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TEMPORAL FOSSA

BOUNDARIES:

Anterior: Zygomatic process of frontal bone + zygomatic bone

Superior & Posterior: Temporal lines

laterally: Zygomatic arch

Inferiorly: infratemporal crest

Floor: pterion

Roof: temporal fascia

TEMPORAL FOSSA

CONTENTS:

Temporalis muscle

Deep temporal nerve & vessels

Superficial temporal vessels

Auriculotemporal nerve

INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA

BOUNDARIES:

Superficial (lateral): Ramus of mandible

Deep (medial): Lateral pterygoid plate

Superior: Infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid

Anterior: Tuberosity of maxilla

Antly: post aspect of maxilla

Postly: tympanic plate and mastoid and styloid process oof the temporal

bone
bone

Inf: where the medial ptwerygoid m attaches to the mandible near the angle.

INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA

COMMUNICATIONS:

With temporal fossa: through a gap deep to zygomatic arch

With cranial cavity: through foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, foramen

lacerum
lacerum

With orbit: through inferior orbital fissure

With pterygopalatine fossa: through pterygomaxillary fissure

INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA

CONTENTS:

Lateral & medial pterygoid muscles

Mandibular, inf alveolar, lingual, buccal, chorda tympani & Otic ganglion A

part of maxillary nerve & 2 of its branches

Pterygoid plexus of veins

Inf part of temporal m

TEMPORALIS

ORIGIN: floor of temporal fossa & deep surface of temporal fasica

INSERTION: the tendon passes deep to zygomatic arch to be inserted to all

coronoid process (except its lateral surface)

NERVE SUPPLY: 2 deep temporal nerves from anterior division of

mandibular nerve

ACTION:

Elevation of mandible

Its posterior fibers retract the mandible

LATERAL PTERYGOID

ORIGIN:

Upper head: infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid

Lower head: lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate

NERVE SUPPLY: from anterior division of mandibular nerve

ACTION:

Pulls the condylar process forward to depress the mandible

Protrusion of mandible (when muscles on both sides act together)

Side-to-side movement (when muscles on both sides act alternatively)

MEDIAL PTERYGOID

ORIGIN:

Superficial head: tuberosity of maxilla

Deep head: medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate

INSERTION: medial surface of ramus & angle of mandible

NERVE SUPPLY: from trunk of mandibular nerve

ACTION:

Elevation of mandible

Protrusion of mandible (when muscles on both sides act together)

Side-to-side movement (when muscles on both sides act alternatively)

ALL MUSCLES OF MASTICATION

Elevate mandible EXCEPT

Lateral pterygoid

Protrude mandible EXCEPT

Temporalis

Are supplied by anterior division of mandibular nerve EXCEPT

Medial pterygoid

MAXILLARY ARTERY

ORIGIN: It is the larger of the 2 terminal branches of external carotid artery,

behind the neck of mandible (within parotid gland)

COURSE: It is divided into 3 parts:

First part (mandibular part): runs deep to neck of mandible (below

auriculotemporal nerve) & emerges from the lower border of lateral

pterygoid

Second part (pterygoid part): ascends superficial (sometimes deep) to lower

head of lateral pterygoid

Third part (pterygopalatine part): passes between the 2 heads of lateral

pterygoid then through pterygomaxillary fissure to reach pterygopalatine

fossa where it terminates

BRANCHES OF MAXILLARY ARTERY

FROM SECOND PART:

Muscular branches: to muscles of mastication

Buccal artery: same course & distribution as buccal nerve (to the buccintor)

Deep temporal arteries supply the temporal m

BRANCHES OF MAXILLARY ARTERY

FROM THIRD PART:

Infraorbital artery: supply inf eye lid, lacrimal sac, side of the nose& sup lip

Posterior superior alveolar artery: supply maxillary molar & premolar teeth,

the lining of maxillary sinus &the gingiva

Greater palatine artery: passes through greater palatine canal & foramen to

the palate, supplies hard palate & gums, gives lesser palatine artery

supplying soft palate & tonsils

Artery of pterygoid canal: supplies auditory tube, tympanic cavity &

pharynx
pharynx

Pharyngeal artery: supplies nasopharynx, sphenoidal air sinuses (roof or

pharynx)

Descending palatine a supply maxillary gingiva, palatine glands & the MM

of the roof of the mouth.

PTERYGOID PLEXUS OF VEINS

SITE: It surrounds & lies in substance of lateral pterygoid muscle

TRIBUTARIES: correspond to branches of maxillary artery

TERMINATION: It forms the maxillary vein that passes deep to neck of

mandible & unite with superficial temporal vein to form retromandibular

vein (inside parotid gland)

COMMUNICATIONS:

With cavernous sinus: by emissary veins through foramen ovale & lacerum

With facial vein: by deep facial vein

With inferior ophthalmic vein: by communicating veins through inferior

orbital fissure

MANDIBULAR NERVE

COMPOSITION:

Formed of 2 roots: motor & sensory

ORIGIN:

Sensory root: peripheral processes of cells of trigeminal ganglion in the

middle cranial fossa

Motor root: axons of cells of motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve in pons

MANDIBULAR NERVE

COURSE:

The 2 roots unite, below foramen ovale

The nerve soon divides into a small anterior & a large posterior division