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A Dissertation

Presented to the faculty of the

California Graduate Institute of

The Chicago School of Professional Psychology

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Doctor of Psychology


Mehrnoosh Sheblid

June 2009

The dissertation of Mehrnoosh Sheblid is approved.

Donald Schultz, PhD, CGI Reader

Terry Webster, PhD, CGI Reader

Jack Mayhall, PhD, Chair

California Graduate Institute of the Chicago School of Professional Psychology West Los Angeles, California


Copyright 2009 by Mehrnoosh Sheblid All rights reserved.

This being human is a guest house. Every morning a new arrival.

A joy, a depression, a meanness, some momentary awareness comes as an unexpected visitor.

Welcome and entertain them all! Even if they’re a crowd of sorrows, who violently sweep your house empty of its furniture, still, treat each guest honorably. He may be clearing you out for some new delight.

The dark thought, the shame, the malice meet them at the door laughing, and invite them in.

Be grateful for whoever comes, because each has been sent as a guide from beyond.


The Essential Rumi, Coleman Barks, Trans. (New York: HarperCollins, 1995). P.109

To Kamy and Nilu.


I would like to express my appreciation to the members of my dissertation committee Dr.

Terry Webster for her guidance and professional support, and Dr. Donald Schultz for his support

and consideration throughout the process of completing this dissertation and my doctoral degree;

I couldn’t complete my degree without your help. I would like to thank Dr. Russell Hunter for

his assistance in formatting and constructing this dissertation.

I would like to thank the clinicians who agreed to evaluate the findings of this

dissertation. I am thankful for their willingness to offer valuable feedback and for assisting me to

develop a better manual on the process of individuation.

The desire to write a manual similar to the abridgement section of this dissertation started

to form about six years ago. At that time, I was not familiar with Jungian theory and the process

of individuation. But I noted down my ideas, filed them, and completely forgot about them.

More than two years ago, as I was struggling to explain my dissertation topic and as I was

searching for the right words to express my unclear thoughts, Dr. Jack Mayhall kindly and

clearly formed the problem statement of this dissertation from my incoherent words. My sincere

thanks to Dr. Mayhall, chairperson, for guiding me in the process of individuation with his

valuable feedbacks and for being the light bearer throughout the process of writing this


Lastly, I am grateful for the One who changed my inner world from:

Perish the day when I was born…. Why was I not still-born? Why did I not die when I came out of the womb?


Why should the sufferer be born to see the light? Why is life given to men who find it so bitter? Why should a man be born to wander blindly, Hedged in by God on every side? Job 3:3-23 New English Bible


I had heard of thee by the hearing of the ear,

But now my eye sees thee;

Therefore I despise myself, and repent in dust and ashes. (Edinger p, 91)



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………. vi


DISSERTATION ABSTRACT………… ……………………………………….……

1. NATURE OF THE STUDY Background to the Study……….……… …………………………….…….… 1 Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………… ……4 Research Question………….……….…… ……………………………….……5 Application of the Result…….…….….… …………………………………… 5 Theoretical Framework……….…… …………………….…………………… 6 Definition of Terms ……………………… ……………………………………8 Outline of Remaining Chapter ……… …………… …………………………11

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Chapter Overview…………………………………………………….……… 12 Jung: A Brief History………………………………………………………… 12 Jung’s Theories ………………………………………….………….…… ….18 The Self ……………………… ….……………………………….……….….18 Ego………………………… ……….…………………………………… ….21 Individuation………………………… …… 25 The Unconscious and Archetypes …………………………… 27 The Goddesses as Archetypes ……………………………………………… 31 Complexes……………………………………………… 39 Development of Persona, Shadow, Anima, and Animus………… …… … 42 Romantic Love………………………… ……………………………… ……49 Chapter Summary………………………………………………………………52

3. METHODS AND PROCEDURES Chapter Overview …………………………… … 53

Restatement of the Problem ……………………… ………………………….53 Objective and Rationale ……….…………….……………… …………… 53 Research Plan ……………………………… …………………………… 54 Participants ………………………………………………………………… 56 Procedures……………………………………… ……….………………… 57 Instrumentation…………………………………………… 57

……… … 58

…. Chapter Summary ……………………………………………… ………… 59

Assumptions and Limitations of the Study…




Chapter Overview………………….….…………….……….………… …….60 Codification of the Literature for Manual (First Section)……….…… … ….61 Typical Functions of Mother Complex in Daughters.…… …………… 62 The overdeveloped mother complex.……… ……….…………….…62 Undeveloped mother complex …………….………………… … …63 Positive aspect of mother complex………….……………………… 63 Negative aspect of mother complex.……… ……… …………….….64

…………… Overdeveloped mother complex.…….…… …………………………64 Positive effects of the mother complex … … ….…………… …….65 Negative aspects of mother complex…… ……….………………… 65 Archetypal Level………………………………….…… ………… 65 Personal Level…………………………………….………………… 65 Mother Complex and Anima (Formation of Anima)… ….…….66 Mother Complex and Animus (Formation of Animus)… …… …… 70 Formation of Persona and Shadow… …….….………….…… …….… 74 Formation of Ego-Self axis…… … ………………… ……………… 76 Codification of the Literature for Manual (Second Section)… ………………80 Individuation Goals for Women……….…………… ….…………….… 81 Conscious Awareness of Mother Complex….… ………… ………… 81 With overdeveloped mother complex… ….… …… …… ……… 81 With undeveloped mother complex…… …… ………….………….81 With positive aspects of mother complex…… …… …………82 With negative aspects of mother complex…………… …… ……….82 Mother complex contamination at personal level……… …… … 83 Mother complex contamination at archetypal level… … …….…83 Individuation Goals for Men …………… ………………………….…….85 Conscious Awareness of Mother Complex… … ………… ………… 85 With overdeveloped mother complex…… …… … ……………… 86 With Don-Juan characteristics.…………………… …………… 86 With negative aspects of mother complex…………………………….86 With positive mother complex……………………….……………… 87 Mother complex contamination at personal level…… ….….……… 87 Mother complex contamination at archetypal level…….… ……… 87 Anima and Animus Contrasexual Opposite Within… ….…… …… 89 Integration of anima…….….…………………… ……………… …90 Integration of animus…… ……………………….……….………….91 Integration of Persona…….…… …….……………………… ……….93 Integration of Shadow……………….… ……………………………94 Integration of Ego-Self Axis…………… …….…………………… 97 Evaluation of Findings from Evaluators…………… ……………………….103 Findings of Likert-Type Questioners…………………………………………104



Typical Effects of Mother Complex in Sons….…


Chapter Summary………………… ……………….……….……………… 111



Conclusion………………… ……………………………………………… 116 Recommendation………….….……….……….…………………………… 122


APPENDIX Appendix A: Abridgement of the Manual………………… ……………….130

First section: Process of Individuation…… ……………………………131

Second section: Individuation…………

…………… ……….… 136

Appendix B: Therapist Evaluation…….…………………… …… …… …145

Therapist Evaluation Questionnaire …………………………… …… 146





California Graduate Institute of the Chicago School of Professional Psychology May 2009

Jack Mayhall, PhD, Chair Donald Schultz, PhD, CGI Reader Terry Webster, PhD, CGI Reader


Romantic love as a mass phenomenon has overwhelmed the Western Collective psyche.

Many relationships begin with the ideal of true love but across time with much disappointment to

them they fall apart. It is not unusual that in our society people keep on searching for the “ideal

romantic partner”, an “ideal” that lasts only for a short period of time since it is based on

projections of different components of one’s unconscious materials. This process is filled with

much pain and suffering for adults and children who have to witness the loss of a parent and the

replacement of the parent by another individual. Thus, this study addressed the basic research

problem: How does the projection of the archetypal lover influence one’s daimonic quest for


The theoretical framework for this study was provided by Carl Jung and contemporary

Jungian analysts. The theory was codified and a manual that consisted of two sections was

written to answer the objectives of the study.


A Likert-type questionnaire based on each section of the manual was developed for the

evaluation of the validity of the findings. Three Jungian analysts received the manual along with

a therapist evaluation questionnaire. According to the evaluation results, evaluators agreed

(average score of 4.26) that the findings addressed the basic research problem of this study.

Results of the study showed that the mother archetype forms the foundation of the mother

complex and mother shapes the positive or negative formation of the mother complex. The effect

of the mother complex seems to be

more clear in daughters because in boys it is also

contaminated with anima. Depending on the function of the mother complex at different levels

(archetypal, personal), different intensities (undeveloped or overdeveloped), and with different

effects (positive or negative), people respond differently in a romantic relationship. The function

of the other components of the psyche such as contrasexual opposite, persona shadow and ego-

Self axis also affect people’s response in a romantic relationship. These are contributing factors

that either deteriorate or deepen romantic relationships.

A major theme of this study is that the archetypal lover serves as the archetype of

initiation in the personal unconscious. By projecting the ideal of romantic partner in the outer

world, the personal unconscious is compensating for the one-sided life style where many people

have been ignoring the development of personality and instead are concerned only with material

possessions and achievements in life. This is the reason that romantic love has become a mass

phenomenon that overwhelmed the Western collective psyche.

The implication of the study is that people must become conscious of the role of the

personal mother, the function of the mother complex and other components in the psyche and

their manifestations in everyday life in order to form a healthy ego-Self axis. They need to

evaluate their mental activities, existing values, beliefs, ethics, and determine the existing


patterns of relations and feelings in order to discover their origin, their usefulness, and to

separate and rejoin them again in a correct way; it is after objective observation that they can

change the direction of their lives and see that romantic love is to enrich them and move them

closer to wholeness.

Then they can see that they truly were made in the image of God. This is

the gift of the lover archetype as the archetype of initiation in one’s daimonic quest for





Background to the study

Our modern Western society is the only culture that has experienced romantic

love as a mass phenomenon. Many relationships begin with the ideal of true love.

Although they have high hopes for their future, across time with much disappointment to

them the relationship falls apart. To most of them everything seemed right in the

beginning but they don’t know why they “fall out of love”. While some may give up the

dream of being in a romantic relationship, others continue to end one relationship and

start a new one hoping to find their ideal partner. They never stop to analyze themselves

or their relationship. They believe by changing their partner, they can have the ideal

romantic relationship and find the perfect partner. If one could look at romantic love as

one’s journey of personal evolution then its essence and its meaning could uncover many

aspects of ones’ unconscious attitude and beliefs and serves as a path to consciousness.

Thus, this theoretical study is designed to explore the degree to which partners might

serve as a mirror to bring a higher level of consciousness to their relationship as well as

to themselves in a romantic relationship. More specifically, I will draw on Jung and

contemporary Jungian theories to discuss the nature, function, and purpose of the

archetypal lover, as well as the role of daimon in one’s journey to individuation.


