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Machshavos Charutz Rav Tzadok HaCohen of Lublin

Straight Thinking

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Straight thoughts lead only to benefit, but hasty ones lead only to lack. (Mishlei 21:5)

A man who is honest and goes in the path of truth and with straight judgment - Rashi

Translated by Rabbi David Sedley

Machshavos Charutz Rav Tzadok HaCohen Translated by Rabbi David Sedley

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Printed in Israel

For Shani (Shoshana) With Love

Table of Contents

Introduction............................................... 5 Acknowledgments ................................... 8 Machshevos Charutz 1 ............................ 9

Essence of thought

Machshevos Charutz 2 .......................... 17

Tzimtzum and faith

Machshevos Charutz 10 ........................ 25

Counting the Omer preparation for purity

Machshevos Charutz 15 ........................ 39

Shavuos connects us to eternity through Torah and children

Machshevos Charutz 21 .................... 1133

Shavuos as the Festival of the Giving of the Torah

Rav Tzadok HaCohen

The writings of Rav Tzadok HaCohen of Lublin has held a special fascination for me since I was first introduced to his book Tzidkas HaTzadik over 20 years ago. Rav Tzadok is possibly the most creative and innovative of all Chasidic writers. He builds on the foundations laid primarily by the Baal Shem Tov and the Baal HaTanya, to develop a holistic philosophy of Judaism. Rabbi Tzadok HaCohen Rabinowitz was born into a Lithuanian Rabbinic family on 23rd Shevat 5583 (4th February 1823) in the city of Kreuzburg in what is today Latvia. According to written reports he was a prodigious genius. In the introduction to Sichos Malachei HaShares his nephew writes that from the age of two Rav Tzadok would pray with a siddur before eating. When he was three and a half he began learning Talmud with the commentary of Tosefos. Rav Tzadok writes about himself that at the age of thirteen he wrote his novellae on Talmud, Rif and Rambam.1 In 1843, at the age of 21 he left his family and became a student of Rav Mordechai Yosef Leiner, the Rebbi of Izbica and author of Mei Shiloach. This was a very unusual move, but not unheard of in that time. Another Lithuanian prodigy, Rav Leibel Eiger, son of Rabbi Akiva Eiger, was also a student of Izbica at that

Ohr Zarua laTzadik p. 53 (43)

Machshevos Charutz 1 time. Rav Leiner was perhaps the Rebbi whose ideas were most similar to those of the Lithuanian world. As a follower of Menachem Mendel of Kotzk, he believed in achieving piety through learning Talmud. When Rav Leiner passed away in 1854, there was a split in Izbica, with some of the Chasidim following Rav Leiners son, Yaakov, while others followed Rav Leibel Eiger. Rav Tzadok sided with the latter. He remained in the court of Izbica (which had now relocated to Lublin) for 34 years, until 1887, learning and writing. He referred to this time as his years of silence. It was during this period that he wrote the present book, Machshavos Charutz. Following the death of Rav Leibel Eiger, Rav Tzadok was prevailed upon to accept the mantel of leadership. Despite his deep reluctance to become a public figure, he finally accepted the role. He remained in this position until his death on 9th Elul 5660 (3rd September 1900). Rav Tzadok was a very prolific author. We have dozens of published works of his (most of them published posthumously), and there is evidence that he wrote dozens of other books that have been lost. Rav Tzadok writes at length in Machsavhos Charutz of the importance of writing words of Torah. He writes (section 15) that both children and words of Torah are a connection to eternity. Perhaps he understood that because he had no children he must compensate for 6

Rav Tzadok HaCohen that lack with words of Torah. Rav Tzadok tried to move to the land of Israel at the end of his life, to join his brother there. However, according to legend, his Chasidim intercepted his brothers letters, forcing him to remain in Lublin. Rav Tzadoks writings encompass every aspect of Torah, from halacha to Chasidus, from Talmud to kabballah. He is remembered as constantly writing, and he collected a fabulous collection of rare books, manuscripts and literature. His library was housed in the Beis Midrash of the Cohen, which survived in Lublin from the time of his death until it was destroyed by the Nazis during the Holocaust. May this translation help to spread the brilliant words of Rav Tzadok HaCohen to a wider audience, and may his teachings and Torah bring merit to him and to all those who learn from him.

Machshevos Charutz 1

In my head I have been working on this book for many years. I am indebted to the many chevrusos who have learnt Rav Tzadoks writings with me over the years. Even though we didnt understand everything, slowly we chipped away at his ideas until we achieved some small degree of clarity. In my usual manner, I left most of the work until the last possible moment (and even beyond), causing stress for myself and everyone who had to deal with me for the past few months. I especially want to thank Sarah Rivka Feld for editing this work well beyond the middle of the night, and with impossible deadlines. I thank my wonderful wife and my lovely children for allowing me to spend most of my time at the computer instead of with them. May God grant us all health and blessing so that we can have much more time together in the future. This book was written for the Bat Mitzvah of my eldest daughter Shoshana. It is such a pleasure having a daughter like you, who makes us proud of everything you do. May you continue to shine and pass on that light to everyone who knows you. Thank you for everything. Erev Pesach 5770 8

Rav Tzadok HaCohen

Machshevos Charutz 1
[1] Thought is the essence of a person, as is well known. But there are Thought is many kinds of thought, as explained in the essence Tikunei Zohar2. There are many kinds of a person of thought, one above the other... and the highest of them all is hidden thought.... There are many kinds of thought one clothed within the other. It is well known that as things are above, so they are below within the soul of a person, who is created in the image and form of God. All of peoples understanding of God is based on the image of man, for from my flesh I perceive God.3 There are many different levels of Many thought within a person. There is a deep different prime thought from which all the other levels of thoughts are drawn out. This prime thought thought is hidden and concealed from the person, and this corresponds to the hidden thought. The lower clothing of thought, which is the actualization of the thought into reality, based on the ideas and thoughts that pass through the persons brain, is not the real thought. The real thought is always called wisdom (chochmah) and is the essence
End of Tikun 19 (41b). There it lists four kinds of thoughts (the lower Divine Presence; Higher Chochmah; an even higher thought and hidden thought which is highest of all), whereas in Tikun 69 (115a) it lists the Divine Presence; Chochmah; Keser and hidden thought. 3 Iyov 19:26

Machshevos Charutz 1 of the person the power of what is (Koach Mah4) as explained in Tikun 69.5 The numerical value of what is is the same as that of man (adam). This is the thought which makes an imprint on the brain, and from there immediately spreads to the heart, and then to the rest of the body. The kabbalistic personalities of Abba and Ima6 are called the two friends The who never separate. The hidden thought moves from thought, which comes down to the spiritual root of Abba which represents chochmah to binah to chochmah (wisdom) in the brain is action connected to binah (understanding) in the heart, which comes from Ima, which becomes feelings. A person feels the thought in his heart immediately and this leads to actualizing it through action. This is the meaning of the statement, the eye sees, the heart desires and the physical body completes the task.7 We find that Inner and seeing is connected to wisdom, as the outer verse states, my heart sees much feelings wisdom.8 Even within binah there are different levels. The feeling in the heart contains many different
The letters of chochma can be rearranged to spell koach mah 5 112b 6 The Ten Sefiros correspond to five partzufim (faces): Atik; Abba; Imma; Zer Anpin and Nukva. Abba and Imma correspond to Chochma and Bina respectively. 7 see Rashi Bamidbar 15:39 8 Kohelles 1:16


Rav Tzadok HaCohen levels. There are outer feelings which are not from the inner depths of the heart at all. The heart is the central font of life, and the true feelings are the ones that are connected to the ultimate life-force, which is the root of understanding of the heart. This comes from the depth of wisdom in the brain. A thought such as this, on which the essence of the life-force in the heart depends, is the essence of the person. The other external thoughts which are the clothing of the inner, essential thought are not his essence. [2] It is almost impossible that a Adams sin persons thoughts can be completely was free of any external garb, and that they imaginative should be solely directed toward God. thought Who has never had a single foreign thought for a single moment in his entire life? The sin of Adam was this thought, as explained in Tikkunei Zohar.9 The serpent put this imaginative idea into Adam when he said On the day you eat of it you will be like gods.10 This desire to be like God the root of all thoughts of emptiness, nothingness and imagination. He imagines that he has reached a certain spiritual level, which is really above his capability and which is not appropriate for him. Adam was the ultimate perfection, as we see from the verse, I said you were gods, all of you were like the sons of the Supernal One.11 But this caused him to think that he
ibid Bereishis 3:5 11 Tehillim 82:6-7
9 10


