customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban.

1.3

Problem Statement

Parasuraman (1988), defined the service quality as the degree between customers normative expectations for the service and their expectation from the service and their perceptions of the service performance. Other studied by Lewis and Booms (1983), defined service quality as a measure of how well the service delivered matches customers expectation are closely linked to attitude and quality has also been conceptualized from the perspective of attitude. According to Ancarani and Capaldo (2001), control of service is an increasing prevalent trend in the context of public management. In most services, quality occurs during service delivery, usually in an interaction between the customer and contact personnel of the service firms. For this reason, Zeithaml, Valerie A., Berry, Leonard L., and Parasuraman (1988), said

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

service quality is highly dependent on the performance of employees, an organizational resource that cannot be controlled to the degree that components of tangible good can be engineered. Therefore, customer perception towards quality services provided by Tabung Haji depends on the Tabung Haji employees performance and their ability to provide the service.

According to Agus A, Baker S., and Kandampully J., (2007), there are two perspectives to the ongoing pursuit of service quality. From the perspective of the service organization, there is a desire to survive and compete in a global environment. From the perspective of the customer, there is a desire for better quality services. Anderson and Zeithaml, (1984) and Buzzell and Gale, (1987), as cited in Agus A., Barker S, and Kandampully J., (2007), said service quality is known to contribute to customer satisfaction. In addition to improving level of customer satisfaction, Parasuraman (1991), said service quality has also been shown to provide benefits in terms of differentiation, market share, profitability and developing strategy.

According to Anuar Bahari, Kamsol Mohamed Kassim and Norizah Kassim in Retaining Customers through Relationship Marketing: A study on an Islamic Financial Institution (2009), Tabung Haji enjoys its unwavering privileged status as the sole government-linked company that manages the pilgrims - a monopolistic company in a non-challenging marketplace. Hence, Tabung Haji is confident of acquiring customers without facing any stiff competition as in oligopolistic or highly competitive market. However, in terms of savings account depositors, Tabung Haji faces competition from banks that offer Islamic banking transactions. Previous studies by Storbacka, Strandvik & Gronroos (1994) highlighted the link between customers perception and the decision to opt for alternatives in a highly competitive market. However, lately Tabung Haji received several complaints on personnel (front-line service employees) and counter services in almost all its branches throughout Malaysia. Some depositors

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

aired their grievances through the Internet and newspapers. Other unofficial complaints were heard through conversations at the respective Tabung Haji branches. Some depositors also compared Tabung Haji counter service to that of banks.

It has been observed that most of the studies on service quality have been done in foreign countries. The results and findings found may be impressive and logical. However, it may not be as much applicable to Malaysia as the culture and other variables may vary. It will highlight how the perceived service quality in Malaysian banks would affect its business operations. It is believed that customer satisfaction will affect overall service quality therefore the need to find the factors of effect.

Therefore, an understanding of the nature of service quality and how it is achieved in organization has become a priority for a marketing research. Due to this Tabung Haji need to understand the customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji in order to continuously able to provide efficient and quality services to its customer and achieve customer satisfaction. They also need to understand customer perception towards service quality provided by them before any measurement can be taken for future benefit.

This study will analyze whether Tabung Haji have provided a quality services to its customer by using SERVQUAL Dimension. Parasuraman (1998), said a good operational example of a standardized framework for understanding service quality is the SERVQUAL instrument. The SERVQUAL dimension comprises of 5 dimensions which are the reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangible. According to Parasuraman (1991) as cited in Rooma Roshnee Ramsaran-Fowdar (2008) said that SERVQUAL instrument is a reliable and valid service quality measure with relatively stable dimensions that apply across many services industries. SERVQUAL

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Customer Perception Towards Service Quality Tabung Haji Seremban

also can help a wide range of service organizations in assessing consumer expectation and perceptions of service quality. It can help in pinpointing areas requiring managerial attention and action to improve service quality.

Therefore, it is important to understand the customer perception towards the service quality provided by Tabung Haji whether they able to achieve their service quality policy and motto as well as be able to provide continuously efficient and quality services to their customer.

1.4

Research Question

This study seeks to answer the following research questions: RQ 1 : What is the level of customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban?

RQ 2 :

Which factor that most influence customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban?

RQ 3 :

Is there any relationship between independent variable (reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangible) and customer perception towards service quality provided by Tabung Haji Seremban?

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