The most fundamental aspect of Carl Jung’s theory is the Self and Archetypes.

The Self, as he posited, is a priori that manifest structures in the forms of archetypes. The

Self is the center and totality of the psyche, both the unconscious and the conscious. Jung














development of consciousness (Jung, 1968, 1971).

According to Carl Jung, “the unconscious is at its basis collective in character.

‘From the unconscious there emanate determining influences… which, independently of

tradition, guarantee in every single individual a similarity and even sameness of

experience, and










therefore, contained a wealth of potentialities for image formation (archetypes) [italics

added], and this could lead to the creation of new ideas and positive personality

development” (Singer, 1994, p. 98).

Jung applied the term archetype to psychic perception and understanding common

to all human beings. The individual psyche, he believed, “is a product of personal

experiences as well as a transpersonal dimension manifested in universal patterns and

images from the collective unconscious. The archetype is not only perceptible but also

potentially present influencing our thoughts, feelings, and behavior. The archetype is

essentially an unconscious content that is altered by becoming conscious and by being

perceived, and it takes its colour from the individual conscious in which it happens to

appear” (Jung, 1959, p. 5).











manifestation in the form of image and form are observable both within the individual

and within the society. Like instincts that determine one’s action, archetypes are the


unconscious modes of understanding that regulate our perception. When there is an

archetypal issue, the complexes develop but if archetypes are understood correctly, they

liberate the suffering individual or society from a sense of personal or collective disaster

and eventually lead to a meaningful existence.

According to Jung, “when a great psychological phenomenon suddenly appears in

the life of an individual, it represents an unconscious potential that is rising to the level of

consciousness because the psyche strives toward wholeness” (Johnson, 1983, p. xiii). The

psychological phenomenon may also appear in a society or certain point of history which

point to a possibility bursting out of the collective unconscious. If the observable fact

integrated into consciousness, it brings about meaning although it may be overwhelming

and even destructive in the beginning.













overwhelmed our collective psyche. Its tremendous power has created more tragedy and

alienation between partners and within each person. It is the greatest adventure of our

lives that demands a higher level of personal evolution. When people learn the dynamic

of romantic love and their own psyche, they experience the potential and beauty of

romantic love as well as the illusion that is carried inside each person at the unconscious

level. A great idea such as romantic love can only take hold of people from outside

because something in them at the archetypal level responds to that phenomenon.

As will be explained, the focus of this theoretical study is on activation of the

archetypal lover by a unique and special individual that is known only to one’s daimon.

The romantic partner is felt as known to the other partner, or as Plato posited as “one’s

lost half”. The relationship feels sacred and heavenly while the individual uses the


experience, feelings, and emotions both negative and positive to become more aware and

conscious. It is in this type of relationship that love grows and partners become more

aligned with their Self.

Statement of the Problem

In our modern society even though advancement in technology has enhanced

people’s lives in the materialistic domain and has provided more time than was ever

imagined for relationships, leisure activity, and personal growth, most people continue to

feel a psychic void that neither material belongings nor any prestige, power, and

relationship can fulfill.

Our civilization pushes people to work hard in order to achieve a stronger sense of

accomplishment through material possessions but in the process many have lost their

sense of relatedness first to the Self and then to the others.

Unlike other commodities, love and relatedness cannot be bought. They are

invisible spiritual forces that are born through development of self-awareness and inner

transformation. Although many start a relationship with passion and high hopes for the

future, they don’t know why their relationships collapse and their marriage ends. Thus,

the focus of this dissertation is to codify the most important and relevant concept

postulated by Carl Jung and contemporary Jungian analyst in order to develop a manual

to address the basic problem: How does the projection of the archetypal lover influence

one’s daimonic quest for individuation?


Research Questions

1) To what extent (as indicated by a treatment plan used by Jungian thought) does

a mother complex influence one’s archetypal lover projection process when put upon a

romantic partner?

2) To what extent (as indicated by a treatment plan used by Jungian thought)

does a mother complex influence one’s daimonic quest of individuation in a romantic


Application of Results

The goal of this theoretical study is to investigate and define the process of










Individuation is the developmental process that recurs repeatedly on an increasingly

advanced level as an individual faces different stages of life. Through this process, one

realizes and integrates consciously all the possibilities contained within oneself to find

one’s direction and a sense of purpose in life. Change and growth are the essential aspects

of our lives. Only when people become highly conscious can they form a healthy and

mature relationship to themselves, to others, and especially to a romantic partner.

When people learn the dynamic of romantic love and their own psyche, they may

experience the potential and the beauty of romantic love as well as the illusion that is

carried inside each person at the unconscious level. Romantic love could be used as a

path to consciousness when an individual releases expectation and uses the relationship

as a psychological mirror to promote the growth of love and psychological well being of

the individuals.


In our society, many people are stuck in what Victor Turner calls “the liminal

state” where they no longer respect themselves as they were but lack the slightest idea of

who they want to become. A mother or father who is unhappy with who she or he is and

is obsessed by achieving and excelling more continues to feel empty and unconsciously

falls into despair and may easily pass down the feeling to her or his children. The growths

of consciousness and awareness that can be achieved from each of our experiences are

the most valuable gifts that are given in each relationship. Unfortunately many dismiss











expectations, feeling of unhappiness, and contaminated relationships that are seen in

families and between partners in our society inspired me to write about romantic

relationship as a realistic path to self discovery and consciousness.















understanding of their motives and desires, the unconscious reasons to pursue a romantic

relationship, their unhappiness with their partner once they are in the relationship and the

psychological void they feel that no romantic relationship can ever satisfy. The result of

the study may also help the clinicians to understand the developmental status of clients

who continually experience unsuccessful relationships and to inform them in what ways

their romantic relationships may move them to an integrated whole personality and

toward becoming an individuated person.

Theoretical Framework

The primary theoretical literature that provides the foundation for this dissertation

is on concepts postulated by the Swiss psychiatrist and theorist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-


1961), the founder of analytical psychology. His most important discovery was the

collective unconscious or archetypal psyche.

The individual psyche, he postulated, is a product of personal experiences as well

as transpersonal dimension that are manifested in universal patterns and images in the

forms of dreams of the individual or dreams of an entire people at a certain point in their

history in the form of myths. Jung illustrated that dreams and myths are the symbolic

imagery of the unconscious striving to become conscious. When people understand the

symbolic meaning of images and integrate them into their lives they can achieve


Likewise, the idea of romantic love that presently occupies the western

psyche in a contaminated way, if understood correctly at the individual level, can move

us to the next level of evolution in our consciousness.

In this theoretical study the concept of Jungian archetypes is used to explore the

nature of romantic love. More specifically the role of twin archetypes of contrasexual,

anima and animus, in romantic love will be explored. Because of their archetypal nature,

many men may experience the image of anima in collective forms such as Sophia or

many women may experience the image of animus in collective forms such as Hermes. In

the less extreme form these archetypes may be represented as a man projecting his

mother complex onto his partner or a woman projecting of her father complex onto her

partner which eventually leads to dissatisfaction if not deterioration of the relationship.

The concept of goddesses from the Jungian perspective will also be discussed as

an insight tool that may create a new understanding of people and their relationships.

When a woman acknowledges which goddess is more dominant within her, she is less

likely to act unconsciously and thus gain more control over her abilities, weaknesses and


priorities. Although the goddesses are stronger in women, they nevertheless exist in men

as well.

Moreover when a man acknowledges which goddesses he is attracted to, he is

more likely to consciously choose a partner who is more aligned with his expectations

and avoid repeating relationships with unhappy endings. Although the concept of gods

from Jungian perspective is not discussed in this dissertation, men and women can use

the eight archetypal gods to understand themselves and each other better and base their

expectations on realistic grounds that explain the behavioral patterns of themselves and

their partner. (Singer, 1994)

Definition of Terms

The following are terms used throughout this dissertation and are relevant to the

material contained in this study. The terms with their definitions are alphabetically

ordered. Some of the terms will be more fully explained later in the body of this study.

Analytic theory

Theory of reconciliation of opposing forces.


An unconscious soul-image, the feminine personality component of the man as

well as the image he holds of feminine nature that stands in opposition to the conscious


This image can unconsciously be transferred to a woman and contaminate a




An unconscious soul-image representing masculinity within woman and may

have different images which correspond to the woman’s stage of development. It may

represent power, wisdom, or will. A woman can easily transfer this image to a man with

the same characteristics and contaminate the relationship.


Inherent predispositions pattern of thoughts or symbolic imagery that reside

within the depths of the human psyche, timeless and autonomous elements, derived from

the collective unconscious, and are manifested in the archetypal images of dreams or

myths. Like cerebral cortex that organizes our sensory system, the psyche organizes our

experience through the archetype.

Collective Unconscious

The most powerful part of the human psyche that is common to all humankind

with different levels that can be explored but may not be safe. Each deeper level of the

unconscious becomes more collective in nature containing all the shared experiences with

all generations and life forms both positive and negative.


The constellation of psychic elements such as feelings, thoughts, perceptions, and

memories that are grouped around emotionally sensitive areas. It consists of a nucleus

with energy that draws experiences and thoughts toward it and operates unconsciously.



This term was first used by Plato in his work, the Republic. Daimon or the Self is

the inner companion guiding the individual to become a complete human being.


The conscious part of the psyche containing the thoughts, feelings, memories and

perceptions that gives a sense of identity.


The process of self knowledge by conscious realization, differentiation, and

integration of different elements of the psyche and all the possibilities within the

individual that include both weaknesses and strengths.


A social mask, one’s response to the social demands and traditional roles

stemming from the archetype of social interaction and roles.

Personal unconscious

Part of human psyche that contains lost, repressed, and forgotten memories. Its

contents are either not yet ready to reach consciousness or never reached the threshold of

consciousness and were subliminally perceived.


The unconscious transference of one’s ideas, feelings, thoughts, and qualities to

another person.



The totality of inorganic life that contains conscious and unconscious, personal

and collective.


The archetype of unity and wholeness, the center of being, striving for the union

of conscious with the unconscious. Other names such as God, and Mana also refer to the

same concept.


The dark and unconscious side of the psyche that may be more obvious to others

than the individual; the socially unacceptable aspects of persona, and undeveloped parts

of the personality that conscious ego tends to reject but contains great vitality for personal

growth if integrated into the personality.

Outline of Remaining Chapters

This dissertation contains four additional chapters. Chapter 2 presents a literature












rationales, as well as the research methods and procedure. Chapter 4, the findings,

presents the manual on the process of individuation through the projection of the

archetypal lover. Chapter 5 will include a summary and conclusion of the study and also

recommendations for the future study.