Machshevos Charutz 1 was actually God. For this reason the Torah warns us A high level You should be holy for I am holy.12 of holiness The Rabbis explain you might think can lead to that you can be holy like Me, therefore thoughts of the verse says, for I am holy. My becoming holiness is above yours.13 When a God person reaches the highest level of holiness even becoming similar to an angel, he is still under the influence of the evil inclination, which never leaves him. The evil inclination tries to seduce him to become even more holy, until he reaches the level of God! Through this temptation, the evil inclination casts him from the highest level to the deepest pit Heaven forbid! This is what happened to that man (Jesus) and to Shabbasai Tzvi14, may their wicked names rot! Because they were so holy, their imaginations allowed them to think that they could become like God. The seed of this sin was their first thought that they had reached perfection of holiness. This is the root of the seduction of the serpent, who begins with small enticements, until eventually, if a person listens to the serpent, he will come to worship idols.15 This begins with thoughts and imaginations wrapped in the outer clothing of thought, but it
Vayikra 19:2 Vayikra Rabba 24:9 14 Shabbasai Tzvi was a false Messiah who proclaimed his mission in 1666. Eventually he converted to Islam, leading many followers to give up Judaism. 15 See Radaks commentary to Bereishis 3:4
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen reaches all the levels of thought, as explained in the Tikunei Zohar cited above. As long as the sin of Adam has not had a complete tikun16, which will only Thought can happen through Mashiach when only be fully he comes, thought can never be perfected when completely free of imaginative Mashiach comes ideas, of each person on his own level. The holiest person on his level can also make a mistake based on false imaginary ideas that are really thoughts of nothingness and emptiness. These sometimes lead to action, because there is no person on earth who does only good and never sins.17 A righteous person is someone who does only good, so the evil inclination appears in the guise of good deeds, and this leads him to sin. It is only an imaginary good that the evil inclination uses to mislead him. This comes from imaginative ideas in thought. But all of this is not the thought that is the essence of a person, which is the chochmah of the brain. The soul I gave him is pure.18 It is Neshama is well known that of the three aspects in the brain of soul, nefesh, ruach and neshama it is and comes the neshama that resides in the brain, directly and it comes from God. We see this in from God the verse, He breathed into his
16 Tikun means correction, returning the thing to the way it was originally. Kabbalistically it refers to the perfection of something. 17 Kohelles 7:20 Tikun 18 Siddur, morning blessings



Machshevos Charutz 1 nostrils the neshama of life, and Adam became a living nefesh.19 One who breaths life into someone else gives him a part of himself. The neshama is referred to as a portion of God above.20 Therefore it always remains pure. About this our Sages have said21, God is the heart of Yisrael, as the verse states, my Rock is my heart and my portion.22 The brain and the heart are the two close friends.23 Because the neshama resides in the brain, as my portion it is also automatically in the heart. All imaginary thoughts are only Imaginative external clothing that surrounds the thoughts are inner thoughts. Therefore the Talmud external, compares sins to reeds surrounding a and not the of myrtle.24 The inner essence of a Jewish essence person is his heart and brain. Rambam the person famously expresses this ideain his laws of Divorce. 25 If a man doesnt want to give his wife a divorce we force him until he says I want to.26 It is only the
Bereishis 2:7 Iyov 31:2 21 Shir HaShirim Rabba 5:2 22 Tehillim 73:26 23 Abba and Ima as discussed above in section [1] 24 Sanhedrin 44a. Rav Abba said: People say, A myrtle, even though it stands among reeds, is still a myrtle, and it is so called. 25 Hilchos Gerushin 2:20 26 A divorce document - Get - has to be given voluntarily, yet the Beis Din is allowed to administer lashes to a recalcitrant husband until he says that he voluntarily wants to give a divorce. The explanation is that essentially every Jewish person wants to do the right thing, and it is only the evil inclination that is preventing them from acting correctly. Therefore by giving the man lashes
19 20


Rav Tzadok HaCohen external clothing of thought that temporarily affects the inner thoughts A persons ultimate perfection is through thought. The goal is to have his Each person thoughts constantly dedicated solely can attain to the service of God, to love Him, fear perfection Him and learn His Torah day and on their own night. Each person is called a perfect level person if he has reached the level of perfection according to his ability. Some souls are very small and have no chance of attaining perfection, except through externals by serving God through action. These people are on the lowest level in the world of action, and they are unable to attain Divinity in their hearts. However, even they have a portion of God Above within them, in the lower thought of the lower Divine Presence. This is the lowest stage of action which resides within all the souls of Yisrael. This is achieved when a persons thought is attached to the revealed Torah and mitzvos which can be grasped by all of Yisrael, day and night. This clothing is also one garment of Adams sin the hidden thought which is above was everything else, and above all imaginative thoughts. Every other thought or thought action is only clothing, but in the world of action is the most external one, while the hidden thought is the innermost one. This person
the Beis Din frees the person from the clutches of the evil inclination and allows him to act freely to give the divorce.



Machshevos Charutz 1 must be more careful in his efforts with the external thoughts, and must strive to purify them as much as possible. All his attachment to holiness is through this external clothing of thought. How ever it is possible for someone to If a person grasp the true knowledge, which is the reached understanding of Divinity within his purity of brain. This leads to feelings in the heart thought it and is drawn out to all the actions of the spreads to body so that A persons wisdom makes all their his face shine.27 A small amount of actions and light pushes away a lot of darkness, their body which is the emptiness of imaginary thoughts of nothingness in the external thoughts. Therefore it doesnt require so much effort to purify thought.


Kohelles 8:1


Rav Tzadok HaCohen

Machshevos Charutz 2
[1] Chavakuk came and reduced all of the other mitzvos to one, as the verse states, A person the righteous will live by his faith.28 can be Ever since that time, faith has become considered the central task of a person. This righteous in means that a person is considered one thing righteous through his level of faith. A person can be righteous in one thing and not in another thing, as Ramban says29 regarding camel drivers and donkey drivers.30 We find a similar idea with Yishmael when God asked the angels, What is he right now?31 Clearly God was only asking this question regarding his specific action of prayer at that time. God considered him righteous, despite the fact that he was almost certainly wicked in other areas of his life. So it is with someone who is righteous in their

Chavakuk 2:4. Makkos 24a Nidah 14a 30 The Talmud says that all camel drivers are wicked. Ramban points out a contradiction with the Talmud in Kiddushin (82a) that says that all (or most) camel drivers are kosher. Ramban resolves this contradiction (in one of his answers) that wicked or kosher in this context is only referring to a specific mitzvah, not all the mitzvos. 31 Rosh Hashanah 16b based on Bereishis 21:17. See Yerushalmi Taanis 4:8 which tells that the angels argued with God that He should not save Yishmael whose descendants would kill the Jewish people when they were taken into exile. God asked the angels, What is he now righteous or wicked? The angels replied, Righteous. God told them We only judge him according to his actions now.
28 29


Machshevos Charutz 2 faith, even if they are wicked in other areas. This is the meaning of Chavakuk reduced all the other mitzvos to one. It is known from the Zohar32 that Torah is based this ability to reduce the mitzvos to on the concept one comes from the concept of of contraction Yitzchak. Also the numerical value of Chavakuk33 is the same as that of strength, because Torah comes from this concept.34 The entire Torah kabbalistically comes from tzimtzum (contraction), which is the aspect of Nukva, which contains the main force of contraction. One contraction followed another until all the mitzvos of the Torah were reduced to one which is the essence of all of the others. This is the essence of the entire Torah - that a person should come to The purpose the complete understanding that of all the there is a Creator and Director of the mitzvos is to world, who watches over everything recognize God with Divine Providence. This is the purpose of the creation of the universe. God made everything for His own sake35 - to praise Him.36 This is the purpose of all of the 613 mitzvos, and each provides a different opportunity to achieve this goal. The Torah has truth written in it37 because it is advice on how to reach clear
vol. 2 44b Chavakuk has the numerical value of 216 as does gevurah . 34 ibid. 84b 35 Mishlei 16:4 36 Midrash Shochar Tov 19 s.v. lamenatzeach (28a) 37 Avodah Zarah 4b
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen recognition in the heart. Truth means something that is clear and revealed within the heart, and which therefore no longer requires faith. When truth The kabbalistic meaning of true and is hidden it firm that we say in the blessings of dresses itself the Shema in the morning, and true as faith and faithful that we say in the evening is that when the truth is hidden it clothes itself in faith. That faith is necessary even when truth is hidden, so that a person can still believe in the Eternal God through faith. This is the task of every person in this physical world which is compared to night.38 It is even truer because we are in exile, which expresses the deepest darkness of night. The Written Torah corresponds to day, because it comes directly from God, Who wants to shine light upon a person so that he can discover the truth in an obvious and clear way. God made man straight39 But they have sought out many thoughts.40 This entire world is filled with the misleading and the darkness of the evil inclination, so we must strengthen ourselves very well with faith. Avraham knew God as truth, so faith for him was difficult [2] The verse says about Avraham Avinu, He believed in the Eternal, and He considered it for him as righteousness.41 Onkelos translates righteousness

