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Overview Static Routing Dynamic Routing RIPng EIGRP for IPv6 OSPFv3

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Main motivation for IPv6 is lack of IPv4 address space IPv4 uses 32-bits 2^32 = 4,294,967,296 max addresses IPv6 uses 128-bits 2^128 = 34,028,236,6 92,938,463,463,374,607,431,770,000,000+

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IPv4 Dotted Decimal 1.2.3.4 Each place denotes 1 byte IPv6 Hexadecimal XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX Two characters = one byte

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2.4 Address Type Representation The specific type of an IPv6 address is indicated by the leading bits in the address. The variable-

length field comprising these leading bits is called the Format Prefix (FP). The initial allocation of these prefixes is as follows:
Allocation ---------------------------------- Aggregatable Global Unicast Addresses Link-Local Unicast Addresses Site-Local Unicast Addresses Multicast Addresses

Prefix (binary) -------001 1111 1110 10 1111 1110 11 1111 1111

Fraction of Address Space ------------1/8 1/1024 1/1024 1/256

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Four main address types Global Unicast 2000 3FFF Unique Local FC00 Deprecates Site Local (FEC0) Link Local FE80 Multicast FF
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IPv6 host addresses are generated from interface MAC address MAC address is 48-bits IPv6 host address is 64-bits Extra 16 bits derived as follows:

MAC 1234.5678.9012 Invert 7th most significant bit 12 = 0001 0010 0001 0000 1034.5678.9012
Insert FFFE in middle

1034:56FF:FE78:9012
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ICMPv6 ND
Replaces IPv4 ARP

NS Neighbor Solicitation
Ask for information about neighbor

NA Neighbor Advertisement
Advertise yourself to other neighbors

RS Router Solicitation
Ask for information about local routers

RA Router Advertisement
Advertise yourself as an active router

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IPv6 unicast routing off by default


ipv6 unicast-routing

Dynamic routing through


RIPng OSPFv3 EIGRPv6 IS-IS BGP

Dynamic information recurses to remote linklocal address


Layer 3 to layer 2 resolution on multipoint NBMA medias

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Similar to IPv4 Next hop / interface is required


Static routing CLI for IPv6

ipv6 route ipv6-prefix/prefix-length {ipv6-address | interface-type interface-number [ipv6-address]} [administrative-distance] [administrative-multicast-distance | unicast | multicast] [tag tag] ! Forward a packets via GUA NH using admin of 10 Router(config)# ipv6 route 2001:DB8::0/32 2001:DB8:1:1::1 10 ! Router(config)# ipv6 route 2001:DB8::/32 Ethernet 1/0 FE80::215:C7FF:FE21:8640 ! Forward a packets via link-local NH

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Router 2
IPv6 Internet LAN1: 2001:db8:c18:1::/64

:e :a Router 1 :a

Ethernet0

Ethernet1

LAN2: 2001:db8:c18:2::/64

router 1#config term ipv6 unicast-routing ! interface Ethernet0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:c18:1::a/64 ! interface Ethernet1 ipv6 address 2001:db8:c18:2::a/64 ! ipv6 route ::/0 2001:db8:c18:1::e

Default router to Router 2

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Routing in IPv6 is unchanged from IPv4 Still has two families of routing protocols: IGP and EGP Still uses the longest-prefix match routing algorithm IGP RIPng (RFC 2080) Cisco EIGRP for IPv6 Integrated IS-IS for IPv6 (RFC 5308) OSPFv3 (RFC 5340) EGP MP-BGP4 (RFC 4760) and Using MP-BGP for IPv6 (RFC 2545) Cisco IOS supports all IPv6 routing protocols

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Dynamic routing protocols require a router-id Router-id is a 32 bit integer in dotted decimal notation (a.b.c.d) Auto-generated from IPv4 loopback interface address if configured,
Otherwise highest IPv4 address on the router

Many networks will deploy IPv6 dual stack so router-id will be automatically created For IPv6 only networks where no IPv4 address is available Router-id needs to be manually configured using dotted decimal notation (looks like an IPv4 address)
ipv6 router ospf 100 router-id 10.1.1.4

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Referred to as RIP Next Generation, distance vector protocol For the SP industry not recommended, limited use in Enterprise environments ISPs do not use RIP in any form unless there is absolutely no alternative RIPng was used in the early days of the IPv6 test network Superior routing protocols such as ISIS, OSPF and BGP rapidly replaced RIPng

