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Operational Liaison Meeting – Fly-By-Wire aircraft 2004 Take off rotation Some additional issues Customer Services
Operational Liaison Meeting – Fly-By-Wire aircraft
2004
Take off rotation
Some additional issues
Customer Services
Introduction • Why do we talk again about Take Off Rotation? It has been addressed
Introduction
• Why do we talk again about Take Off Rotation?
It has been addressed in 2002 OLMs and in 2003
Performance & Operations Conference in Rome.
Some recent incidents call for some additional
explanations.
Takeoff rotation
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Reminder of various recommendations • The Rotation flying techniques are outlined in FCOM SOPs and
Reminder of various recommendations
• The Rotation flying techniques are outlined in FCOM SOPs
and supplementary techniques
• They address the lateral and the pitch control of the
aircraft.
Takeoff rotation
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Reminder of various recommendations • Regarding the lateral control of the aircraft: ? Do not
Reminder of various recommendations
• Regarding the lateral control of the aircraft:
?
Do not apply large roll inputs in case of crosswind
4
Since they favor the natural “into the wind turn tendency” of
the aircraft
4
Since spoilers extended increase the pitch required at lift off,
thus reduce the tail strike margin (lift reduction)
4
Since a large lateral stick input may cause a lateral control
problem at lift off.
Takeoff rotation
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Reminder of various recommendations • Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft: ? The T/O
Reminder of various recommendations
• Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft:
? The T/O normal law is adapted to each aircraft model
so as to ensure a similar pitch rotation technique on
all FBW models.
Direct law
A320
+
-
A319/321
Pitch
Gain
A330/340
rate
-
Pitch
RA
Tail distance
protection
Gain
integrator
A340-500
Pitch rate target
max 2.5°/sec
A340-600
Pitch rate
Takeoff rotation
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Reminder of various recommendations • Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft: ? At VR
Reminder of various recommendations
• Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft:
?
At VR initiate rotation – with a positive side stick
input for A330/A340, to achieve a continuous rotation
of about 3 o /sec, towards a pitch attitude of:
4
AOE: 15 o (12.5 o on A340-200/300)
4
OEI: 12.5 o
NOTE: this pitch target is the average pitch which will be commanded
by the FD pitch bar, once A/C is airborne and SRS available
Takeoff rotation
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Reminder of various recommendations • Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft: 4Avoid aggressive and
Reminder of various recommendations
• Regarding the pitch control of the aircraft:
4Avoid aggressive and sharp stick inputs
4Avoid shy initial stick inputs and further aft stick inputs just
prior lift off
4Avoid chasing FD bar during initial rotation
Takeoff rotation
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T/O Rotation some additional issues • In order to minimize tail strike risks, following recommendations
T/O Rotation some additional issues
• In order to minimize tail strike risks, following
recommendations apply:
4Avoid premature rotation
4Avoid excessive rotation rate, over rotation
4Apply proper THS setting
4Avoid improper use of FD pitch bar during rotation
and also
4Properly choose T/O configuration
4Check Landing Gear shock absorbers
Takeoff rotation
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Properly Determine the Take Off Configuration • CONF 1+F / CONF2 / CONF3 / are
Properly Determine the Take Off Configuration
• CONF 1+F / CONF2 / CONF3 / are available for T/O
As a general rule:
4A low T/O CONF (e.g. 1 + F) is preferable to optimize the 2 nd
segment climb gradient, more particularly in hot weather
4A high T/O CONF (e.g. 3) is preferable
– To improve tail clearance at lift off
– To lower T/O speeds on rough runways
Takeoff rotation
Page 9
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Properly Determine the Take Off Configuration • The criteria used to determine the best T/O
Properly Determine the Take Off Configuration
• The criteria used to determine the best T/O CONF are:
4The configuration allowing the Highest Flex Temp
(Engine saving)
4The configuration allowing for Lower Take off Speeds
4The Preferred Configuration for comfortable Aircraft handling
(e.g. tail strike)
Takeoff rotation
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© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
Properly determine the Take off Configuration • Some airplanes are more prone to tail strikes
Properly determine the Take off Configuration
• Some airplanes are more prone to tail strikes due to their
geometry (e.g. A321, A340-500/600, …)
• For a given stick input at rotation, the tail clearance is
reduced at lower configuration (e.g. 1+F), because the
rotation rate is higher
• A compromise is to be done in between Flex Temp, lower
T/O speed and preferred configuration for aircraft handling
fi Select the highest possible flap configuration, up to
CONF3, provided it does not induce a Flex Temp
greater than 5 o .