Pesachim 2b Kohelles 7:29 40 ibid. 41 Bereishis 15:6

38 39


Machshevos Charutz 2 as as merit, and Rashi also explains the same way. Ramban asks on this explanation, Why is that such a great thing for him? We can perhaps explain that for Avraham, who was a prophet of truth and who recognized the word of God, the Torah should have used the word truth rather than faith. Faith is only appropriate for someone for whom God is hidden and he believes based on what he reads or hears from prophets or wise men who have already attained recognition.42 However, Avrahams great Avraham did not humility, allowed him to say of feel worthy of himself, I am but dirt and Gods promises, ash.43 He therefore considered therefore his belief himself every day as a sinner. remained as faith Even though God had promised him, it was still not completely certain to Avraham that he was righteous, because he always saw his own weaknesses, and considered himself to be wicked. He felt that he was not worthy of the tests that God was giving him. Nevertheless he believed through faith in God and in the promises, even though it was not revealed to him. Even though it was clear to him that God had the ability to fulfil what He had promised him, nevertheless Avrahams personal failings were also clear to him so the promise was in the category of faith for him.
See Beis HaLevi Beshalach and Avi Ezri on Rambam Hilchos Teshuva who similarly explain that faith is only when there is not clear knowledge. 43 Bereishis 18:27


Rav Tzadok HaCohen Avraham had faith that God had promised him and would keep His promise, even though Avraham didnt feel himself worthy of it. He knew that God only does not always do things for someone who does not deserve, and that sin can cause a person to lose the promises that God has made.44 However he listened to Gods promise even though he knew his own failings, and believed through faith, which comes from lack of certainty, because the truth was not fully revealed to him. This is the meaning of he considered it for him as righteousness as a merit and a mitzvah. The verse says, He considered it Avraham knew because God, who examines all God as truth, so hearts and inner thoughts, knows faith for him how to use this as a merit. From was difficult our human perspective it seems just the opposite. It appears as a lack of righteousness that Avraham had to rely on faith when he had a clear promise like this, as Ramban explains. But God understood that Avrahams faith was because of his humility as we have said. Faith comes in the merit of Avraham

[3] Through his faith, Avraham gave us, his children, tremendous benefit. We only have strength today

See Sanhedrin 98b which discusses the concept of God revoking His promises because of sin. It explains why Yaakov was afraid when he returned from Lavan, even though God had promised him that He would protect him. It also explains why the Jews didnt merit great miracles when they returned from the Babylonian exile.


Machshevos Charutz 2 to achieve faith because Avraham exerted himself so much to establish it. All of our abilities are only an inheritance from the Avos, as the Talmud explains: They are believers, the children of believers, as the verse states, He believed in the Eternal.45 This is Yisraels strength, and the reason that they received the Torah The merit and of as our Sages have said, God says, strength Bring Me the book of family Yisrael comes trees.46 The verse states that from the Avos Yaakov, a rope is his inheritance47, because a rope is twisted from three parts.48 This means that Yisrael have their abilities as an inheritance from the three Avos, and the strengths of the fathers are within the children. This is the merit of the Avos and the covenant with the Avos, because this strength is within all their descendants. Without this Yisrael would not be able to withstand the yeast in the
Shabbos 97a Yalkut Shimoni Bamidbar 1 (684). The Midrash explains that when the non-Jewish nations complain that God gave the mitzvos to Yisrael and not them, God tells them to bring their family trees and books of genealogy. He shows them that Yisrael deserve the Torah because of their ancestors. 47 Devarim 32:9 48 Bereishis Rabba 68:12. See Rashis commentary on the verse: Yaakov is the third among the Patriarchs. He is endowed with a threefold [parcel] of merits: The merit of his grandfather, the merit of his father, and his own merit-thus, totaling three, like a rope composed of three strands [twined together for added strength (Sifrei 32:9)]. Thus, it was [only] Yaakov and his sons who became Gods inheritance, not Yishmael, the son of Avraham, and not Esav, the son of Yitzchak.
45 46


Rav Tzadok HaCohen dough of the evil inclination.49 The Avos spent all their time The Avos attaining the complete, clear truth, provide the light like the light which shone before to create faith in them. This is especially true of the darkness Avraham Avinu, who represents the attribute of day and morning. The Midrash says, Rather that shine light before Me only in Mesopotamia, come and shine light before Me in the land of Yisrael.50 How can their children survive the darkness of night? Kabbalistically Abba establishes faith for his Bas.51 This is the trait of King David, who was the stone which the builders rejected.52 These are the fathers who wanted to reach only truth and did not choose faith.

The Talmud (Berachos 17a) cites the prayer of Rabbi Alexander: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that it is our desire to your will. Who prevents us? The yeast in the dough and the servitude to the nations of the world. Rashi (ibid) explains that the yeast in the dough refers to the evil inclination, which resides within our hearts. 50 Bereishis Rabba 30:10 51 Reiya Mehemna Parshas Pinchas 258a. It is based on God, with wisdom, founded the earth (Mishlei 3:19). It means that Abba, which is the sefirah of Chochma, is the foundation and root of Bas, which is Malchus. 52 Tehillim 118:22. The word stone (even) is interpreted kabbalistically as fathers (avhon) so that the verse meansthe forefathers which the builders rejected.


Machshevos Charutz 2 Avraham Avinu, who chose the Avraham exiles,53 also established faith. He created the faith was the beginning of the revelation that is the of King David.54 This is what our cornerstone of Sages have said, Where did he existence in find him? In Sdom,55 where there exile was faith in exile. Only after Sdom was overturned does the Torah say of Avraham he believed in the Eternal. Avraham brought out the holy sparks from there and gathered the foundation of faith, to implant within his Faith is the test children. in the footsteps Especially in these current of Mashiach generations, the footsteps of Mashiach, who will become the chief cornerstone, when the woman will surround the man.56 It is worthy that we direct all our efforts towards this.

53 See Bereishis Rabba 44:21. God told Avraham to choose what punishment his descendants would receive if they sin either Gehinnom or exile. Avraham chose exile. 54 Avraham represents Chochma, King David is Malchus 55 Bereishis Rabba 50:10 56 Yirmiya 31:21. Kabbalistically this means that Nekeiva (woman) who is Malchus, will shine the light which she received from Chochma, upon Gever (man) which is a synonym for Zer Anpin, which is the revelation of God in the physical world. This is the perfection of the physical world, also described as Malchus being a crown for Zer Anpin.


Rav Tzadok HaCohen

Machshevos Charutz 10
The Torah links the concept of counting the Omer to the day after Shabbos. The Why does the verse states, You shall count for Torah use the yourselves from the day after word Shabbos Shabbos.... until the day after the to mean seventh Shabbos.1 From our Sages Pesach? of the Oral Torah2 we know that the first word Shabbos in that verse means the festival of Pesach. Why is it called Shabbos even though this allowed the Sadducees3 to err, and to believe it meant literally Shabbos? And an even bigger question can be asked on the second word Shabbos, which is referring to the end of the seven weeks. There it must mean week, and so the Torah should have written explicitly week to avoid confusion. The Torah here is revealing to us Counting the the secret of counting the Omer. Omer is similar The counting of the Omer is like to counting the seven clean days that a woman seven days after counts after her menstrual flow.4 menses This connection is made by the
Vayikra 23:15-16 Menachos 65b 3 The Sadducees were a Jewish group at the end of the Second Temple era who rejected (parts of) the Oral Law. One of the main arguments between them and the Rabbis (Pharisees) was about the date of Shavuos. The Sadducees always tried to arrange the calendar so that Shavuos would be on Sunday the fiftieth day from the day after Shabbos. 4 A woman must check herself and count seven days after her
1 2



Machshevos Charutz 10 Zohar And on Pesach the impurity ended.5 Therefore the Torah writes on the day after Pesach, just like when a woman counts her seven days she must first do a hefsek tahara6 and begins counting on the following day. The sanctity of Shabbos comes Yom Tov is from God and is constant and sanctified first eternal. It is not contingent upon by Yisrael, and human activity at all. In contrast, then by God Yom Tov is sanctified by Yisrael when they fix the calendar by declaring Rosh Chodesh. That sanctity of Yom Tov first requires an awakening from below, making an opening the size of the eye of a needle. Nevertheless, the main sanctity of the festival comes from Heaven. Once man has sanctified the day a small amount it is sanctified a large amount from Above.7 Yom Tov is also called Shabbos, because people have to rest and stop their efforts on that day also. Ultimately it is only God who sanctifies it. The counting of the Omer is Counting the through the efforts of the person Omer is also who counts, but all of his efforts through human are only in the counting. Just like a effort woman whose body stops
Raya Mehemna on Parshas Emor 97a-b. When they left Egypt they left their impurity, and offered the Pesach sacrifice to eat on the table of their father. From that time forth they should count like a woman counting to come close to her husband. 6 Hefsek Tahara is when a woman checks herself that her flow has stopped, and allows her to begin counting the seven clean days. 7 as explained in Yoma 39a