Chapter Overview

This chapter begins with a biography of Carl Gustav Jung and for the purpose of

this dissertation, the focus will be on the first twenty-five years of his life which is the

period from his birth until he became an assistant at the Burgholzli Mental Hospital in

Zurich. The reason for this selection is to demonstrate the extent his Diamon may have

influenced his childhood imagination, had shaped his personality, and his theories as one

of the giants of psychology who was the first to include the existence of the psyche as the

responsible factor for both knowledge and insight.

In the second section of this chapter, some components of Jung’s theory such as

The Self, archetypes, complexes and unconscious which are relevant to this study are


Jung: A Brief Biography From Birth to Young Adulthood

Carl Gustav Jung was born in Basel, Switzerland, in 1875. When he was six

months old his parents moved to Laufen above the Falls of the Rhine. He noted (1961) in

his memories, dreams, and reflection that his memories of his earlier life (second or third

year) was “but an islands of memory afloat in a sea of vagueness, each by itself,

apparently with no connection between them.” (Jung, 1961, p. 6)


One of his later memories with his mother visiting a friend at Lake Constance had

a powerful impact on him. At that time the idea became fixed in his mind that he must

live near a lake for no one can live without water. When he was three years old he

suffered from eczema which he connected to the separation of his parents. In the same

year his mother was also hospitalized and Jung was taken care of by an aunt who was

twenty years older than his mother. He was greatly troubled by his mother’s absence and

as a result was always mistrustful when the word love was associated with women.

From then on, I always felt mistrustful when the word “love” was spoken The feeling I associated with “woman” was for a long time that of innate unreliability. “Father” on the other hand, meant reliability and powerlessness. That is the handicap I started off with. Later, these impressions were revised: I have trusted men friends and been disappointed by them, and I have mistrusted women and was not disappointed (Jung, 1961, p. 8).

Jung was looked after by a maid who he felt only belonged to him and not his

family. It was her characteristics that later symbolized the component of his anima and

the whole essence of womanhood to Jung. He felt that his maid was connected to

mysterious things that he was not able to understand. He recalled memories that pointed

to an unconscious suicidal urge or resistance to life in this world.

Before age six, Carl Jung was introduced to Christianity by his father who was a

reformed church Evangelical Minister, and his eight uncles, his mother and maternal

grandfather. He had also an inexhaustible interested in an old children’s book containing

exotic Hindu religion with illustration of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. He felt a

connection between these pictures and his “original revelation” but never revealed the

secret to anyone.


Jung attributed his mature behavior at such an early age to his loneliness as a

single child, his vulnerability, and sensitivity. As a child he couldn’t endure to be

watched or judged while he played. His favorite game was to build towers with bricks

and then destroy them by an earthquake. His other interests was giving interpretation to

pictures he made by ink blots in his exercise book.

By age seven, Jung finally found the playmates he was lacking in school.

However, soon he realized that he was somehow a different person because of his

schoolfellows. He felt the wider world was a suspicious and hostile place that had him in

its mercy with unanswerable questions. During this time the atmosphere at home was

beginning to be intolerable for Jung since his parents were sleeping separately while he

was sleeping with his father. He recalled having nightmares and visions of figures whose

heads were detached along with manifestation of physical illness during this time.

Between age seven to nine, he was fond of a fire that he tended in the garden.

There were spaces in the old wall that made interesting caves in which he made himself

concern with only one of them. Although his friends could make fire in other caves, it

was only him who was responsible for this fire. To young Jung, this fire was exceptional,

“my fire alone was living and had unmistakable aura of sanctity” (Jung, 1961, p. 20). He

also played an imaginary game with a stone that was in front of this wall. At time he was

perplexed at who was what now, “I am sitting on top of this stone and it is underneath.

But the stone could say “I” and think I am lying here on this slope and he is sitting on top

of me” (Jung, 1961, p. 20). Thirty years later as a married man with children, he

continued to experience the same thought once he was back to the garden. He felt the pull


of this world was so strong that he had no choice but to separate himself violently in

order to continue his life.

At age 10, Jung’s childhood was concluded with the episode of the carved

manikin which lasted one year. His uncertainty in the world and disunion with himself

led him to carve a manikin at the end of his ruler. He then painted, cut and placed it in his

pencil box where he made a bed for him along with a stone from the Rhine. This was his

secret and possessing it had a powerful impact on his personality which was considered

as an essential part of his boyhood. It seemed that Jung continually relied on his manikin

during the difficult time at that age. He placed a scrolled written note in the manikin box

after each visit which served him as a “solemn ceremonial act” (Jung, 1961, p. 21).

After twenty-five years while Jung was studying the psychology of unconscious

he was reminded of the episode of his manikin.

I read about the cache of soul-stones near Arleshiem, and the Australian Churingas. I suddenly discovered that I had a quite definite image of such a stone, though I had never seen any reproductions. It was oblong, blackish, and painted into an upper and lower half. This image was joined by that of the pencil box and the manikin….Along with this recollection there came to me, for the first time, the conviction that there are archaic components which have entered the individual psyche without any direct line of tradition (Jung, 1961, p. 23).

He believed that as a child he performed the ritual much like natives of Africa

who first act and then after a very long time reflect on their action.

At age eleven, Jung was sent to Gymnasium in Basel. After observing other

children, their parents, their carriage, and their clothes, he realized he was from a very

poor family. While other kids had money in their pockets, he had holes in his shoes and

at times had to sit in his school with wet socks for six hours.


Throughout his school years, he studied in a wide variety of fields as well as

observing his developing mind in process. It is clear that from an early age he devoted

himself to explore the psyche. He believed his life was a story of self realization of the

unconscious in which his personality desired to evolve from his unconscious and

experience itself as a whole. He saw life as a plant that lives on its rhizome.

Life has always seemed to me like a plant that lives on its rhizome. Its true life is invisible, hidden in the rhizome. The part that appears above the ground lasts only a single summer. Then it withers away-an ephemeral apparition. When we think of the unending growth and decay of life and civilization, we cannot escape the impression of absolute nullity. Yet I have never lost a sense of something that lives and endures underneath the eternal flux. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains (Jung, 1961, p. 4).

He noted his development in two distinct directions. On one hand he perceived

himself as son of his parents, an industrious schoolboy who was interested in natural

science and classics and on the other hand, he was a grown up man who belonged to the

eighteenth century and was fascinated with the mysteries of ultimate things and

questioned the nature of God and secrets; “here nothing separated man from God; indeed,

it was as though the human mind looked down upon Creation simultaneously with God”

(Jung, 1961, p. 45).

Jung referred to these as his number one and two “personalities” which were

oriented toward the objective world that is “out there” or the subjective world of

“psyche”. He believed that no mater which one of the personality was in the forefront, the

other one was not very far; however, his number two personality was more important to

him in which he always welcomed anything that came to him from within. His gift could

be seen in his willingness to explore the conflict within himself and to follow them

wherever they led him regardless of his feelings of fear, insecurity and at times awe.


…I had a sense of destiny, as though my life was assigned to me by fate and had to be fulfilled….I had the feeling that in all decisive matters I was no longer among men, but was alone with God. And when I was ‘there’ where I was no longer alone, I was outside time; I belonged to the centuries, and He who then gave answer was He who had always been, who had been before my birth. These talks with the ‘Other’ were my profoundest experiences: on the one hand a bloody struggle, on the other supreme ecstasy (Jung, 1961, p. 48).

In the spring of 1895, Jung started to study medicine at the university of Basel.

That continued to be a time

of poverty for him that he never missed. He won a

scholarship from university, was supported by his uncle and worked to pay his school

expenses. During his first year of study, he was amazed that the existence of the psyche

was never taken seriously; a phenomenon that was responsible for both knowledge and

insight to him.

Discussing his ideas, his unconventional way of thinking to new possibilities, his

vast knowledge in fields of theology, philosophy, and literature caused him much pain

and suffering throughout his life. Jung was disliked by others and alienated his classmates

throughout his student years which brought him a feeling of inferiority, and depression.

Unlike others, he believed that there might be events that are outside of the limited

categories of space, time and causality. However, he learned that these discussions would

lead to trouble and that he needed empirical evidence to support his ideas.

Upon reading the work of Krafft-Ebbing, Jung discovered that in psychiatry he

could find the interaction between nature and spirit. In December 1900, he became an

assistant at Burgholzli Mental Hospital in Zurich. During his hospital tenure, Jung gained

insight into the richness of his patients’ inner experiences. He believed cure must grow

out of the patient; as a result, doctors cannot apply the same method of therapy for all


patients. Each individual, he believed, needed to be treated as a unique person who

speaks a different language.

Jung’s Theories

Jung psychology leads back to the psyche as a reality that can be known,

described and experienced. Over the centuries, majority of people have lost contact with

the inner life and with its symbolism as our culture has evolved to be more and more


From 1900 to 1960, Jung had written excessively on different and varied topics

from child psychology to UFO’s. Through his open mind and unique way of thinking, he












phenomenon that are both extraordinary and valuable. Although an overview of his

theories are important, for the purpose of this dissertation I will focus primarily on

sections of his theories that are applicable to the topic of this dissertation: romantic love.

The Self

The totality of all the opposite forces, energies, and the qualities that reside within

the psyche is the Self. It is also the potentiality within each individual to achieve

wholeness. Different names such as god, daimon, mana, or unconscious have been

applied to the Self throughout the history in different cultures. The Self is the central and

dominant archetype in the collective unconscious.

… the self is a quantity that is supraordinate to the conscious ego. It embraces not only the conscious but also the unconscious psyche, and is therefore, so to speak, a personality which we also are…. There is little hope of our ever being able to reach even approximate consciousness of the self, since however much we may make conscious there will always exist an indeterminate and indeterminable amount of unconscious


material which belongs to the totality of the self (Jung, 1961, p. 398).

Jung (1959) referred to the Self as “ a psychic totality and at the same time a

center, neither of which coincides with the ego but includes it, just as a larger circle

encloses a smaller one” (p.76). According to Edinger (1972), “the conception of the Self

is a paradox. It is simultaneously the center and the circumference of the circle of

totality” (p. 7).

The self is superordinate to the ego just as the sun is to the earth. Singer (1994)

describes the relation of the Self to the ego, “as if one were being drawn inward toward a

center of great luminosity, yet to fly straight into it would be like a moth darting into a

flame or the earth hurtling itself into the center of the sun. So one moves around the

center instead, close enough to see the brightness, to feel the warmth, but maintaining the

orbital tension, a dynamic relationship of a small finite being to a source of light and

energy that has no limits” (p. 210). This relationship can be seen; for instance, between

Faust and Goethe or Zarathustra and Nietzsche.

The Self is oriented to unite the unconscious and the conscious. It is the nucleus

of the psyche thus it functions as the organizing center in the psyche just like the ego is

the center of conscious personality. For most people this union starts to develop during

the second half of life. In the first half of life, individuals are mostly concerned with ego

development, achievement in life, and their image as members of their society.


the second half of life, inner growth, achieving harmony with all existence, and finding

meaning or purpose in one’s life replaces the previous concerns. According to Jung

(1974), “In the last analysis every life is the realization of a whole, that is, of a self, for

which reason this realization can also be called individuation” (p. 296).