Takeoff rotation
Page 11
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Landing gear shock absorbers • There are 2 types of gears regarding the kinematics of
Landing gear shock absorbers
• There are 2 types of gears regarding the kinematics of the
shock absorbers (oleos) and wheels:
4The conventional gears with conventional oleos
4The shock absorbers associated to Rocking Bogie via a
Pitch Trimmer
Takeoff rotation
Page 12
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Landing gear shock absorbers • The A330/A340 are fitted with Rocking Bogies 4The Rocking Bogie
Landing gear shock absorbers
• The A330/A340 are fitted with Rocking Bogies
4The Rocking Bogie allows a greater pitch attitude at lift off
than a conventional gear with the same stroke
4The shock absorber stroke is physically limited to about 750
mm. A conventional gear would need 1000 mm additional
stroke on A340, for the same attitudes at rotation, than with
Rocking Bogies
4The rotation of the bogie around rear wheels added to the
oleo extension allows for such max pitch attitude
Takeoff rotation
Page 13
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Comparison Conventional Gear with Rocking Bogie A340 ROTATION LAW Lift Off 2) 3) 4) Time
Comparison Conventional Gear with Rocking Bogie
A340 ROTATION LAW
Lift Off
2)
3)
4)
Time (sec)
Rotation VR
13
12
A340 ROCKING BOGIE CHARACTERISTICS
Conventional Landing Gear
11
10
Materializes Additional Stroke Required
9
8
7
6
Landing Gear Fully Extended
5
Start of Rocking Bogie Mechanism
4
(400 mm shock absorber closure)
3
2
Start of Bogie rotation
1
Lift Off
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Time (sec)
Takeoff rotation
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Tail Clearance (°)
Attitude( o )
A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle 1) Aircraft at VR+ - Beginning of rotation Oleo has
A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle
1) Aircraft at VR+ - Beginning of rotation
Oleo has started to extend
At VR+
2
o
Pitch
Trimmer
Takeoff rotation
Page 15
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A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle 2) Aircraft between VR and VLOF, with pitch increasing and
A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle
2) Aircraft between VR and VLOF, with pitch increasing and A/C
accelerating.
Typically when pitch about 5°/6°, shock absorber is 400 mm and pitch
trimmer bottomed. Front wheels and MLG leg are mechanically
interlocked.
At VR+
Between VR and VLOF
2
o
6
o
400 mm
Pitch
Trimmer
Takeoff rotation
Page 16
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A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle 3) The shock absorber cannot extend, the rocking bogie cannot
A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle
3) The shock absorber cannot extend, the rocking bogie cannot rotate as
long as A/C lift has not reached a certain value. Shock absorber
remains at 400 mm. Since pitch increases, tail clearance decreases
and reaches minimum prior lift off.
At VR+
Between VR and VLOF
2
o
6 o
9 o
400 mm
Pitch
Trimmer
Takeoff rotation
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A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle 4) The lift has increased; the oleo can further extend
A340 Rocking Bogie Simplified Principle
4) The lift has increased; the oleo can further extend and the bogie can
rotate; the tail clearance slightly decreases, while the A/C pitch
increases.
At VR+
Between VR and VLOF
Close to VLOF
2
o
6 o
9 o
12 o
Pitch
Trimmer
Takeoff rotation
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Landing Gear with Rocking Bogie • The Rocking Bogie allows to fly greater pitch attitude
Landing Gear with Rocking Bogie
• The Rocking Bogie allows to fly greater pitch attitude at lift
off
• The Rocking Bogie kinematics are such that the minimum
tail clearance is actually reached before lift off, at initial
bogie rotation
?
This is an additional reason to positively initiate
rotation, and avoid further aft stick inputs during
rotation (Pitch » 8 o …)
Takeoff rotation
Page 23
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A340 / A330 Rotation Law Technique LIFT OFF GOOD POORPOOR Time (sec) Takeoff rotation Page
A340 / A330 Rotation Law Technique
LIFT OFF
GOOD
POORPOOR
Time (sec)
Takeoff rotation
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Attitude ( o )
Landing Gear with Rocking Bogie • On any type of Landing Gear, servicing shall ensure
Landing Gear with Rocking Bogie
• On any type of Landing Gear, servicing shall ensure that
oleos are properly pressurized.
• The effects of low pressure in oleos are somehow
increased with the Rocking Bogie system, indeed:
4A low pressure oleo delays the time where pitch trimmer is
bottomed
4A low pressure oleo delays the time where the bogie starts to
rotate
?
Typically, a 10 bars low pressure in oleo, leading
to a 60 mm oleo reduction, decreases the tail clearance
by approximately 1 ft (or 1 o )
Takeoff rotation
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A340 Tail Clearance During Take Off 16 14 A340 Rotation Law 12 Lift Off 10
A340 Tail Clearance During Take Off
16
14
A340 Rotation Law
12
Lift Off
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Time (sec)
18
A340 Rocking Bogie Characteristics
16
Maximum Pitch Attitude / Ground ( o )
Start of Bogie rotation
14
Landing Gears
Fully Extended
12
10
8
Nominal pressure
Nominal – 10 bars
Start of Rocking Bogie mechanism
(400 mm
shock absorber closure)
6
4
Tail Clearance ( o ) (ft)
2
Lift Off
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Time (sec)
Takeoff rotation
Page 26
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Attitude ( o )
Conclusions • This presentation actually enhances 3 issues: 4All present recommendations in SOPs and FCOM
Conclusions
• This presentation actually enhances 3 issues:
4All present recommendations in SOPs and FCOM
supplementary techniques are unchanged
4But configuration must be judiciously determined.
Amongst others, higher CONF is preferable provided that
FLX TEMP is not penalized by more than 5 o C
4Shock absorbers must be adequately pressurized.
Crews shall check consistency in between both MLG shock
absorbers length, and report any suspected anomaly.
Takeoff rotation
Page 27
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
This document and all information contained herein is the sole property of AIRBUS S.A.S. No
This document and all information contained herein is the sole
property of AIRBUS S.A.S. No intellectual property rights are
granted by the delivery of this document or the disclosure of
its content. This document shall not be reproduced or
disclosed to a third party without the express written consent
of AIRBUS S.A.S. This document and its content shall not be
used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied.
The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They
are based on the mentioned assumptions and are expressed
in good faith. Where the supporting grounds for these
statements are not shown, AIRBUS S.A.S. will be pleased to
explain the basis thereof.
AN EADS JOINT COMPANY
WITH BAE SYSTEMS
Takeoff rotation
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