Rav Tzadok HaCohen menstruating by itself and her cycle is decreed by Heaven. She only has to count the clean days and pay attention, to know that each day is clean. [2] Similarly with counting the Omer. We count from the day of bringing the Omer When we offering, the first of the harvest, recognize that which is the beginning of mans everything efforts in his lifes existence. We comes from God bring the first harvest to God to we enter the acknowledge that everything domain of comes from Him. This is the holiness equivalent of the hefsek tahara, removing the impurity from Yisrael. The impurity is the evil inclination which makes us impure and causes us to forget the knowledge and recognition of God. As soon as we recognize that everything comes from God we leave the domain of the impure, evil inclination, which is the external, outer domain. It is outside and separate from the attachment to Gods Holiness. When we acknowledge our Master we enter the domain of our Master. The first day of Pesach was the first Counting the revelation of the lights and at that Omer brings the time all human physical powers Heavenly ceased completely. Therefore that sanctity into the is a festival, a day of rest. The human realm following day this revelation disappeared, and Yisrael began, through their own human efforts on the work days which follow Shabbos 27

Machshevos Charutz 10 and Yom Tov. They brought the Omer to acknowledge that also their own efforts ultimately come from God. This brings down the holiness of resting on Yom Tov, which is giving everything to God, even during the work days of human activity. This is also the meaning of all the days of counting the Omer which begin on the day after Shabbos. They draw down the sanctity of that rest of Pesach. This is the sanctity of Shabbos which is the continual, eternal holiness from Above, and bringing it into the realm of human activity. These are the seven attributes of Rest is the each week of counting the Omer, completion of each one is itself comprised of the six days of seven, as is known. These building correspond to the seven days of building. The six days are the days of activity, and the body of the building, and the seventh day is the completion of the building, when we rest and stop. This is like someone who finishes his task and puts his soul into it, his spirit and his neshama. This is the breath taken after completing the work, when the spirit rests which is the completion. Therefore the resting is the final act which comes with completion. [3] Each person is also an entire Seven is the structure composed of seven. Each number of of the seven forces has within it nature and many levels, each made up of structure of a seven. This is the number of levels person that God fixed in the laws of nature. The seven within the seven, which is the forty 28

Rav Tzadok HaCohen ninth day, is the completion of the power of seven, which is the power of rest and completion of work. In each of the weeks the seventh day is the level of rest and completion of that level of energy. This is like Shabbos. The seventh Shabbos is the completion of all of the energies. Counting shows The counting shows that a person dedicates all of his energies to God, dedication and recognizes that when God wants they can be cleansed and purified for the sake of Heaven. A persons only real power is to what degree he internalizes this idea, to know and recognize its truth.8 All of a persons energies must be pure and free of any thought or desire that is not for the sake of Heaven. In this way he sanctifies all the days of his week, so that they will also have purity, with a taste of he holiness of Shabbos. This is the concept of the weekday Shabbos mentioned in the Zohar.9 The forty ninth day is simply called Counting makes the holiness Shabbos because it is a model of the first Shabbos, which also began permanent with Yisrael sanctifying it. Through their efforts they merited that the sanctity that they made became permanent and eternal. This is the entire
Rav Tzadok believes that a persons only free choice is to recognize that everything comes from God and therefore he has no real free choice. 9 End of Parshas Pinchas Raya Mehemna 179b. They observed Shabbos this is the Divine Presence who guards those who observe Shabbos and Yom Tov. For this reason the Divine Presence has never left Yisrael on any Shabbos or Yom Tov or even weekday Shabbos.


Machshevos Charutz 10 concept of counting, that each action and effort of a person should be permanent and eternal, and the completion of this is on the final day, when the counting of the Omer is completed. [4] The sevens must be whole, Torah is the so that at the end a person will be only thing new able to reach the day of Shavuos, in the world when the new offering10 is brought. This offering has the power of newness. There is nothing new under the sun,11 and everything loses its value as it becomes old, because the person has become used to it. But the words of Torah must be as if they are new every day, and as precious at all times like at the time they were first given.12 Only under the sun is nothing new, but beyond the sun, which is the realm of Torah, there is newness. At any moment a person can achieve new things that were never known or revealed in the world before. This newness is achieved through New and counting, like a woman who precious comes becomes new to her husband after from counting her counting. The Talmud states that a husband and wife must separate every month during the menstrual cycle so that she will be precious to him.13 The moon behaves in a similar
Vayikra 23:16 Kohelles 1:9 12 Eruvin 54b 13 Nida 31b
10 11


Rav Tzadok HaCohen fashion, through its renewed every month. This is why the Hebrew word for month is chodesh, from the root chadash (new). Every month there is renewal and newness, and it never gets old, because it disappears temporarily. The renewal after the disappearance is a new thing and not the same as it was before. Similarly a person does not truly Torah becomes understand the words of Torah new through until he has tripped over them.14 disappearing This means that the renewal of and rediscovery Torah must be through its disappearance and stumbling. Through this comes renewal and newness. This is also the revelation of the giving of the Torah on Shavuos. The Torah calls it Chag ha-Shavuos (Festival of Weeks) because of the counting of weeks which precedes it. The light was hidden, and the counting expresses the desire and the looking forward to reaching the revealed light. This is the counting of the days until the day that the person is waiting for. Every moment that passes, bringing the person closer to that day which he is awaiting, brings happiness. For this reason we count the days, like a person looking forward to something in a certain number of days time. A person counts the days from the beginning until that time because of his great excitement and desire to reach that thing. Because of this excitement, when he afterwards reaches the thing he desires he finds a new reason which comes from the great preciousness.


Gittin 43a


Machshevos Charutz 10 For this reason we bring a new Counting offering on your Shavuos, sanctifies time because the counting of the weeks and allows for beforehand is what causes the the renewed offering to be new. Yisrael merit giving of Torah this because they count their on Shavuos calendar based on the moon,15 and in the future they will become renewed like the moon,16 and find the newness after it has been hidden. This is the cause and it brings the sanctity of the festival, which they have already sanctified the preceding weeks through the counting. All a persons energies have been dedicated to God, and therefore he merits receiving the Torah anew every year on that same day. [5] Therefore the counting is until the day after the seventh The fiftieth day is also part of Shabbos, the fiftieth day. The Rosh the counting at the end of Pesachim17 and in Tosefos18 struggle to explain this. But the fiftieth day is also considered as part of the counting, even though we dont actually count it. The fact is that we make it a festival instead of counting on that day, because we still need to count then. That day is the anticipation of the preceding awakening from below. It is Yisrael who sanctify the festivals. Even though according to
Succah 29a Sanhedrin 42a 17 chapter 10; number 40 18 Menachos 65b, top of the page
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen everyone the Torah was given on Shabbos,19 because the Torah is constant and eternal from Heaven before the world was created, just like Shabbos. Nevertheless it needs a certain awakening from below and sanctification of the people beforehand, through Moshe Rabbeinu. Torah comes This is the meaning of the from human statement in the Talmud If effort, but is someone says I didnt put in effort ultimately a gift but I found the goal dont believe them 20 because there must be effort beforehand. Nevertheless, after the effort the result is still called a find, and a lost object can only be found by forgetting about it.21 In truth the Torah is above any human understanding, and all the efforts that a person puts in, and their toil, is only according to what they can understand. It is never enough to understand the great words of Torah, which is the wisdom of God. When a person afterwards attains something he recognizes that it was a gift that came through taking his mind off it, rather than through his efforts. But nevertheless, he must still put in the effort to make an opening the size of the eye of a needle which is the awakening from below. God only gives the secrets of the words of Torah to someone who craves it. About this it says Give wisdom to the
Shabbos 86b. There is an argument between the Sages and Rabbi Yossi whether it was given on the 6th or the 7th of Sivan, but according to both opinions it was on Shabbos 20 Megillah 6b 21 Sanhedrin 97a