The nature of the Self as an unknowable entity requires the language of symbols

or metaphors. According to Jung (1961), the Self only expresses itself through the












discovered that the mandala motif is a universal symbol that represents the Self. After his

discovery, Jung spent ten years before publishing his first paper on the mandala symbol.

The mandala is an archetypal image whose occurrence is attested throughout the ages. It signifies the wholeness of the self. This circular image represents the wholeness of the psychic ground or, to put it in mythic terms, the divinity incarnate in man…. It represents the results of the joint labors of consciousness and the unconscious, and attains the likeness of the god-image in the form of the mandala, which is probably the simplest model of a concept of wholeness, and one which spontaneously arises in the mind as a representation of the struggle and reconciliation of opposites (p. 335).

Common characters, symbols, images, and motifs in different religions, cultures,

and dreams, throughout history “points to an unknowable secret- to the ultimate unknown

meaning of human existence”; the Self [italics added] (Von Franz, 1968, p. 215). For

instance in one religion the Self is referred to as the beginning when “all was chaos” and

in another


is referred to

as the “Garden

of Eden”; both of which refer to the

undifferentiated Self. In Hebrew-Christian myth, Job’s encounter with Yahweh can be

considered as a description of the ego’s encounter with the Self.

The dangerous aspect of the ego identification with the Self is also explained by

the myth of inflation when Zeus fastened Ixion who was attempting to seduce Hera,

Zeus’s wife, to the wheel of fire. In the Hindu religion, the Self is represented by the

Cosmic Man who exists within each individual. The Cosmic man “redeems the individual

by leading him out of creation and its suffering, back into his original eternal sphere. But

he can do this only if man recognizes him and rises from his sleep in order to be led”


(Von Franz, 1968, p. 215). In east the Self is represented by Buddha, Krishna while in

west it is represented by Christ, or as late antiquity called him Anthropos. In dreams the

Self appears in numerous images such as the figure of miraculous child, wise old man or

woman, guardian, heroine, bisexual being or shapes such as circles, round stone, crystal,

and diamond. Although all the stories and myths appear to be different, the process of

Self realization is apparent as each story unfolds. In addition, some story such as wheel

of fire indicates the consequence of one’s inability to separate oneself from identification

with the Self that is a supraordiante entity which needs to be respected at its transcendent


The Self is a great power in the psyche with its own dark side. As was mentioned

previously, the Self consists of opposite forces, energies and qualities. Being possessed

by the dark side of the Self causes one to think “with mounting excitement that he has

grasped and solved the great cosmic riddles; he therefore loses all touch with human

reality” (Von Franz, 1968, p. 234).


The center of conscious personality is the ego. Ego is not present at birth and its

development is a process that takes place after birth through adulthood.

The self is born but the ego is made; and in the beginning all is Self….Since the Self is the center and totality of being, the ego totally identified with the Self experiences itself as a deity…although…the infant does not think in this way. He cannot yet think at all, but his total being and experience are ordered around the a priori assumption of deity. This is the original state of unconscious wholeness and perfection which is responsible for the nostalgia we all have toward our origins, both personal and historical (Edinger, 1972, p. 7).


Ego emerges from the depth of the unconscious during the first half of life. Ego

is not a separate entity by itself and is part of the psyche that comprises both conscious

and the unconscious. As it rises from the depth of the unconscious and differentiates itself

from others, it becomes the organ of awareness that never existed at the beginning of

one’s life which “is described by Neumann as the uroborus (the tail-eating serpent)

(Edinger, 1972, p. 7). Although the name Uroboros is only used to explain ego

identification with the Self and hence ego inflation at birth, ego is always in the danger of

inflation for it desires to return to its original state of being one with the Self.

Jung referred to ego as “ego complex” and “ego consciousness”. Perhaps he

spoke of ego consciousness when ego functions at a balance state with regard to the outer

world and inner world without any inflation; otherwise in an unbalanced state or one-

sidedness, an inflated ego functions similar to a complex and hence he referred to it as

“ego complex”.












identification with its inner or outer world. For example, the myth of Ixion demonstrates

the ego identification with the Self and the consequence of its identification which is its

eternal bound to the fiery wheel (Self). “In this case inflation manifested itself in lust and

pleasure seeking. Ixion, representing the inflated ego, attempts to appropriate to itself that

which belongs to the suprapersonal powers. The attempt is doomed before it starts. The

most with which Ixion is able to make contact is only a cloud-Hera, a fantasy” (Edinger,

1972, p. 30). This type of inflation and pleasure seeking behavior continues to be played

by many people with almost the same consequence that was manifested in the myth.


Many people search and desire to find the extraordinary woman or man that only

exists in their fantasies; as a result, during their lives they are tortured by their inner

desire that can never be satisfied. When ego becomes consciousness of its inflation and

can separate itself from the clouds of its fantasy, then it can live on earth and in the

reality of its life that is filled with imposed limitations. This is the function of the ego as

the center of consciousness.

Ego as the center of consciousness or organ of awareness functions to balance

between the demands of the society (persona, shadow, anima, animus) and demands of

the Self. During the first half of life, ego is mostly concerned with the societal demands

and less with the Self. Ego at this stage alienates from the Self. Example of this alienation

is explained in the myth of the Garden of Eden or the fall of man.

According to this myth God created Adam and allowed him to live in the Garden

of Eden. He was told that he is to be allowed to eat from any tree in the garden except the

apple tree or the tree of knowledge. But Adam was unhappy, thus god created Eve from

Adam’s rib. Then Satan appeared as a serpent tempting Eve to eat from the forbidden tree

and once they ate the fruit they realized they were naked. “Then the Lord God said,

‘Behold, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil; and now, lest he put

his hands and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever’-therefore the Lord

God sent him forth from the garden of Eden to till the ground from which he was

taken’”(Edinger, 1972, p. 16).

This myth clearly explains the ego separation or alienation from the Self (living in















(consciousness). It is only after they eat the fruit that they became conscious of their


nakedness. Their concern to cover their naked bodies explains the shame that people have

attached to sexuality but also may explain the shame an infant experiences for the first

time after becoming conscious that others can see him as he is; a separate entity from

mother (the Self) and hence a powerless child who is not yet an adult.

As the child grows up, the ego tends to make up for its separateness from the Self

by becoming more aligned with the societal demands. The ego conceals the undesirable

characteristics in its shadow side of personality and forms a persona that is presented to

the others depending on the familial and societal demands. With each compromise, ego

sacrifices part of the personality to the shadow side. Ego is inclined to hide the shadow

and judges its qualities as inferior and primitive. This unbalanced state causes ego to be

inflated and projects different aspects of its shadow to others and perceive them as evil or

ideal person.

In fact taking on oneself too much of anything is indicative of inflation because it transcends proper human limits. Too much humility as well as too much arrogance, too much love and altruism as well as too much power striving and selfishness, are all symptoms of inflation (Edinger, 1972, p. 15).

Ego is the opposite of the shadow. “It is up to the ego to give up its pride and

priggishness and to live out something that seems to be dark, but actually may not be”

(Von Franz, 1968, p. 178). Sometimes the shadow is powerful because the urge of the

Self is pointing to the same directions, and so one (ego) [italics added] does not know

whether it is the Self or the shadow that is behind the inner pressure” (ibid, p. 183).

Ego’s task is to surrender to the Self during the second half of life. Ego is never a

separate entity from the Self because the Self is simultaneously the center and the

circumference of totality that contains ego. “Thus ego and Self have a close structural and












Testement doctrine that man (ego) was created in God’s (the Self’s) image” (Edinger,

1972, p. 16). Although throughout one’s life ego and the Self unite or separate relatively,

Edinger (1972) theorized it is during the middle age that “ego-Self axis” emerges.

The first half of life…is experienced as an alternation between two states of bing, namely, inflation and alienation. Later a third state appears middle age [italics added] when the ego-Self axis reaches consciousness… which is characterized by a conscious dialectic relationship between ego and the Self. This state is individuation. (p. 7).


Jung arrived at the concept of individuation as a lifelong process and not as a goal

after discovering the directing patterns of at least 80,000 dreams, and studying both the












individuation is the development of the personality or the realization of the uniqueness

inherited within the individual which is a lifelong process and never fully achieved.

In the beginning ego is in complete identification with its environment; for

example, in antiquity primitive man consulted his tree spirit for a complicated decision

whereas modern people find the opinions of others important. When people identify

themselves with others, they assume they share certain feelings with others. In the

beginning of a romantic relationship for instance, people usually feel they are finally

completed for they found the one who understands them and make them happy. However

very soon it is turned to tragedy and alienation that clearly illustrate the characteristics of

ego development during its second stage of differentiation.












differentiate itself from external reality and emotional ties.


In general, emotional ties are very important to human beings. But they still contain projections, and it is essential to withdraw these projections in order to attain to oneself and to objectivity. Emotional relationships are relationships desire, tainted by coercion and constraint; something is expected from other person, and that makes him and ourselves unfree. Objective cognition lies hidden behind the attraction of the emotional relationship; it seems to be the central secret. Only through objective cognition is the real coniunctio, union of the purified opposite, [italics added] possible (Jung, 1961, p. 295-297).

As the process of individuation proceeds, ego differentiates from its inner reality.













objectively. In this case, for example, one can relate objectively to her animus without

either projecting it onto her partner or identifying with it at the personal or archetypal












dangerous work. “The dark side of the Self is the most dangerous thing of all, precisely

because the self is the greatest power in the psyche” (Von Franz, 1968, p. 239). This may

easily result in ego inflation and grandiosity where the individual loses contact with

reality and perceives herself as center of her world, The Self.

In this case, ego has

regressed to its first stage of development, which is ego inflation.

According to Jung and contemporary Jungians, individuation begins when the

individual is faced with a difficulty where there seems to be no solution.

The actual process of individuation- the conscious coming-to-term with one’s own inner center (psychic nucleus) or Self- generally begins with a wounding of the personality and the suffering that accompanies it. This initial shock amounts to a sort of ‘call’ although it is not often recognized as such. On the contrary, the ego feels hampered in its will or its desire and usually projects the obstruction onto something external. That is, the ego accuses God or the economic situation or the boss or the marriage partner of being responsible for whatever is obstructing it (von Franz, 1968, p. 169).


The process of individuation is a process of self knowledge that is a life long

work. According to Singer it is “the conscious realization and integration of all the

possibilities immanent in the individual. It is opposed to any kind of conformity with the

collective and…it also demands the rejections of those prefabricated psychic metric-the

conventional attitudes-with which most people would like to live” (Singer, 1994, p. 156).