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Legend

Fields Name kept from IPv4 to IPv6 Fields not kept in IPv6 Name and/or position changed in IPv6 New Field in IPv6

Similar to RIPv2

Distance-vector, Hop limit of 15, split-horizon, All RIP routers is FF02::9, UDP port (521) Updated features for IPv6 Prefix length added, address-family and subnet mask fields removed Special Handling for the NH One NH entry per group of prefixes
Command

RIPng header
Version Set to zero

RIP header
Command Version Set to zero Route Tag 0 Address Family ID IPv4 Prefix Subnet Mask Next Hop Metric

IPv6 Next Hop

Routing Table Entry (RTE) for next hop 0xFF

IPv6 prefix

Routing Table Entry (RTE) for prefixes (1 .. N) sharing same next hop Metric

Route Tag Prefix Len

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::/0

Router 2 2001:db8:c18:1:260:3eff:fe47:1530 Default route from R2 Ethernet0 LAN1: 2001:db8:c18:1::/64 Ethernet0 Router 1 Ethernet1 LAN2: 2001:db8:c18:2::/64 Router2#config term ipv6 router rip RT0 interface Ethernet0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:c18:1::/64 eui-64 ipv6 rip RT0 enable ipv6 rip RT0 default-information originate

Router1#config term ipv6 router rip RT0 ! interface Ethernet0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:c18:1::/64 eui-64 ipv6 rip RT0 enable ! interface Ethernet1 ipv6 address 2001:db8:c18:2::/64 eui-64 ipv6 rip RT0 enable

Enable RIP routing Show RIP update Router2# debug ipv6 rip RIPng: Sending multicast update on Ethernet0 for RT0 Use link-local as source src=FE80::260:3eff:fe47:1530 Destination is All RIPng routers dst=FF02::9 (Ethernet0) sport=521, dport=521, length=32 command=2, version=1, mbz=0, #rte=1 tag=0, metric=1, prefix=::/0

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R1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 10 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP U - Per-user Static route I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2 ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2 D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external C 2001:DB8:1::/64 [0/0] via ::, Loopback1 L 2001:DB8:1:0:A8BB:CCFF:FE00:100/128 [0/0] via ::, Loopback1 Note all RIP next hops are link-local addresses (FE80::) R 2001:DB8:2::/64 [120/2] via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200, Serial2/0 R 2001:DB8:3::/64 [120/3] via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200, Serial2/0 C 2001:DB8:12::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial2/0 L 2001:DB8:12:0:A8BB:CCFF:FE00:100/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial2/0 R 2001:DB8:23::/64 [120/2] via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200, Serial2/0 L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0

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Three new TLVs:


0X0401 - Internal Prefix 0X0402 - External Prefix 0X0403 - Unused

Hello messages use the link-local address as the src and dst of FF02::A (all EIGRP

routers).
Neighbors do not have to share the same global prefix (with the exception of explicitly specified neighbors)

Automatic summarization is disabled by default for IPv6 (unlike IPv4) Support for no split-horizon in the case of NBMA links
For example, multi-point GRE as found in DMVPN deployments, or ATM/Frame services

RID stays at 32 bits Expected to be very popular amongst existing enterprise networks

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Router 2 Ethernet0

2001:db8:c18:1:260:3eff:fe47:1530 LAN1: 2001:db8:c18:1::/64 Ethernet0 Router 1 Ethernet1 LAN2: 2001:db8:c18:2::/64 Router2#config term ipv6 router eigrp 100 eigrp router-id 10.10.10.1 interface Ethernet0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:c18:1::/64 eui-64 ipv6 eigrp 100

Router1# show ipv6 eigrp neighbor IPv6-EIGRP neighbors for process 100 H Address (ms) Cnt Num 0 FE80::260:3eff:fe47:1530 E0

Interface

Hold Uptime 14 00:01:43

RTO Q Seq (sec) Neighbors and next hops are identified by link-local address 1 4500 0 1

SRTT

Router1# show ipv6 eigrp topology all-links IPv6-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(100)/ID(10.10.10.1) Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - reply Status, s - sia Status P 2001:db8:c18:1::/64, 1 successors, FD is 28160, serno 1 via Connected, Ethernet0 via FE80::260:3eff:fe47:1530 (30720/28160), Ethernet0
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OSPFv3 is OSPF for IPv6 (RFC 5340) Based on OSPFv2 with enhancements Distributes IPv6 prefixes only Runs directly over IPv6 Ships-in-the-night with OSPFv2