Machshevos Charutz 10 wise.22 Similarly our Sages have explained the verse My son, if you will receive My word...23 - if you have the merit you will be able to receive My Torah, that even the ministering angels desire, but which I do not give it to them.24 They verse states The beginning of wisdom is the fear of God.25 The Wisodom of Our Sages have said If there is no Torah requires fear there is no wisdom.26 This fear of God fear is the awakening from below alluded to in a woman who fears God.27 Love can only come after earlier fear. The fear is the days of counting, which is like counting the clean days, and the person is afraid that perhaps they will not manage to count all the days. For this reason the students of Rabbi Akiva died during this time, because they did not act towards each other with honor. They showed is a lack in the attribute of fear, which is the attribute of judgment and strength. This can lead, Heaven forbid, to a final judgment, as the saying goes If Forty nine days there is no justice on earth, there of counting are will be justice in Heaven.28 the necessary God only helps a person after the preparation for end of the forty nine days because Shavuos he has already completed the
Daniel 2:21 Mishlei 2:1 24 Devarim Rabba 7:9 25 Tehillim 111:10 26 Avos 3:17 27 Proverbs 31:30 28 Shochar Tov 72:3
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen necessary preparations. Fortunate is someone who reaches this and actualizes it in his brain and in his heart and with all the abilities of his soul. He is certainly among the people of Yisrael whose souls stood at Mount Sinai. But the memory of that event is hidden in the depths of his heart, which is why he does not feel this while he is in the physical world. After this he enters the happiness Dark must of Yom Tov. But he still needs a precede light small amount of fear at the beginning of his happiness. This is what it says in Tanna de-vei Eliyahu Rabba, I rejoiced out of my fear and my fear was because of my rejoicing.29 The love and happiness should not spread without limits, which the physical world, which is limited, cannot bear. Fear and exile is the night before the light of day. For this reason the Torah was given in the morning,30 and it must be preceded by night. This is the awakening from below which is hidden in the revelation of the light. Afterwards the light comes through this same vessel, which is like the creation of the world. This is how God set it up from the time of creation. Every attainment of greater light must come through darkness. Torah given asleep
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also while

[6] This is why the fiftieth day is included in the counting, because also that day requires a certain amount of protection. Even

beginning of chapter 3 Shabbos 87a


Machshevos Charutz 10 though it is not actual counting, because after successfully passing through the forty nine days of counting, and purified seven times, the holiness of the fiftieth day comes by itself. Therefore the Sages said Sleep on Shavuos is sweet. Even the fleas do not bite, because they are asleep.31 But this sleep is the kind of sleep described in the verse I sleep but my heart is awake.32 While sleeping, all the thoughts and dreams which come from the power of imagination, which rules at the time of sleeping, are also part of the receiving of the Torah. This was the total desire of Yisrael. I heard in the name of Rabbi Dreams show Bunim of blessed memory that the what is in a dreams are clarification of what is persons heart in the depths of a persons heart. Yaakov Avinu was connected in truth to the Living God. The root of his attachment remained in the lower creations. Therefore also in his dream And behold, God was standing over him.33 Similarly with all of Yisrael at the time of the giving of the Torah. They had reached the highest level of perfection that it is possible for a descendant of Yaakov to reach in the physical world. Therefore even in their sleep were not bitten by fleas. This means that they had nothing causing them pain or separating them from their attachment. This is because of the imprint left after counting the previous forty nine days, which is
Shir HaShirim Rabba 1:12 Shir HaShirim 5:2 33 Bereishis 28:13
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen revealed even during sleep. This imprint causes the counting to The counting of impact also on the fiftieth day in the fiftieth day potential, even though in actuality came from the there was no counting. This is imprint of the revealed on the fiftieth day previous 49 through this imprint which days remains from the energies of all the previous days of counting. Through this a person builds in the innermost part of their heart the root of the awakening of below which is necessary for receiving the Torah. This is how Yisrael sanctify the holiness of the holy festival. Through this an awakening flows from above with the receiving of the Torah, a sanctity which is eternal and lasting, and which is above a persons normal level of attainment. And he receives a great deal of sanctity from Heaven.


Rav Tzadok HaCohen

Machshevos Charutz 15
The three festivals bring abundance of spiritual emanations to the descendants of The three Yaakov.1 A person has three basic festivals are needs children, life, and conduits for sustenance. On Pesach the world is the three basic judged for produce.2 This is the human needs emanation of sustenance. For this reason, there is a unique mitzvah of eating on Pesach, which we do not find on any other day of the year. The only time that there is a mitzvah on every Jewish person to eat a certain food is matza on Pesach. And when the Beis HaMikdash was standing, there was also a mitzvah to eat the Pesach sacrifice. Together, these include everything a person needs to eat - In the evening you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall be filled with bread.3 In fact, an entire meal is called bread, as we find in the verse, Belshatzar, the king, made a great feast for a thousand of his lords.4 The word for feast is lechem bread. This shows us that the word bread includes all kinds of food.
In all of Rav Tzadoks writings, when he talks about descendants and children, he means spiritual descendants, not biological. Thus converts are included in the descendants of Yaakov, though Jews who have renounced Judaism might not be. Rav Tzadok himself had no children, so it is interesting that he spends so much time discussing parents and children. 2 Mishna Rosh Hashana 1:2 3 Shemos 16:12 4 Daniel 5:1



Machshevos Charutz 15 The Rabbis also added four cups of wine that must be drunk on Pesach night, which also was eaten with the sacrificial meat, since there can be no happiness without meat and wine.5 For this reason, people who are worn out from battle are given bread and wine.6 Man is made to toil,7 which Rava explains to mean Every body has to work fortunate A person are those who toil in Torah.8 chooses However, a persons entire toil in this whether to world is to provide food for himself toil in his and his family. A person who accepts physical upon himself the yoke of Torah, to livelihood or toil with his mouth in Torah learning, in Torah removes the yoke of livelihood.9 The strangers will come and tend your flock and the children of foreigners will be your ploughmen and your vinedressers.10 Then there will be enough bread, meat, and wine from Gods generous hand.
Pesachim 109a See Bereishis 14:18, where Malchitzedek greets Avram as he returns from the war against the four kings, and offers him bread and wine. 7 Iyov 5 8 Sanhedrin 99b 9 Avos 3:5 Rabbi Nechuniah ben Hakaneh says: Someone who accepts upon himself the yoke of Torah will be freed from the yoke of government and the yoke of derech eretz (providing a livelihood). And one who throws off the yoke of Torah will be burdened with the yoke of government and the yoke of derech eretz. 10 Yishaya 61:5. Rabbi Shimon learns from here that if a person learns Torah day and night, his work will be done by others (Berachos 35b).
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen This is the freedom from slavery in this world, and this is the essence of the exodus from Egypt. The Children of Yisrael were exiled there because they needed food during the famine. As long as any of the sons of Yaakov, the children of truth,11 were still alive, the Egyptians were not able to enslave Yisrael or put the yoke of government or livelihood upon them. This is because they had upon them the yoke of Torah. However, afterward, they became steeped in the husks12 of Egypt, and the essence of this husk is to sink a person into the physical world. Eventually, they forget entirely and remove any good thought from their head or heart. This is what Pharaoh said to his people, Put heavier work upon the men, so that they may toil in it; and let them pay no attention to lying words.13 When they left Egypt, Yisrael went to freedom from the slavery of the physical world. From that time forth, the Jewish soul has had the power to cast off all the worries of the physical world and to break free from its yoke. The exodus from Egypt was freedom from physical labor

Yaakov is associated with the attribute of truth, as Rav Tzadok explains later. 12 Husk (kelipa) is a kabbalistic concept for the impurity that surrounds the inner purity of something. 13 Shemos 5:9. Lying words are the antithesis of the Truth of Torah.


Machshevos Charutz 15 [2] Since the main stress in the Matza and physical world is providing food, manna the Children of Yisrael were given represent the the mitzvah of matzah at that time, freedom from which shares qualities with manna. toil The Talmud states that the dough that they brought out with them from Egypt had the taste of manna.14 This alludes to the bread that comes from Heaven without any toil or trouble at all. This also provides for those who toil in Torah in this world, as the Midrash states, The Torah was only given to those who eat manna.15 Another Midrash states that the The height of manna would fall to a height that the piles of would take 2000 years to walk.16 It manna alludes appears to me that this is an allusion to the 2000 to the 2000 years of Torah mentioned years of Torah in the Talmud.17 Even though by now, these 2000 years have already passed, the Talmud explains, they have gone, those that have gone.18 This means that those souls that have existed during those first 2000 years are reincarnated a second time, and therefore the generation that has passed is the same generation that follows. For this reason, they are not included in the calculation of the 2000 years, and the true total will still only be 2000 years.
Kiddushin 38a Mechilta end of Parshas Beshalach 16 Yalkut Shimoni Beshalach 258 17 Avoda Zarah 9a 18 Tanna dvei Eliyahu Rabba beginning of chapter 2
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen The manna fell to this height to provide food for the entire 2000 years of Torah. This emanation falls each week on every individual through the food of Shabbos, which is a reminder of the manna. Our Sages compare the food of Shabbos to the manna.19 This has sanctity that is eternal and constant from God. The food for the entire year comes through Yisrael sanctifying the year through their efforts on Pesach. This festival corresponds to Avraham,20 who represented kindness. He gave food to everyone who passed by and provided for all the inhabitants of the world. Then we begin counting the Omer, which is to purify the sanctity of foundation,21 Counting the Omer purifies which was embodied by Yosef, who provided grain and supported his foundation brothers and the entire world. He originally was sold as a slave and went down to Egypt sunk under his yoke. But afterward, he merited coming out of prison and to rule, which shows the complete breaking of the yoke of the physical world. Not like a non-Jewish king who makes himself
see Zohar Yisro 88a Tur Orech Chaim 417. I heard from my brother, Rav Yehuda, a reason for this. Because the festivals were established corresponding to the patriarchs Pesach corresponds to Avraham Shavuos corresponds to Yitzchak and Sukkos corresponds to Yaakov. 21 Foundation (yesod) is the sixth of the seven lower midos and corresponds to Yosef.
19 20