It “requires a long and laborious process of pulling together all those fragmented

and chaotic bits and pieces of unconscious personality into an integrated whole which is

conscious of itself and the way in which it works (Singer, 1994, p. 143).

The Unconscious and Archetypes

Jung believed the unconscious consists of two layers of the collective and the

personal unconscious. The collective unconscious is the ultimate source of psychic power

and the deeper layer of unconscious. It is the universal human foundation of every

individual psyche. Collective unconscious is the transpersonal unconscious and the

objective psyche. It is based on shared experiences with all generations of humans and

life forms, as well as our inherited predispositions to experience the world in particular

ways. Collective unconscious contains the archetypes.

Personal unconscious, on the other hand holds experiences that once were

conscious but have been repressed, suppressed, ignored or forgotten. Although accessible

to one’s consciousness, it contains complexes.

Archetypes were defined by Carl Jung as inherent predisposition patterns of

thoughts or symbolic imagery that reside within the depths of the psyche’s unconscious

which are derived from the past collective experience.


The term ‘archetype’ is often misunderstood as meaning certain definite mythological images or motifs. But these are nothing more than conscious representations; it would be absurd to assume that such variable representations could be inherited. The archetype is a tendency to form such representations of motif-representations that can vary a great deal in detail without losing their basic pattern. There are, for instance, many representations of the motif of the hostile brethren, but the motif itself remains the same…. They are indeed, an instinctive trend, as marked as the impulse of birds to build nests, or ants to form organized colony. (Jung, 1968, p. 58)

According to Jacobi (1959), “Jung’s archetypes are a structural condition of the

psyche, which in certain constellations (of an inward and outward nature) can bring forth

certain ‘patterns’ and that this has nothing to do with the inheriting of definite images….

They are ‘inherited’ only in the sense that the structure of the psyche…” (Jacobi, 1959, p.

51). Thus, the constellation of the archetypes depends on the structure of human psyche,












consciousness of mankind as a group. A man living on another planet, for instance,

would possess a different psychic structure with different archetypes which would

manifest different archetypal image.

Archetypes are the possibilities of representation. They have no material existence

and only after the image presents itself in one’s conscious mind, it is born into the

material reality.

The conscious mind is influenced by the “state of the consciousness to which the

unconscious stands in a compensatory relation; it is manifested in the distribution of

psychic energy and the corresponding charge of the archetype that has been touched and

‘called awake’ by a current problem” (Jacobi, 1959, p. 53).


The archetypal presentations have a variety of forms. “Every archetype is capable

of infinite development and differentiation; like a robust tree it can put forth branches and

thousands of magnificent blossoms” (Jacobi, 1959, p. 55).

Archetypes are not only scattered “by tradition and language but that they can

rearise spontaneously at anytime, at any place, and without any outside influence” (Jung,












continually influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions. One method to recognize the

archetype is by the effects they produce.

Jung didn’t explain the origins of the archetypes and accepted them as the

timeless and autonomous elements of the unconscious that come to existence by

themselves and not as a phenomenon of the organic life. “Whether this psychic structure

and its elements, the archetypes, ever ‘originated’ at all is a metaphysical question and

therefore unanswerable” (Jung, 1959, p. 35).

Although having direct access to the collective unconscious and explaining the

archetypes is impossible, we can gain insight through their manifestations which are the

archetypal images. As a result, a definition of the archetype is impossible and the best

way to explain it is by “talking around” it for it expresses itself only in symbols and

metaphors. Jung revised his idea of archetypes numerously as new evidence presented

itself to him.

According to Jung, archetypes are the innate ability that can create images and

forms to compensate for the imbalances in the psyche either within the individual in the

forms of dreams or within the group of people in the form of myths. Archetypes appear

under an infinite variety of aspects. Their images are common to all human beings.


The central characteristic of archetypes is their potential duality that can have

positive or negative effects. Jung believed the importance of the awareness, acceptance,

and integration of the unconscious archetypal image into the individual consciousness.

“Our task is not, therefore, to deny the archetypes, but to dissolve the projections, in

order to restore their contents to the individual who has involuntarily lost them by

projecting them outside himself” (Jung, 1959, p. 18).










“Psychological growth occurs only when one attempts to bring the content of the

archetypes into conscious awareness and establish a relationship between one’s conscious

life and the archetypal level of human existence” (p.16).

Whether he understands them or not, man must remain conscious of the world of the archetypes, because in it he is still a part of Nature and is connected with his own roots. A view of the world or a social order that cuts him off from the primordial images of life not only is no culture at all but…is a prison ….if the primordial images remain conscious in some form or other, the energy that belongs to them can flow freely into man. But when it is no longer possible to maintain contact with them then the tremendous sum of energy stored up in these images…falls back into the unconscious. The unconscious then becomes charged with a force that acts as an irresistible vis a tergo to whatever view or idea or tendency our intellect may choose to dangle enticingly before our desiring eyes. (Jung, 1959, p. 27-28)

Although the number of archetypes is limitless, some archetypes such as Mother,

Maiden, Child, Shadow, Anima, and Animus are more visible and hence more influential.

These archetypes like a magnetic field transform the psychic process to images and

forms. They may never be activated in the absence of the inward or outward experience

for they describe how the psyche responds to the physical reality.


The Goddesses as Archetypes

As discussed earlier, myths as well as images in dreams are expressions of

archetypes. Jung studied myths extensively and found that they are an expression of basic

psychological patterns. Myths portray the collective image that is produced by the

imagination and experience of an entire culture. They may be a product of fantasy and

imagination but they are nonetheless true and real.

world as well as the less understood inner world.

They represent the outer rational

Just as in the case of some factors in mathematical equation we cannot say what physical realities they correspond, so in the case of some mythological products we do not know at first to what psychic realities they refer.…myth is the natural and indispensable intermediate stage between unconscious and conscious cognition. True, the unconscious knows more than consciousness does; but it is knowledge of a special sort, knowledge in eternity, usually without reference to the here and now, not couched in language of the intellect. Only when we let its statement amplify themselves…….does it come within the range of our understanding; only then does a new aspect become perceptible to us. (Jung, 1961, p. 311)

Myths may seem archaic and distant but once their symbolic meaning is

interpreted, they become the sources of psychological insight. The myths of Greek

goddesses, for instance, represent images of women that have lived in the human

imagination for over three thousand years. Goddesses were powerful deities. “Weavers

needed Athena’s patronage, young girls were under the protection of Artemis, married

women honored Hera. Woman worshipped and made offerings at the altars of the

goddesses whose help they needed. Women in childbirth prayed to Artemis to deliver

them from pain; they invited Hestia onto their hearths to make a house into a home.


Women also gave goddesses their due because they feared divine anger and retribution if

they did not” (Shinoda, 2004, p. 25).

Romans worshipped the gods and goddesses of Mt. Olympus and addressed them

by their Latin names. Olympians were the descendants of Titans. Their behavior,

emotional reactions, and appearances parallel human behavior and attitudes. They are

archetypal in nature for they represent a model of behavior that is shared by the collective

unconscious. The Greek Goddesses represent inherent patterns or archetypes that can

shape a woman’s life. The goddesses are representation of women characteristics and

illustrate more power and diversity than women have historically been allowed to

exercise. Although all goddesses are potentially present in all women, they are activated

and motivated depending on what matters most to each individual. If several goddesses

compete for dominance in a woman’s psyche, then she needs to decide which aspect of

herself to express. Thus, the goddesses exist within the contemporary women as

archetypes and “can-as in ancient Greece- extract their due and claim dominion over their

subjects. Even without knowing to which goddess she is subject, a woman can

nonetheless “give” her allegiance to a particular archetype for either a phase of her life or

for a lifetime” (Shinoda, 2004, p. 25).

According to Shinoda (2004), the most famous of six Olympian Goddesses were,

“Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Artemis, Athena, and Aphrodite” (p.15) and “Hestia (Goddesses

of Hearth) was replaced by Dionysus (God of Wine), thus changing the male/female

balance to seven gods and five goddesses.” (p.15). Shinoda included Persephone to the

six Goddesses because her mythology is inseparable from Demeter’s and then divided the

seven goddesses to three categories of virgin (Artemis, Athena, Hestia), vulnerable (Hera,


Demeter, and Persephone) and the alchemical (Aphrodite) goddesses. Each category is

distinguished by different modes of consciousness and motivational factors which

influence the goddess’ attitudes toward others, her need for attachment, and the

importance of her relationships.

According to Greek mythology, the virgin Goddesses, Artemis, Athena, and

Hestia were neither abducted nor raped. Artemis was the first daughter of Leto, a nature

deity, and Zeus, chief god of Olympus. She was born in a barren island in view of the fact

that Leto was not welcomed by others who feared Zeus lawful wife Hera and her

loathsome rage. As a result, Artemis became the Goddess of childbirth and the midwife

to her mother. Women prayed to her to end their pain. At age three, Artemis was brought

to meet her father, Zeus who granted her wishes. She requested a bow with arrows, along

with mountains and wilderness for her special place. She acted decisively and promptly

to help those who requested her assistant and punished those who offended her. In the

Greek myths, Artemis is the only goddess that repeatedly relieved her mother suffering.

At the archetypal level, Artemis portrays the independent feminine spirit who enables a

woman to seek her own goals.

Artemis as a virgin goddess archetype represents a sense of intactness, a

one-in-herselfness, an attitude of “I-can-take-care-of-myself” that allows

a woman to function on her own with self-confidence and an independent

spirit This archetype enables a woman to feel whole without a man. With

a man, she can pursue interest and work at what matters to her without

needing masculine approval. Her identity and sense of worth is based on who she is and what she does, rather than whether she is married, or to whom (Shinoda, 2004, p. 49).

In Greek mythology, Athena was known as the goddess of wisdom, crafts, and the

father’s daughter. Athena emerged as a grown woman from Zeus head. She was the

symbol of Zeus power and his eternal associate. Athena seemed unaware of her mother


existence, Metis. She was Zeus first royal wife who was the ocean deity and known for

her wisdom. It was foretold that Metis would give birth to two children, a daughter who

would equal Zeus in courage and wisdom and a son who become the king of gods and

men, Zeus swallowed Metis in order to own the attributes of his children.

In contrast to Artemis wearing a tonic short, Athena wore armor, a shield over her

arms and a helmet with a pushed back visor to reveal her beauty. The beautiful virgin

warrior goddess was dedicated to celibacy. She was the protector, advisor, and ally of her

heroes. In the Greek myth, Athena continuously sided with the patriarchy and was only

once involved in a story with a mortal female named Arachne who she turned into a

spider since Arachne publicized Zeus illicit and deceitful behavior in the theme of her


At the archetypal level, Athena is the goddess of wisdom for her winning

strategies and practical solution.