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OSPFv3 has same 5 packet types some fields have been changed OSPFv3 packets have a 16 byte header verses the 24 byte header in OSPFv2
Packet Type 1 2 3 4 5 Description Hello Database description Link state request Link state update Link state acknowledgement

Legend

Fields Name kept from IPv4 to IPv6 Fields not kept in IPv6 Name and/or position changed in IPv6 New Field in IPv6

OSPFv2
Version Type Router ID Area ID Checksum Authentication Authentication
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OSPFv3
Packet Length Version Type Router ID Area ID Authtype Checksum Instance ID 0 Packet Length

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Uses link local addresses To identify the OSPFv3 adjacency neighbors Two New LSA Types Link-LSA (LSA Type 0x0008) There is one Link-LSA per link. This LSA advertises the router's link-local address, list of all IPv6 prefixes and options associated with the link to all other routers attached to the link Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA (LSA Type 0x2009) Carries all IPv6 prefix information that in IPv4 is included in Router-LSAs and Network-LSAs Two LSAs are renamed Type-3 summary-LSAs, renamed to Inter-Area-Prefix-LSAs Type-4 summary LSAs, renamed to Inter-Area-Router-LSAs

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Multicast Addresses FF02::5 Represents all SPF routers on the link local scope, Equivalent to 224.0.0.5 in OSPFv2 FF02::6 Represents all DR routers on the link local scope, Equivalent to 224.0.0.6 in OSPFv2 Removal of Address Semantics IPv6 addresses are no longer present in OSPF packet header (Part of payload information) Router LSA, Network LSA do not carry IPv6 addresses Router ID, Area ID and Link State ID remains at 32 bits DR and BDR are now identified by their Router ID and no longer by their IP address Security OSPFv3 uses IPv6 AH & ESP extension headers instead of variety of mechanisms defined in OSPFv2

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LSA Description Router LSA Network LSA Inter-Area-Prefix-LSA Inter-Area-Router-LSA AS-External-LSA Deprecated NSSA-LSA Link-LSA Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA

LSA Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

LSA Type 0x2001 0x2002 0x2003 0x2004 0x4005 0x2006 0x2007 0x0008 0x2009

Bits Set=1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S2 S1 S1
S2 0 0 1 1 S1 0 1 0 1 Flooding Scope Link-Local Scoping - Flooded only on originating link Area Scoping - Flooded only in originating area AS Scoping - Flooded throughout AS Reserved U Bit 0 1 LSA Handling Treat the LSA as if it had link-local flooding scope Store and flood the LSA as if the type is understood

S1 1Bit U 1Bit S2 1Bit S1

LSA Type Format


13 Bits LSA Function Code

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Area 1

Router 2
POS3/0 POS 2/0 2001:db8:ffff:1::1/64 2001:db8:ffff:1::2/64

Router1# interface POS1/1 ipv6 address 2001:410:FFFF:1::1/64 ipv6 ospf 100 area 0 ! interface POS2/0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:FFFF:1::2/64 ipv6 ospf 100 area 0 ! ipv6 router ospf 100 router-id 10.1.1.3 Router2# interface POS3/0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:FFFF:1::1/64 ipv6 ospf 100 area 0 ! ipv6 router ospf 100 router-id 10.1.1.4

Enables IPv6 facing Area 0 Interlink connection (could use link-local)

Router 1
POS1/1

Interlink connection (could use link-local)

Area 0
2001:410:ffff:1::1/64

32 bit ID specified in dotted decimal notation

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Area 1

Router 2
POS3/0 POS 2/0 2001:db8:ffff:1::1/64 2001:db8:ffff:1::2/64

Router1# interface POS1/1 ipv6 address 2001:410:FFFF:1::1/64 ospfv3 100 area 0 ipv6 ! interface POS2/0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:FFFF:1::2/64 ospfv3 100 area 1 ipv6 ! router ospfv3 100 router-id 10.1.1.3 Router2# interface POS3/0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:FFFF:1::1/64 ospfv3 100 area 1 ipv6 ! router ospfv3 100 router-id 10.1.1.4

Enables IPv6 facing Area 0 Interlink connection (could use link-local)

Router 1
POS1/1

Interlink connection (could use link-local)

Area 0
2001:410:ffff:1::1/64

32 bit ID specified in dotted decimal notation

Supported as of 15T/15S IOS trains

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