Machshevos Charutz 15 servant to the field22 he is also under the yoke of the physical world. But in Yosefs case, the field worshipped him, and all of Egypt, and their land were his servants. Yosef merited being the conduit for the emanation of blessing of food for the entire earth. The Omer offering is of barley, Omer which is primarily animal food. The offering corrects Barley is used for the sin offering of the suspected adulteress,23 as the our animalistic Talmud states, Since she acted tendencies like an animal, her sacrifice is from animal food.24 It is as if she is sacrificing her animal soul to God. And sexual immorality and all violation of the covenant of circumcision are animal acts. Their correction comes with the barley offering, through which all people offer all of their animalistic energies to God. Then we begin to count the days until the time of the giving of the There is no sin offering on Torah, when we became free from Shavuos the evil inclination and from the angel of death. In the sacrifices for Shavuos, there is no sin offering25 because at that time, there was no sin at all. The animal soul is purified during the 49 days of counting; purifying it seven times seven, and thus purify the sanctity of foundation, which is expressed
Kohelles 5:8 Bamidbar 5:15 24 Sotah 15b 25 Bamidbar 28:30. On all the festivals, a goat is offered as a sacrifice. On all the other festivals, the goat is described as a sin offering, but regarding Shavuos, the verse only says, One hegoat, to make atonement for you.
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen in the holy covenant of circumcision. Then a person merits, through the sanctity of Shavuos brings the festival of Shavuos, to the the blessing of blessing of children. On Shavuos, children the world is judged for fruit of the tree.26 A person is compared to a eternal fruit tree,27 so the fruit referred to is children. Shavuos is called Atzeres in the Torah, which is a word meaning stopping or collecting. This is when the seeds that were planted on Pesach are collected within the ground. This time was the beginning of the Divine emanation of blessing. A maidservant at the Red Sea saw more than the prophet Yechezkel.28 But it was only through seeing and not an actual acquisition, because the holiness had not yet been collected to make it eternal and constant in the heart forever without wavering. It was only a temporary attainment. Similarly, all abundance of food is only temporary. It provides temporary life, but then a person returns to feeling hungry. However, children are a constant blessing, because they provide the continuation of the species for eternity. For this reason, a wife is called eternal building.29 This alludes to the Giving of the Torah, which his
Rosh Hashana ibid Devarim 20:19 For man is a tree of the field 28 Mechilta 15b and Zohar Beshalach 64b. This means that they perceived the Divine Presence saving them from the Egyptians. 29 In the fourth of the seven blessing recited at a wedding
26 27



Machshevos Charutz 15 compared to a good wife, as the Talmud states,30 Rava said How precious is a good wife, who is compared to the Torah. A woman is primarily for bearing children,31 which refers to the true descendants of the righteous, who are their mitzvos and good deeds. Anyone who says they have only Torah doesnt even have Torah.32 This is the purpose of the entire Torah, both the written and the oral -- to learn the 613 mitzvos in general and with their specifics and all the details. In the Talmud,33 Torah is called Prayer is only eternal life and prayer is called temporary life; temporary life because all the Torah is eternal requests in the Shmonah Esrei life prayer are only requests for temporary things. Even the requests for intelligence, repentance, and similar things are only for things that are needed at that time. For this reason, we pray three times a day. The Zohar says that the clothes that a person wears in the Prayer is subject to time; Torah is morning are not the same as the above time clothes he wears in the afternoon.34 Each prayer is unique, and this is why each prayer is only temporary. The essential request and prayer is that which comes from the depths of the
Yevamos 63b Kesuvos 59b 32 Yevamos 109b 33 Shabbos 10a 34 Tikunei Zohar 22
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen heart, and from how the heart perceives the world at that moment. By way of analogy, in the sphere of knowledge - something that one person considers deep understanding and that can only be attained through much prayer, is considered by another as something absolutely simple, so he does not pray for it. That person only asks for a much deeper level of wisdom, which the first person cannot even begin to imagine. This is true not only of different people, but even within one person at different times, because not every moment is the same. This is alluded to in the verse, men who had understanding of the times.35 Every time is different for the understanding of the heart, which is where the prayer comes from. Understanding is the last of the ten interlinked levels,36 which is called time because it is subject to time and moment.37 That is also the meaning of a time to act for God38 and within it is a time for every

Divrei HaYamim 1 12:33 This refers to the Ten Sefiros, which are also alluded to at the Giving of the Torah. 37 See Zohar Bereishis 116b Knesses Yisrael is called time. Rav Tzadok develops this idea more fully in Pri Tzadik Vayikra (Emor 3). In Likutei Maamarim, Rav Tzadok explains that the attribute of nukva (which is also called kingship) is called time. In Dover Tzedek (64a), Rav Tzadok explains that the verse a time to act for God refers to the attribute of kingship and the Divine Presence. In Takanas HaShavin, Rav Tzadok explains that even though the Torah is eternal and unchanging, that is only what is actually revealed. But that which is in the depths of the heart is constantly changing at every moment. 38 Tehillim 119:126
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Machshevos Charutz 15 desire. These are the twenty-eight times39 mentioned in the Zohar40 and many places in Tikkunei Zohar41. However, Torah is above time, and is not below the heavens, but above the heavens. Our Sages have said:42 There is nothing new under the sun.43 This means that Torah is above the sun. From here, the festivals, days, years, and time derive, because Torah preceded the creation of the world, which was the beginning of time. Therefore, all its concepts and mitzvos exist for all time and never change. There is a time to act for God, break His Torah,44 but that breaking of the Torah must be only temporary, based on the needs of the moment, as we find with Eliyahu at Mount Carmel. When that time passes, the law returns to how it was originally. The body of the Torah is eternal life, and is constant and eternal with no change. This gives eternal life to a person, as our Sages have said that anyone who is involved in Torah, the dew of Torah will bring him back to life.45 [5]

The wisdom of Torah is what gives a person

Kohelles 3:2-8 lists 28 times: A time to be born, and a time to die 40 Terumah 155b 41 Tikkun 19 40a; Tikkun 69 101b 42 Kohelles Rabba 1:3 43 Kohelles 1:9 44 Tehillim 119:126 45 Kesuvos 111b


Rav Tzadok HaCohen existence. This means at the level of his neshama and nefesh, where the fire of Gehinom Mitzvos are has no power over him, as it says at children and the end of Chagiga.46 This is the ensure the essence of the eternal nefesh; even if eternity of the a person has died in the physical species world, he is not completely gone. His mitzvos are considered the children of the righteous. These are all the physical acts in the physical world which give continued existence to the species, which leaves a remnant in the physical world for eternity. Learning Torah is itself included in the mitzvos of the Torah and is one of the 613 mitzvos. This refers to learning with the physical body, with the mouth, or by
Chagiga 27a. Rav Abahu said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: The fire of Gehennom has no power over Torah scholars. This can be proven by an a fortiori argument from the salamander. The salamander is created in fire, and yet if someone anoints himself with its blood, flame has no power over him. How much more so will the flames of Gehinnom have no power over the Torah scholars, whose entire body is fire, as it is written (Yirmiya 23:29) Is not My word like fire? says God." Resh Lakish said the flame of Gehenna has no power over the sinners of Yisrael, as is shown by an a fortiori argument from the altar of gold. For the altar of gold, upon which is only about the thickness of a dinar of gold, it lasted so many years and was not affected by fire; how much more can flame have no power over the sinners of Yisrael, who are as full of mitzvos as a pomegranate is full of seeds, as it is written (Shir HaShirim 4:3): "Like the half of a pomegranate is the upper part of your cheek." Do not read it as "the upper part of your cheek," but "the empty people within you."