Athena is a feminine archetype: she shows that thinking well, keeping one’s head in the heat of an emotional situation and developing good tactics in the midst of conflict, are naturally traits for some women. Such women is being like Athena, not acting “like a man”… Athena predisposes a woman to focus on what matters to her, rather than the

needs of others…

is the virgin goddess who seeks the company of

men. Rather than separating or withdrawing, she enjoys being in the midst of male action and power….the Athena archetype thrives in the business,

academic, scientific, military, or political arenas. ….As a goddess of crafts ……she was most noted for her skills as a weaver, in which hands and

mind must work together…

daughter….Athena….quite naturally gravitates toward powerful men who have authority, responsibility, and power-men who fit the archetype of the patriarchal father….(Bolen, 2004, p. 80-81)



the archetypes of the father’s

Hestia the goddess of Hearth was the least known but the most honored goddess

of the Olympians. She was the daughter of Rhea (Earth goddess) and Cronos (a Titan).

Hestia was the oldest sister of three virgin goddesses and the first generation of

Olympians as well as aunt to the second generation. She was one of the twelve


Olympians and never protested against Dionysus, God of wine, who replaced her


Hestia was never involved in wars or love affairs that occupied Greek

mythology. Unlike other goddesses there is no human sculpture of Hestia; nevertheless,

she was honored by mortals and gods and received the best offerings. Her presence was

found in rituals that were symbolized by fire. Hestia was felt in the living flame that was

presented in the temples and homes.

Thus, whenever a new couple or a new colony ventured out to establish a new home, Hestia came with them as the sacred fire, linking old home with new, perhaps symbolizing continuity and relatedness, shared consciousness and common identity….The Hestia archetype shares

focused consciousness…

experience….Hestia’s way of perceiving is by looking inward and intuitively sensing what is going on….the inward Hestia may also become emotionally detached and perceptually inattentive to others in her surroundings as she attends to her own concerns. As elder sister of the first generation Olympians … Hestia occupied the position of an honored

concentrates on her inner subjective


elder. She stayed above or out of the intrigues and rivalries of her relatives

she is the

“still point” that gives meaning to activity, the inner reference point that allows a woman to be grounded in the midst of outer chaos, disorder, or ordinary, everyday bustle. With Hestia in her personality, a woman’s life has meaning. (Shinoda, 2004, p. 112-113)

and avoided being caught up in the passion of the moment…

The three vulnerable goddesses, Hera, Demeter, and Persephone represent the

traditional roles of women. Their identity is greatly dependant on their significant

relationships as a wife, mother, and daughter. Hera, the Goddess of Marriage was the

daughter of Rhea and Cronos. She was held captive by her father until she was a young

girl. She was the number seven and last royal consort to Zeus, her brother, who

conquered their father, Cronos, and became the chief god. After their honeymoon which

is said to last 300 years, Zeus continued his premarital affair and dishonoring their

marriage. As a result, Hera felt humiliated since marriage was sacred to her. In the myths

Hera’s rage was always aimed at other women who were raped or abducted by Zeus or


their children and not Zeus.

At the archetypal level, Hera, the goddess of marriage,

represents a woman’s wish to be a wife. Hera’s characteristics are markedly positive and


A woman with a strong Hera archetype feels fundamentally incomplete

grief at being without a mate can be as deep and

wounding an inner experience as being childless is for a woman whose

strongest urge is to have a baby….for her, impending marriage evokes the anticipation of fulfillment and completeness which fills her with

Hera archetype provides the capacity to bond, to be loyal and

faithful, to endure and to go through difficulties with a partner……and Hera woman react to loss and pain with rage and activity….her vindictiveness is greater than is her love for her children and what is best for them….the hostile, spurned Hera often harms others far more than she

without partner…




harms the man who left her. She especially harms their children. (Shinoda, 2004, p. 142-144 and 163)

Demeter the Goddess of grain personifies the archetype that represents the

traditional role of woman as mother. She was the second child of Rhea and Cronos. She

was the fourth royal consort of Zeus, her brother, and together they had a daughter named

Persephone. One day as Persephone was gathering flowers, she was abducted by Hades,

her uncle and the god of underworld. Demeter franticly searched the entire land and sea

for Persephone for nine days and nine nights and received no help from Zeus. Not

succeeding in finding her daughter, Demeter felt outraged and betrayed by Zeus and left












consequently famine threatened the human race. Zeus was afraid that Olympian gods and

goddesses would be deprived of human sacrifices and offering and as a result; he sent a

message to Demeter to return to Olympus. Demeter refused to return. According to

Shinoda (2004) “he sent Hermes, the Messenger God, to Hades, commanding him to

bring Persephone back in order that her mother on seeing her with her own eyes would


abandon her anger” (p, 170). After mother and daughter were reunited, Demeter restored

fertility to the earth.

Demeter was the most generous goddess. She gave humanity agriculture

the biological level, Demeter represents maternal

instinct- the desire to become pregnant and have a baby….feeding others is another satisfaction for a Demeter woman. She finds nursing her own child tremendously satisfying. It gives her pleasure to provide ample meals for family and guests….Maternal persistence is another Demeter attribute. Such mothers refuse to give up when the welfare of their children is involved…When the Demeter archetype is a strong force and a woman cannot fulfill it, she may suffer from a characteristic “empty nest and emptiness” depression. (Bolen, 2004, p. 172-174)













threatened humanity. Likewise, when a new mother stops to function or holds nutritional,

emotional, and physical contact from her child, she puts her child in danger in many

different ways. In one extreme form, the child may be diagnosed with failure to thrive

and if the mother withholds approval, her child may suffer from low self-esteem.

Persephone, the third vulnerable goddess was worshiped as the Queen of the

Underworld. She was the only daughter of Demeter and Zeus. As discussed earlier she

was abducted by Hades, the god of Underworld after she had picked up a narcissus

flower. Prior to her release from the Underworld, Persephone ate some pomegranate

seeds that were offered to her by Hades. Consequently, she had to spend one- third of the

year in the underworld with Hades and two- third of the year in the upper world with

Demeter. As the queen of the Underworld, Persephone governed the dead souls, received

and guided the heroines and heroes who visited the underworld.

As the Archetypal Maiden, Persephone personifies the young woman who seems

eternally youthful and is unaware of her desires and needs. She is compliant and passive.

She is uncommitted to any endeavor she pursues because of her eternal youthful attitude.


Her close relationship with Demeter portrays a common relational pattern in which a

daughter becomes dependent on her mother to the extent that she is unable to form a

sense of herself. She becomes an extension of her mother. The same pattern of passivity

and compliance is portrayed in her relationship with men. She unconsciously conforms

and carries a man’s anima projection and becomes a different woman with a different


Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love and Beauty, had alchemical powers. “Aphrodite

was an astonishing presence who caused mortals and deities (with the exception of the

three virgin goddess) to fall in love and conceive new life” (Bolen, 2004, p. 224). Like

virgin goddesses, Aphrodite carried out what pleased her; and like vulnerable goddesses

she had children but she was neither victimized nor suffered.

She valued emotional experience with others more than either independence from others (which motivated the virgin goddesses), or permanent bonds to others (which characterized the vulnerable goddesses)…whomever or whatever Aphrodite imbues with beauty is irresistible. A magnetic attraction results, “chemistry” happens between the two….while this drive may be purely sexual, the impulse is often deeper, representing an urge that is both psychological and spiritual…when Aphrodite influences a relationship, her effect is not limited to the romantic or sexual. Platonic love, soul connection, deep friendship, rapport, and empathic understanding all are expressions of love. (Bolen, 2004, p. 224, 225)

There are two different versions of Aphrodite’s birth in the Greek mythology. In

one version, Aphrodite is the daughter of Zeus and Dione, the sea nymph. In the other

version, she is born from the sea after Cronos, the youngest son of Gaea, severed

Uranus’s, his father, genitals and threw them into the sea. After white foam spread

around them in the sea, Aphrodite emerged as a grown beautiful woman. Many gods

appalled by her beauty competed to marry Aphrodite; nevertheless, she was the only


goddess that was free to select her husband. She chose Hephaestus, the God of Craftsmen

and Hera’s rejected son who was thrown out of Mt. Olympus and was sent to the earth

after he was born because he was a defective child.

Aphrodite had several affairs with gods as well as mortal men; nevertheless, she

by no means felt remorse or shameful after her affair was exposed to gods. She was

involved romantically with Ares, god of war and had one daughter, harmony and two

sons by the names of Deimos (Terror) and Phobos (Fear). The union of Aphrodite and

Ares portray the two uncontrollable passions that when in balance produce Harmony.

Herm, Messengers of Gods, was another lover of Aphrodite that guided visitors to her

underworld kingdom. Their child, Hermaphrodites represents bisexuality for he bore their

name, their beauty, and their sexual characteristics. Eros (God of Love) is Aphrodite’s

fatherless son. In Greek mythology, there are two different accounts regarding Eros time

of birth; nevertheless, he was portrayed as a virile man who fell in love with Psyche.


Complexes are the constellation of psychic elements such as feelings, thoughts,

perceptions, memories, ideas, and opinions that are grouped around emotionally sensitive

areas. It is a feature in the personal unconscious which consists of a magnetic nucleus that

draws the cluster of associations or the constellation of psychic elements toward itself.

The nucleus consists of experiences that are related to the environment or innate


When the predisposition of the individual at some point confronts an experiential situation which can in no way be handled, a psychic trauma occurs. It is as tough you bump up against an object- most times there is enough resilience so that no harm is done or, if you are temporarily out of balance, your equilibrium is quickly regained. But if the bump is hard


enough, and if you were totally unprepared for it, you may be cut or bruised or broken, and the area may remain sensitive. Then every time you touch it, you will feel hurt; you will favor it and try to protect it by your behavior. If, nevertheless, someone hits you on the same spot, you will cry out of pain. A psychic wound acts in somewhat the same way, but the whole process is largely, if not totally, unconscious. Therefore you feel its effects, even though you don’t know the meaning and the cause of the suffering. (Singer, 1994, p. 42)

Complexes have different degrees of independence. Some remain unconscious












complexes are unconscious, they continue to add more associations to the nucleus. The

nature of the nucleus is to absorb more energy by drawing more associations to itself and

form the complex.

Their energy can be broken only after their repressed and unconscious content

become conscious, assimilated and integrated emotionally. “These complexes, that are

only intellectually known, must be sharply distinguished from those that are rarely

“understood” i.e., made conscious in a form that actually stops them from exerting a

harmful influence” (Jacobi, 1959, p. 10).

When complexes remain unconscious, they become autonomous complexes

which have the power to form and broaden themselves. “A complex that has become

autonomous can carry on a totally separate existence in the background of the psyche”

(Jacobi, 1959, p. 12). Thus, through splitting they form the separate fragmented

personalities within the total personalities and reveal themselves in many different forms.

