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Questions & Answers - Ultrasonic Instrument Characterizations Level 2

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Questions & Answers Ultrasonic Instrument Characterizations


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Level Question 2 II-1

[Ref]

II-2

II-3

II-4

[Krautkramer AVG (or DGS in English) diagrams compare flaw signal amplitudes 3rd Edition] to page94 a) side drilled holes b) flat bottomed holes c) a theoretical maximum d) DAC's [Krautkramer As the pulse length of the excitation voltage is shortened the 3rd Edition] transmitted pulse page105 a) frequency spectrum broadens b) frequency spectrum shortens c) increases energy output d) increases penetration ability [Krautkramer In general, the frequency content of an ultrasound beam has a larger 3rd Edition] proportion of high frequencies in its spectrum page105 a) on axis b) off axis c) in the far zone d) in the free zone [Krautkramer If a signal is dropped from 100% FSH to 32% FSH, the number of 3rd Edition] dB gain removed from the receiver is page110 a) 14 b) 10 c) 6 d) 4 A typical voltage range for driving (exciting) piezoelectric crystals [Krautkramer

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Questions & Answers - Ultrasonic Instrument Characterizations Level 2

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II-5

would be a) 50 to 100 mV b) 50 to 100 V c) 50 to 100 kV d) 500 to 1000 V

3rd Edition] page123

[Krautkramer When an ultrasonic machine is equipped with this option, the pulse 3rd Edition] energy and pulse length can be adjusted page204 a) receiver fine grain control b) swept gain c) time corrected gain d) damping [Krautkramer The main disavantage of a broadband receiver in a ultrasonic II-7 3rd Edition] machine is page209 a) non-linear response to amplification b) amplifier noise limits possible amplification c) RF display cannot be used d) rectified display cannot be used [Australian The repeated reflections of ultrasonic pulses from between surfaces II-8 Standard] or discontinuities within a body are page10 a) ghost echoes b) sing-around c) multiple echoes d) wrap-around [Krautkramer II-9 Electronic gates on the trace of a UT machine can be used to 3rd Edition] page249 a) determine the presence of flaws b) determine the amplitude of flaws c) both a and b d) none of the above [Krautkramer When flaw echo signals are recorded so as to display a plan view of II-10 3rd Edition] the test piece the presentation is called page253 a) A-scan b) B-scan c) C-scan d) D-scan II-6

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Questions & Answers - Ultrasonic Instrument Characterizations Level 2

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II-11 Increasing the pulse repetition frequency will result in a) decreasing sensitivity b) increased resolution c) altering the probes' frequency output d) brightening the baseline For the purposes of ultrasonic testing, signal-to-noise ratio is a function of a) the probe b) the oscilloscope c) a combination of probe and scope d) none of the above When calibrating an ultrasonic instrument for range, the maximum distance of interest should not be less than a) 100 mm b) 200 mm c) one half the horizontal scale d) two thirds the horizontal scale In the DGS (AVG German) system of defect sizing, the diagram relates to soundpath distance to the _________ to obtain the relative distance. a) probe size b) near-field length c) stand-off distance d) depth of defect If you are drawing a DAC for an inspection range of 200mm and your response from the 3/8 node reference hole at 125mm has already dropped to 10% FSH you will have to use a) a new calibration block b) larger reference holes c) the DGS (AVG) system d) a split DAC Signal averaging, correlation, and filtering are techniques used in ultrasonic systems to a) extract weak signals from incoherent noise b) improve resolution c) characterize defects for type d) none of these techniques are used in ultrasonic testing The process where by a re-current signal is extracted from incoherent noise is called a) amplitude modulation

[Goldman] page187

II-12

[Butt] page5

II-13

[Butt] page11

II-14

[Butt] page14

II-15

[Butt] page26

II-16

[Silvus] page10

II-17

[Silvus] page12

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Questions & Answers - Ultrasonic Instrument Characterizations Level 2

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b) frequency modulation c) signal averaging d) filtering Receiver noise must often be filtered out of a test system. Receiver II-18 amplifier noise increases proportionally to a) the square root of the bandwidth b) the inverse square of the bandwidth c) attenuation d) temperature II-19 Which is not used as an acoustic imaging method? a) deconvolution b) sequenced array c) liquid-surface levitation d) holography

[Silvus] page14

[Silvus] page16

[British When determining signal-to-noise ratio the suppression control is set Standard] at page20 a) maximum b) minimum c) 50% d) suppression setting is not important [British II-21 When determining signal-to-noise ratio, the noise is attributable to Standard] page20 a) electrical noise from machine, cable and probe b) metal grain structure c) both a and b d) inability for focus the baseline [Australian A response or evidence of a response in non-destructive testing that II-22 Standard] requires interpretation is called page3 a) an indication b) a defect c) a flaw d) signal-to-noise ratio An ultrasonic display in rectangular coordinates where distance or [Australian time of flight is represented in one direction and probe displacement II-23 Standard] represented on the other and reflected pulses as bright marks on a page6 dark background (or vise versa) is called a(n) II-20

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Questions & Answers - Ultrasonic Instrument Characterizations Level 2

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a) A-scan b) B-scan c) C-scan d) tomograph The time interval between the initial pulse and the initiation of the II-24 time base sweep is termed a) range b) time of flight c) programmed off-set d) delay [Australian The frequency at which the overall response of an ultrasonic pulseStandard] echo flaw detection system is maximum is the page9 a) dominant frequency b) resonance frequency c) nominal frequency d) anti-resonance frequency [Australian The repeated reflections of ultrasonic pulses from between surfaces II-26 Standard] or discontinuities within a body are page10 a) ghost echoes b) sing-around c) multiple echoes d) wrap-around Instrument settings which relate a reference echo of reproducible [Australian II-27 amplitude with which other instrument settings relating to a Standard] discontinuity echo are compared is the page11 a) scanning level b) threshold level c) reference sensitivity d) overall system gain [Australian II-28 Addition of suppression or reject to a display effectively Standard] page11 a) filters out unwanted noise b) reduces dynamic range c) increases sensitivity d) none of the above II-25 II-29 The relationship between amplitudes of an indication in A-scan presentation and the magnitude of the corresponding received [Australian Standard] [Australian Standard] page9

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Questions & Answers - Ultrasonic Instrument Characterizations Level 2

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signals is used to determine a) vertical linearity b) manual scanning speed c) longitudinal/shear mode energy ratios d) none of the above When information is presented as a B-scan on an oscilloscope, II-30 intensity (or amplitude) of a signal is indicated by a) strobe effects for signals over a threshold amplitude b) digital readout on the corner of the screen c) brightness of the spot on the scope d) none of the above
My results...

page13

[Ensminger] page256

References (NDT TestMaker software) 1. Krautkramer, J. & H. Krautkramer, Ultrasonic Testing of Materials, 3rd Edition, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1983 2. Goldman, Richard G., Ultrasonic Technology, Reinhold Pubishing Corporation, New York, 1962Goldman 3. [Butt] Welding Institute, Procedures and Recommendations for the Ultrasonic Testing of Buttwelds, Welding Institute, London, 1971 4. Silvus, H. S., Advanced Ultrasonic Testing Systems, A State of tlhe Art Survey, Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Centre, 1976 5. British Standards Institute, BS4331: part 3, Methods for Assessing the performance Characteristics of Ultrasonic Flaw Detection Equipment, London, 1974 6. Ensiminger,D., Ultrasonics, Fundamentals, Techniques, Applications, 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York , 1988 7. Australian Standard 1929 - 1981, Glossary of Terms Used in Nondestructive Testing, Standards Association of Australia, North Sydney, 1981

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