Machshevos Charutz 15 writing in a book. This remains forever in the physical world through a persons students, who are also called his children. These include both students who learnt from him directly, or students who read his books. The final mitzvah written in the Torah is that of writing a Sefer Torah, Write this Nowadays, it is song for yourselves.47 Included a mitzvah to within this is the mitzvah of writing write down all words of Torah so that they will Oral Torah and remain in the physical world. to preserve it Originally words of the Oral Torah for future were not permitted to be written generations down.48 However, after it became permitted to write down Oral Torah,49 it also became a mitzvah to write it and is included within the mitzvah of Write for yourselves. The main purpose of this mitzvah is to leave something for future Writing preserves generations.50 As long as all of Yisrael Torah, but were living together in the land of loses what is Yisrael, and each student learnt Torah in the heart directly from his teacher, it was forbidden to write it down. The Torah did not want
Devarim 31:19 Gittin 60b 49 Gittin ibid. See also Rambams introduction to Mishneh Torah (though different manuscripts argue as to whether the Mishna was written or only compiled by Rebbi Yehuda HaNassi). See also Shulchan Aruch HaRav Hilchos Talmud Torah 4:13 and Orech Chaim 334:12, who writes explicitly that nowadays it is permitted to write down Oral Torah. 50 Rambam introduction to Mishne Torah. Rashi Gittin 60a-b
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen the students to rely on the written word when they had the opportunity to learn from a teacher. One cannot compare learning from a teacher to learning from a book, as it says in Yishaya, Your eyes should see your teachers. 51 We also find in the Talmud Rabbi Mesharshiya said to his students: Whenever you come for your lesson with your teacher, revise the subject first and then enter the presence of your master; and when you sit before him, look at his mouth, for it is written, Your eyes should see your teacher. 52 The mouth reveals the depths of the heart. Writing, however, cannot reveal what is in the heart. We find this in Sanhedrin that even though the court stenographers wrote down the proceedings, they could not record what was in the heart.53 A student who learns from a teacher understands what is in his heart. [6] After the exiles were dispersed to the ends of the earth, if they would have only been able to learn from a teacher, the Torah would have been lost completely Heaven forbid! So it then became a positive mitzvah to write down words of Torah.

30:20 Horayos 12a 53 35a: Although two judges' clerks stand before them and write down the arguments of those who would acquit and those who would convict, they can only record according to the mouth. Once the heart forgets, it remains forgotten.
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Machshevos Charutz 15 [Even though all the Oral Torah nowadays has all been written, nevertheless, everything that any future student will innovate is also included within the Oral Torah that was revealed to Moshe at Sinai.54 Once a new idea is developed within Torah in the physical world, it must remain for eternity person in this world through writing. Each has unique Therefore, the earlier generations warned that a person should Torah that he always write down his new ideas. can reveal in We find this in Sefer Chasidim,55 and the world. If he does not write the angel told it to the Beis Yosef,56 it down, it may and there are many other cases. A be lost forever person never knows which Torah will survive. Perhaps this is the piece of Oral Torah that is his portion and that has never been revealed to any other person in the world. It may be that for this reason, he was created, to bring this Torah into the world. He must ensure that it will not become lost with his death Heaven forbid, because then he would have to be reincarnated. Rather, he should bring it into actuality in the physical world through speaking to students or through writing. I saw written in the name of a great sage that he never wrote down any of his Torah because he held that it was still
Megillah 19b 530: Anyone to whom God reveals something, and he doesnt write it when he had the opportunity, is stealing what was revealed to him. It was only revealed to him in order that he should write it. 56 Magid Meisharim commentary on Tehillim 31 (end): And he commanded me to write the new ideas that he was telling me.
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen forbidden to write down the Oral Torah, and he remembered everything without ever forgetting anything from his learning or his insights. He was mistaken in this approach, as I have written, because the purpose of writing is not only for himself but also for future generations. Even though there are already many books in the world and an almost infinite Constant number of writings, nevertheless, renewal of every student has his own Torah creation comes that is his portion and that no other through person can achieve. This is the constant new innovation that is above the sun. ideas in Torah Through this, he causes new things below the sun as well, just as God renews creation every day. God created the world through the Torah, and the beginning of creation was with the Written Torah. However, the constant renewal every day comes through the Oral Torah, through the daily innovations in Torah through the wise people of Yisrael. There is never a day without new Torah from a student in the generation. It is that innovation which brings life to the world and therefore must remain fixed and eternal in the physical world. There are also many other reasons for this, but here is not the place to discuss them.] The concept that nowadays the main mitzvah is to write down the Oral Torah is also found in the Rosh, Tur57 and Shulchan Aruch58, Yoreh Deah
57 The Tur writes: My father, the Rosh, said that this [mitzvah to write a Sefer Torah] only applied in earlier generations, when they would write a Sefer Torah and learn from it. But nowadays


Machshevos Charutz 15 siman 270. [7] It seems to me that we can There are hidden find meaning in the fact that the allusions within Tur and Shulchan Aruch wrote books of Oral this mitzvah in siman 270 ( - Er). Law The Tumim59 has already alluded to the fact that since the Shulchan Aruch was accepted by all of Yisrael, it must certainly have been written with Divine inspiration. Therefore, everything written in it is Divine, even meanings that were not intended by the author.60 We can apply this concept here, even though the Tur and Shulchan Aruch certainly did not have it in mind. Since they were doing the work of Heaven, and their books were accepted as binding halacha, all of their words are Torah. As part of the Oral Torah, we can find allusions within the text that were not intentional from the authors. These books become like all the Oral Torah that is in our possession. In this respect, the Oral Torah is similar to the Written Torah, because the differing opinions were all given from a single shepherd61 and all come from Divine
that they write the Sefer Torah and place it in the Synagogue to read from it publicly, it is a positive mitzvah on all of Yisrael who are able, to write the five books of the Torah, Mishna, Gemara and commentaries, and learn from them as a family. 58 Seif 2: Nowadays it is a mitzvah to write the five books of the Torah, Mishna, Gemara and commentaries 59 Rabbi Yonasan Eybeschutz (1690 - 1764) 60 Urim ve-Tumim siman 25 in Kitzur Tokfo Cohen 61 Chagiga 3b: : "The words of the wise are like plough pegs, and


Rav Tzadok HaCohen inspiration. There is nothing accidental or random. The mitzvah of writing a Sefer Torah is the correction of the sin of Er.62 The Torah describes him as Ra (evil) as we find And Er, Yehudas first-born, was evil (ra) in the sight of God.63 It is known Writing Torah is from the Zohar that someone who the correction of commits this sin of spilling seed is called evil.64 This refers to the sin of Er someone who doesnt want his species to continue by having children. The way for such a person to correct this sin is through the mitzvah of writing a Sefer Torah or writing Oral Torah, which allows him to leave spiritual descendants in the physical world.

the words of the men of the assemblies like nails planted that are given by one shepherd (Kohelles 12:2). . The men of assemblies, refers to the Torah scholars who sit in assembly, learning Torah and discussing. Some say a thing is pure, while others declare it impure. Some prohibit and others allow, some make valid, and others make invalid. But if you would say: If so, how can I learn the Torah? Therefore it is written: "Given by one shepherd." One God gave them, and one Master (Moshe) said it from the mouth of God as it is written: "And God spoke all these words (Shemos 20:1). 62 Who was the son of Yaakovs son Yehuda and was married to Tamar. He died young because he did not want his wife to fall pregnant. 63 Bereishis 38:7 64 vol. 1 186b: It says here evil and it says there the desire of man's heart is evil from his youth (Bereishis 8:21). In that case, it referred to spilling blood (murder), and here, it refers to spilling seed on the ground [and both are comparable]. For this reason, God killed him.


Machshevos Charutz 15 This is the perfection of the attribute of foundation65 because everything written contains both male foundation, which is the quill, and female foundation, which is the paper that receives the writing. The mitzvah of writing a Sefer Torah is the final mitzvah in the Torah because it is the perfection after the destruction. At the end of days, when everything that has to happen will already have happened, God will put the meaning of mitzvah into everything so that it will Writing Torah the never again be destroyed. The ensures first mitzvah is to be fruitful and continuation of spiritual multiply, to ensure the the continued existence of the species species in the physical world. If they would keep this mitzvah, they will never come to do the sin of Er. [8] This commandment of procreation was given to Adam, the first man, before he sinned. For after the sin, he separated from his wife, and also committed in the sin of Er by wasting semen, even though he did it unintentionally. This is stated in the Talmud.66 This
See footnote 21 Eruvin 18b: Rabbi Yirmiya ben Elazar said that for all those years that Adam was isolated he fathered spirits, demons and lilith spirits, as the verse states, Adam lived 130 years and fathered in his image and his form (Bereishis 5:3). This implies that until that time, he fathered things that were not in his image.... This refers to nocturnal emissions that happened against his will.
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen continued until after his repentance when he returned to his wife to a child, Shes, in his image, from whom the world was populated. This was the correction of the foundation of the world. This is the essence of repentance that a person fixes the earlier sin so that he can return to his previous state as if he had never sinned. This is the kabbalistic meaning of the principle that the end is embedded within the beginning.67 The Torah of God is complete, Correction of sin like a perfect circle. We find that the Sages tell us68 on the verse, requires embedding the God knows the days of the 69 end within the complete person. This shows that completion is the ultimate beginning perfection. If something has a beginning and an end, it cannot be entirely complete or totally perfect. Total completion must be something round which has no beginning or end. This is the concept of igulin and yoshar.70 In this physical world, it appears to be divided into stages, and the igulin are not revealed. But they remain as the surrounding light, and in the future, after the complete perfection, their light will be revealed to the world.
Otzar HaMidrashim (Eisenstein) p. 238: The ten concealed attributes have their end embedded in the beginning and the beginning embedded in the end, like a flame attached to the coal. 68 Bereishis Rabba Chaye Sarah 58a 69 Tehillim 37:18 70 The first section of Etz Chaim is entitled Shaar Igulim va-Yosher. 1:1 there Rav Chaim Vital discusses these two concepts, which are the basis of the interaction between God and the creation.