In extreme cases, the completely split off complexes from the psyche may lead to

formation of double or multiple personality with their own voices and characters. In other

cases, complexes may manifest themselves as a separate attribute from the ego that


belong to an outside person in the forms of projections which is observed, for example, in


They may be manifested by means of identification. “if the complex is so heavily

charged as to draw the conscious ego into its sphere…then the complex has to….become

the ruler in the house of the conscious ego; then we may speak of a partial or total

identification between the ego and the complex” (Jacobi, 1959, p. 15).

As an example, a woman having a father complex becomes preoccupied with the

desires, needs, and appearance of her father. She constantly thinks about them and feels

more at ease with older men but unconsciously selects a mate who possesses the same

characteristics and behavior of her father.

In the much simpler form a complex may remain unconscious and uncharged,

hence not autonomous. In that case, it may block the psyche and manifest itself by means

of slips of the tongue.

Complexes can be positive or negative but they are nevertheless necessary to

psychic life. Jung believed complexes provide one of the royal roads to the unconscious












incompatible, unassimilated, and conflicting exists-perhaps as an obstacle, as an opening

to new possibilities of achievement” (Jacobi, 1959, p. 21).

Jung differentiated between the complexes of the personal and those of the

collective unconscious and believed only some of the complexes can be made conscious.

While the contents of the personal unconscious are felt as belonging to one’s own psyche, the content of the collective unconscious seem alien, as if they came from outside. The reintegration of a personal complex has the effect of release and often of healing, whereas the invasion of a complex from the collective unconscious is a very disagreeable and even dangerous phenomenon. (Jacobi, 1959, p. 23)


Development of Persona, Shadow, Anima, and Animus

Jung believed there is a possibility of character splitting that exists within each

individual. Although the character splitting can be readily seen in patients; nevertheless,

one can also observe the alteration of personality within the range of normal people while

they are engaged in different situations and conditions.

The degree of splitting depends

on different factors such as the degree that one’s ego identifies with expectation and

demands of the society, by individual aspiration, and by individual emotional demands.

When ego completely identifies with the social demands then the individual forms

a specific outer characteristic which Jung called mask or persona. Like a mask, Persona is

supposed to explain the feelings and characteristics of the individual. People may form

different persona that fits different situations or form only one persona that only fits the

specific situation and its idiosyncratic requirements. The dilemma arises when an

individual becomes possessed by his or her persona and concerned with its relation to

outer objects and outer attitude and least sensitive to her or his inner world. In this case,

persona becomes extremely rigid and unapproachable for the mask, role, or persona has

taken over the personality. (Jung, 1971)

As an individual adapts to the societal demand, he or she represses those

unaccepted individual characteristics or traits that have never been displayed in the

society. These repressed characteristics form another part beside the persona which Jung

called, the shadow. The more an individual identifies with the persona the more parts of

his or her personality, emotions, and desires that are disliked and incompatible with the

social demands are separated and repressed into the shadow side. (Singer, 1994)


Shadow may also consist of the attributes of the ego that are unknown to the

individual. The unknown attributes may belong to the personal or collective unconscious.

Whether the shadow belongs to personal or collective, the individual tends to deny those

aspects in oneself but easily find it in others through projection.

“When the ego identifies with the persona, when the major concern of the ego is

to appear as the public image demands, then the repressed shadow will sooner or later

find a way to collapse the out-of-balance persona” (Singer, 1994, p. 170). If the shadow

is repressed or denied, it may cause neurotic or compulsive behavior or the individual

may identify with the shadow and feel he or she possesses a truth that no one else holds.

According to Jung, when an individual represses the shadow there is the

possibility of “regressive restoration”. ‘He will as a result of his fright have slipped back

to an earlier phase of his personality; he will have demeaned himself, pretending that he

is as he was before the crucial experience, though utterly unable ever to think of repeating

such a risk. Formerly perhaps he wanted more than he would accomplish; now he does

not even dare to attempt what he has



him to do’

(Singer, 1994, p. 174). The

individual will be faced with unfortunate events that bring about feelings of inability in

accomplishing his goals or see others as his or her enemy not realizing that it is he who is

projecting his shadow. That is the reason Jung believed it was important and necessary to

recognize the shadow regardless of how embarrassing and shameful it maybe to the


The shadow functions at many different levels. At the personal, “people who are

led by their shadow cheat themselves by thinking their motives are highly moral, while in

fact they are crude drives for power” (Von Franz, 1970, p.140). In 1928, Jung discussed


the consequence of shadow at work at the societal level: ‘the psychology of war has

clearly brought this condition to light: everything which our own nation does is good,

everything which other nations do is wicked. The culture of all that is mean and vile is

always to be found several miles behind the enemy’s lines’ (Singer, 1994, p. 176). When

shadow works at the collective level, the individual easily gives in to the impulses of

others that do not belong to her or him. The fear that others would see the individual as

an inadequate person increases to the degree that he or she complies with the demand of

the group. The shadow is usually personified by member of one’s own sex. “Although we

do see the shadow in a person of the opposite sex, we are usually much less annoyed by it

and can more easily pardon it” (Von Franz, 1968, p. 175).

The shadow is not always negative and in fact could be a source of powerful

insight and growth.

When we are able to see our own greed, jealousy, spite, hatred, and so on, then these can be turned to positive account because in such destructive emotions is stored much life, and when we have this energy at our disposal, it can be turned to positive ends. (Von Franz, 1970, p. 126)

Although shadow is the most accessible compared to other archetypes, the

integration of shadow aspect to one’s personality is not an easy task.

The shadow is a moral problem that challenges the whole ego-personality, for no one can become conscious of the shadow without considerable moral effort. To become conscious of it involves recognizing the dark aspects of the personality as present and real. This act is the essential condition for any kind of self-knowledge, and it therefore, as a rule, meet with considerable resistance. Indeed, self-knowledge…require much painstaking work extending over a long period. (Jung, 1982, p. 165)

It is the emotional nature of shadow that characterizes its dark side. Regarding the

inner feelings, the individual may ignore all her feelings on one hand or may become

extremely sensitive to her emotions and easily allow them to interfere with her life.


Since persona is developed to respond to the societal demands, it cannot respond

to inner world and feelings; as a result, the inner personality develops faces which Jung

called anima or animus. These are the inner attitude and relation one has to his or her

psychic process. According to Jung, no man is entirely a masculine being but consists of

feminine soul (anima) and no woman is entirely feminine but also has a masculine soul

(anima) (Jung, 1971).

Although on the outside a man may seems


be logical and woman is

characterized with feeling, “in the soul it is the other way round: inwardly is the man who

feels and the woman who reflects. Hence a man’s greater liability to total despair, while a

woman can always find comfort and hope; accordingly a man is more likely to put an end

to himself than a woman…a man is no less a victim of impulses from the unconscious,

taking the form of alcoholism and other vices” (Jung, 1971, p. 469). As a result, those

soul characteristics that are separated from persona and repressed into the unconscious

can be found in the anima or animus.

If persona is shaped by the social demands then anima and animus are shaped by

demands of the unconscious because the inner world as well as the outer world makes

serious demands on us. Since the nature of the anima and animus is compensatory, they

possess all the characteristics that are lacking in the outer personality. Their unconscious

characteristics make them a powerful entity that has their own rules.

Anima and animus belong partly to personal consciousness as well as collective

unconscious. According to Emma Jung, they form the “bridge between the personal and

impersonal, the conscious and the unconscious” (Jung, 1957/1931, p. 1).


Animus is the psychological structure that represents masculinity within woman.

At the unconscious level animus can be detected in a woman’s opinionated attitude.

These are the opinions that are gathered unconsciously throughout one’s childhood which

is mostly influenced by a woman’s father. Then they form these readymade opinions that

sound as common sense or one’ principles but nevertheless, they exist because of the lack

of the conscious or judgment. Thus a woman possessed with animus always utter an

opinion that maybe reasonable but is beside the point.

Animus also determines the quality of woman’s relationship with men. Animus

like anima is a complex that has its own personalities and as long as it is unconscious and

undeveloped it stays autonomous and powerful.

Like a man, animus, may have different images which correspond to the woman’s

stage of development. It may represent power, wisdom, or will. A woman can easily

transfer this image to a man with the same characteristics.

For the primitive woman, or the young woman, or for the primitive in every woman, a man distinguished by physical prowess becomes an animus figure. Typical examples are the heroes of legend, or present day sport celebrities…For more exacting women, the animus figure is a man who accomplishes deeds, in the sense that he directs his power toward something of great significance….in many women this primitive masculinity is also expressed in their erotic life, and then their approach to love has a masculine aggressive character and is not, as is usual in women, involved with and determine by feeling but functions on its own, apart from the rest of the personality, as happens predominantly with men. (Jung, 1957/1931, p.4)

. Animus can present itself in many different forms. He can be positive or negative.

He may function at the archetypal level or at the personal level. Animus can become the

light bearer that guide a woman to the depth of her unconscious and aid her in becoming


an integrated whole who can discover hers significance in the outside world in all her

relationship as well as her love relationship (De Castillejo, 1997).

conscious attention a woman has to give to her animus problem takes

much time and involves a lot of suffering. But if she realizes who and what her animus is and what he does to her, and if she faces realities instead of allowing herself to be possessed, her animus can turn into an invaluable inner companion who endows her with the masculine qualities of initiative, courage, objectivity, and spiritual wisdom. (Von Franz, 1968, p. 206)


The negative side of animus also personifies itself in variety of different forms.

The more a woman is unconscious of her animus; the more possessed she is by his

power. The intensity of this possession still increases further if animus is working at the

archetypal level. The function of Animus is to facilitate a woman relationship with one’s

unconsciousness. When animus is unconscious it is projected on others; anything

unconscious is always projected onto others, according to Jung.

Animus may bring about a feeling of insecurity or helplessness in a woman. Since

she doesn’t have a relationship with her animus, and may even be unconscious of his













background and continues to judge everyone including the woman. In extreme cases, he

becomes the ruler of her kingdom and dominates her whole personality.

Animus presence can be seen in the physical rigidity, stiffening of the shoulders

of a woman. Like Hade’s abduction of Persephone, that was discussed earlier, animus

may in some cases takes a woman away from any real relationship with others and

especially with a man she loves and imprisons her in the underworld which is her

unconscious. (Von Franz, 1968)


Anima, on the other hand, is the inner ideal of the eternal feminine within the

man’s psyche. It is the image of beauty and perfection which gives men a sense of

meaning in life. The dominant principle in anima’s nature is relatedness. The anima will

usually forget her past wounds and forgive if she is offered genuine relatedness and

affection. Relatedness is the theme of her nature that she uses to serve and transform life.

Jung believed anima represents part of the psyche that we call the “soul”. When a

man is in love he feels he can find the meaning of his life and wholeness in his beloved.

The anima pulls a man away from his duty and obligation and bring him closer to his

unconscious; his inner self. When anima is ignored, she creates moods, neurosis and

obsession. She can find herself in the projection of romantic love and cause more

confusion. The man projects his mother- imago, his unconscious anima, to his wife and

becomes a hypersensitive, tyrannical, and dependent child who only thinks about his

masculinity. As a result, he expects his wife to become the image of his mother and carry

the image for him which will upset if not disrupt their marriage.

The anima as a psychological being and the queen of the psyche functions

between the ego and the Unconscious. She can inspire a man from within but can never

be projected on to physical women. Women are expected to act like goddesses when the

symbol of anima is projected on to them. In that case, they are dehumanized and lost their

womanhood. When anima is humanized, people lose sight of their souls. There is only

one correct way which is to learn to differentiate the inner reality from outer reality.

When anima is treated as equal and for its wisdom, she will make peace and open

her inner world to a man. Anima is the queen of inner kingdom. When it is projected to a

physical woman by ego, it loses its power.


The withdrawal of the projection makes the anima what she originally was: an archetypal image which, in its right place, functions to the advantage of the individual. Interposed between the ego and the world, she acts like an ever changing Shakti, who weaves the veil of Maya and dances the illusion of existence. But, functioning between the ego and the Unconscious, the anima becomes the matrix of all the divine and semi- divine figures, from the pagan goddess to the virgin, from the messenger of the Holy Grail to the saint.

Anima is designed to see different side of the cosmos. It experiences life in its

vast form at the archetypal level. When put in finite and personal relationship, it pulls a

man toward the infinite and transpersonal relationship. Anima always strives to renew a

man’s awareness of what is universal. It is always pointed toward the inner gods.

Our soul is pointed toward God, like the sunflower that only faces the light; they see only the archetypes, the inner gods, the great leitmotifs behind all individual existence. This is why anima puts such a strain on personal life: Anima is not interested in the individual idiosyncrasies of my personal daily life….Her values are not human values but cosmic values, her only interest is whether I live and experience every great theme of human existence that is contained in potential within my being. (Johnson, 1983, p. 161)

Anima strives to pull the relationship toward infinite but men need to deal with

this inner conflict and perceive it as a symbol and then continue to live their relationship

within its limits. If anima is projected to one’s wife, he is putting his fantasy onto his wife

and the marriage is turn to a series of archetypal scenes filled with drama (Johnson,





Romantic Love










Manichaeism. This religion was originated in the 3 rd century and reached other countries

as far as from North Africa in the west and to china in the east. In Europe this religion

became Catharism. Many scholars argue that it also influenced the Western Christian


thoughts through Saint Augustine who was born in Africa and followed Manichean

religion at an early age. (Johnson, 1983)

According to Cathars true love was not the same as the ordinary human love

between a man and a woman but the symbol of feminine savior that leads one into the

realm of light. The marriage was considered unspiritual. Cathars divided world to

absolute good and bad. (Johnson, 1983)

Spirit was considered as good and heavenly while physical world was perceived

as evil. Spirit was considered a fragment of god that was imprisoned within each

individual but was always striving to return to God. According to Cathars, to be pure one

must give up the temptation of physical world, sexuality and marriage. To be a librated

Cathars man needed to perceive a woman not as a wife but as a symbol of Savior that

leads a man to Light. She was to be adored passionately. (Johnson, 1983)

Many considered Catharism as a reform movement against Christianity and pope

called it unorthodoxy. The patriarchal church offered a very rational, masculine teaching

while Cathars returned feminine soul into the religion and experienced god as personal.

(Johnson, 1983)

The pope declared Catharism a heresy and Saint Bernard of Clairvaux drove it underground by relentless crusade. But like every powerful idea that is driven underground, it reappeared in another form a supposedly “secular” form. The teachings and ideals of Cathars suddenly reappeared in the cult of courtly love, in the songs and poems of the troubadours and in the “romances”. (Johnson, 1983, p. 70)

According to Johnson, courtly love appeared to have the same ritual as Catharism.












continuation of Catharism that the knight and ladies who first practiced courtly love were


Cathars continuing their religious practice under the guise of a secular cult of love

(Johnson, 1983, p. 71).

It was ideals of courtly love that survived the medieval Europe and reformed the

attitudes of feminine values of devotion, love and spiritual experiences.

The revolution finally matured into what we called romanticism. It also revolutionized our attitude toward women; but it left a strange split in our feelings. On the one hand, western men began to look on women as the embodiment of all that was pure, sacred, and whole; women became a symbol of anima; “My Lady Soul”. But on the other hand, still caught in the patriarchal mind men continued to see women as the carrier of “feminine” emotionalism, irrationality, softness, and weakness-all which are more symptoms of man’s own feminine side than they are characteristics of women. (Johnson, 1983, p. 71)

At the beginning, courtly love didn’t allow physical contact or marriages between

the lovers. The love between the lovers belonged to the god and was perceived as

heavenly. Unlike the courtly ancestors, modern lovers mix romance and sex with

marriage. (Johnson, 1983)

A man expect his wife to take care of the children, have food on the table,

contribute to the family income, and back him up with the daily struggles


human life. But some other part of him wants her to be the incarnation


anima, the holy Lady in the sky who is always beautiful and perfect. He

wonders how the pure, shining goddess whom he adored turned into this ordinary wife who seems utterly unreasonable. A woman sees her husband working, paying bills, getting the car repaired, and defending his empires, living the ordinariness of life. She wonders what happened to the knight who adored and worshiped her when he was “courting” her, in the days when everything was so intense, so ecstatic, so blissful. (Johnson, 1983, p.


Modern people continue to carry the Catharist ideals within themselves in the

form of romantic love fantasy. A fantasy is real and can uncover the reality of the inner

world when the truth behind it is realized. According to Jung, by acknowledging and


recognizing the meaning of the symbols in the fantasy, one is able to find one’s lost soul

and become a whole person.

Chapter Summary

This chapter began with a biography of Carl Gustav Jung with a focus on the first

twenty-five years of his life. This was followed by a discussion on the central

components of Jung’s theory including the Self and archetypes. Other concepts such as

shadow, persona and contrasexual opposite were also presented. The concepts of

Goddesses were discussed as an insight tool to provide the different pattern of behavior

among women and to provide an understanding the femininity in men. The final section

was a brief discussion on the history of romantic love and its origin as courtly love that

had its root in a religion.




Chapter Overview

This chapter describes the methods and procedures used to attain the objectives of

this dissertation. The problem statement is restated, followed by objectives and their

rationales. The research plan, assumptions and limitations of this study are described and

the chapter concludes with a chapter summary.

Restatement of the Problem

The focus of this dissertation was to address the basic problem: How does the

projection of the archetypal lover influence one’s daimonic quest for individuation?

Objectives and Rationales

Objective 1

To identify and to describe how a mother complex influences one’s archetypal

lover projection process when put upon a romantic partner.

Rationale. Jung postulated the mother archetype forms the foundation of the

mother complex while mother shapes the positive or negative formation of mother

complex. Although it is theorized that the mother complex affects sons and daughters

differently, the effect seems to be more clear in daughters because in boys it is also


contaminated with anima. Thus, a mother complex may function at different levels

(archetypal or personal), different intensities (undeveloped or overdeveloped), and with

different effects (positive or negative) which may each be a contributing factor that either

deteriorates or deepens romantic relationships.

Objective 2

To identify and to describe how a mother complex influence one’s daimonic

quest of individuation in a romantic relationship.

Rationale. The early relationship between mother and child provides different

formation of a mother complex. Six effects of a mother complex in a son and four effects

of a mother complex in a daughter will be identified and described. Also the Lover

archetype serves a purpose in human psyche. Each time people fall in love that is falling

into the power of Lover archetype, people feel different emotional responses to their

beloved which leads them to believe their present relationship is different than the

previous one. The Lover archetype presents different lessons to the lovers which are vital

for personal growth.

Research Plan

The chief aim of this theoretical study was to codify the most important and

relevant concepts postulated by Carl Jung and contemporary Jungian analysts in order to

develop a manual on the process of personal growth and conscious realization of the Self

that may be helpful for clinicians and their clients. The resources utilized for the literature

review component of the study consist of University of California at Irvine, Jung Institute

at Los Angeles, California Graduate Institute’s Library, and the author’s personal library.


An overview of the literature pertaining to contemporary Jungian perspective on

romantic love, and the Archetypal Self were made. The key elements of each, their

relationship, their effects on the personal and collective unconscious, and their final

purpose were discussed in order to outline the most effective pathway to the process of

individuation and the discovery of the Self.

The myths of Goddesses were used for several reason: (a) symbolic life is the

prerequisite for psychic health according to Jung and his school, (b) symbols carry

meanings from the unconscious to the conscious, (c) to illustrate the importance of

symbolic life that is missing in our everyday modern lives; as a result, the archetypal

images are lived out unconsciously in the form of symptoms or diseases, (d) recognizing

the archetype and the symbolic image behind the symptoms, transforms the experience to

a meaningful experience even if it is painful.

The following steps were implemented in order to fulfill the objectives of this

theoretical study:

1. To review the literature to present a thorough explanation of the complex.

Identifying and integrating complexes are important aspects in the process

of psychological wholeness.

2. To











intensities and different effects. Recognition and libration from the mother

complex is the initial step in the process of individuation.

3. To briefly review the literature on the Goddesses who were worshipped by

Romans to provide meaning for different patterns of behavior in women and

to understand femininity in men.



To briefly review the literature on romantic love for several reasons: a) to

illuminates what one needs to know about the origins and nature of romantic

love, b) to demonstrate the ideal love that people continue to search for

belonged only to the God and was perceived as heavenly c) to explain that

unlike the courtly ancestors, modern lovers have mixed romance and sex

with marriage and turned romantic love to a combination of beliefs, attitudes,

and expectations d) the truth is that romantic love is to enrich us and move us

closer to wholeness.

5. To










discussion that the Daimon chooses its particular destiny. Understanding the

destinies as manifestations of a Daimon provides a sense of calmness and

beauty that encourages the individual to live in the moment instead of

desiring to control the situation.

6. To review the literature to explain the realization of the Self as the only

meaningful purpose of life. Understanding the development of the ego and

its later encounters with the Self is the most important task of second half of



Three judges were selected to evaluate the findings of this theoretical study.

Qualifications for the judges included having an earned doctorate degree in psychology,

being licensed as a clinical psychologist for a minimum of three years, and having

primary theoretical orientation as Jungian analyst.



The first three judges that met the criteria for this study were selected from a local

university. The judges were asked to a) review the finding section of the dissertation, and

b) to complete a five Point Likert-type scale questionnaires containing questions for the