Machshevos Charutz 15 Then, after the completion, the furthest stage will unite with the beginning. The highest stage, and when the end unites with the beginning, the yosher becomes an igul. There is no longer any distinction of stages. This is the place where penitents can stand that completely righteous can never attain71 because the righteous are involved in stages, and each righteous person is burned by the place of another righteous person.72 He is unable to stand on Penitents stand a level that is higher than the level on a higher level he has attained. However, a that the purely penitent, who comes to correct the righteous because sin that he had committed when they return the he veered from the path, goes sin to its source back to the place where he veered and returns everything to its original higher source. He implants the end of the stages and the place where he had been entrenched into the beginning. He then merits the light of the igulim, which have no levels at all. From his lowly place at the bottom and end of everything, he is able to unite with the beginning of everything. [9] This is the level of King David, who established the yoke of repentance.73 He is King David the foundation stone that the achieved the builders rejected, and his soul ultimate completion is the smallest in the levels of
Berachos 34b Bava Basra 75a 73 Avodah Zara 5a
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen soul. He merited becoming the head of the cornerstone and to be elevated and raised above everything through his revelation of the igulim. Anyone who is small is ultimately great because he relies more on the beginning. This is the power of a penitent, who understands with his heart and repents.74 He achieves understanding, which is in the depths of the heart, which is higher than the seven attributes that spread out through the body. The last two letters of Gods Name, vav and heh return to become the first heh. This is the explanation of the concept that Leah is the mainstay of the home.75 She was hated in the eyes of Yaakov because he was sensitive to the fundamental flaws in her children. The tribe of Shimon sinned in Shittim;76 Reuven sinned with Bilhah;77 Yehuda sinned with Tamar;78 Er and Onen sinned79 as did David with Bat Sheva,80 and
Yishaya 6:10 See Zohar Vayetze 154a: Who seats the mainstay of the house this refers to Rachel, who was Yaakovs main wife. A joyful mother of children this refers to Leah. See ibid. 157b: Who seats the mainstay of the house this refers to the lower world. A joyful mother of children this refers to the upper world. See Rav Tzadok Yisroel Kedoshim 35b-36a (71-72), which discusses the function and nature of Leah and Rachel in the hidden and revealed worlds. See also Takanas HaShavin 14a. Leah, the wife of Yaakov, was the great grandmother of King David. She represents understanding and is called Imma. 76 Bamidbar 25 77 Bereishis 35:22 78 ibid. 38:11-26 79 ibid. 7-9
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Machshevos Charutz 15 many other examples.81 The Zohar says that a person hates his relatives on his mothers side.82 Certainly, he was also aware of the correction but the only way of correcting sin is to return to the source. This is the new thing that God will do, that the female will surround the male that the heh will come before the vav. This is the concept of a man descends a level and marries a wife.83 The main descendant of Yaakov is Yosef, who is the level of completely righteous, who guarded his bris milah without sin. He was the son of his old age whose face was identical to that of his father. It is a metaphor for the face of a child opposite the face of an adult.84 When the Torah says that Yosef spoke bad things about the other brothers, it means that he spoke about their sin in the realm of foundation, which is called evil. They were tempted by the women of the
Shmuel II chapter 2 This idea is taken from the Zohar 154a above footnote 75 82 Vayetze 154b: Mother in this context refers to Imma, represented by Leah. Yaakov represents Zer Anpin, who is the son of Imma. Thus, Yaakov hated Leah and had no sexual desire for her. 83 Yevamos 63a: Rav Pappa said Come down a step in choosing your wife. Rashi explains that a man should never marry a woman who is more important than him because she may reject him. 84 Chagiga 13b based on the verse And out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the likeness of a man. As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man (Yechezkel 1:4-10). See also Zohar Acharei Mos 60b. and Pinchas 217b
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen land. Certainly Yosef had a valid claim against his brothers in the way things appear in the physical world. However, he could not understand the level of repentance, which comes essentially from the children of Leah. Reuven, Leahs firstborn, was the first to repent, as our Sages tell us.85 For this reason, Hoshea, who is his descendant, said the portion of Return The flaws that Yosef Yisrael.86 Yehuda reached saw in his brothers completion through King were only in the David and all his descendants world of after him, until Mashiach ben foundation David, who will be raised because he couldnt higher than Avraham, Yitzchak understand the and Yaakov.87 He will merit the world of repentance shining countenance of Adam before the sin, which is higher than the shining countenance of Yaakov. [10] Therefore, Yehuda and Yosef were the most numerous of all the tribes. They were more fruitful because they had the sanctity of foundation more than any of the other tribes. Yosef was completely righteous, without sin, and Yehuda was a penitent
Yalkut Shimoni Vayishlach 137: The sons of Leah, the firstborn of Yaakov was Reuven. Reuven was the first to be conceived, the first to be the firstborn, the first to inherit, the first to repent and the first to have prophecy, [as the verse states] First God spoke with Hoshea. (Hoshea 1:2) 86 Hoshea 14:2 87 Yalkut Shimoni Yishiyahu 476


Machshevos Charutz 15 after the sin. The beginning of Yehudas expansion was through the sin of Er and Onen. But Yehuda is My lawgiver.88 This is the root of the lawgiver, Yehuda is the root who is Moshe Rabbeinu, the of all Torah scholars root of all the Torah sages in Yisrael. This is known kabbalistically from many statements in the Talmud, when it says Moshe said well.89 Yehuda is also the root of all the Torah scholars in Yisrael, and the hewn chamber of the Sanhedrin was in Yehudas portion of land. If a Torah scholar sins at night, Torah scholars do not cast aspersions on him correct the night during the day, because he has time sin through certainly repented.90 He has Torah study the potential and ability to repent, to fix the earlier sin through the power of Torah. The essential correction of all earlier sins, to the extent that he can become like someone who has never sinned, is only through Torah. This is particularly referring to the sin of spilling seed, about which the Zohar says that repentance does not help.91 But it means that repentance on its own cannot
Tehillim 60:9 Shabbos 101b 90 Berachos 19a 91 Zohar Bereishis 219b: Come and hear. It does not write about any of the sins in the world He did evil in Gods eyes, but here [with the sin of Er] it says He did evil in Gods eyes. What is the reason? Because it says He spilled his seed on the ground. It was taught; Rabbi Yehuda said that there is no sin in the world that ca not be undone through repentance, except for this one.
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen help, without Torah. This is alluded to in the phrase if a Torah scholar sins at night, do not cast aspersions on him by day - look there in the Talmud. Our Sages say take away half, which is night time when they do not sin at all.92 It also says that God judges non-Jews at night when they are not sinning.93 The sin of the Torah scholar is the sin of bris milah, which happens at night, as the verse states the eye of the adulterer waits for the evening.94 The main purpose of Gehinom is for those who
Shabbos 89b: In the future God will say to Avraham. Your children have sinned against Me. He will answer Him, Master of the Universe! Let them be wiped out for the sanctification of Your Name. Then God will say, I will tell Yaakov He [too] shall answer Him, Master of the Universe! Let them be wiped out for the sanctification of Your Name. Then He will tell Yitzchak, Your children have sinned against Me. Yitzchak will answer Him, Master of the Universe! Are they my children and Your children? When they said "we will do" before "we will listen," You called them, Yisrael My son, My firstborn (Shemos 4:22). Now they are my sons, and not Your sons?! Furthermore, how much have they sinned? How many are the years of man? Seventy. Subtract twenty, for which You do not punish, which leaves fifty. Subtract twenty-five, which comprise the nights, which leaves twenty-five. Subtract twelve and a half of prayer, eating, and using the bathroom, which leaves twelve and a half. If You can bear that, good; if not, let half be upon me and half upon You. And if You will say, they must all be upon me then I will reply that I offered myself up before You [as a sacrifice]! Then Yisrael will say, For you [Yitzchak] are our father! 93 Yerushalmi Rosh Hashana 1:3: Rabbi Levi says God judges Yisrael during the daytime when they are involved in mitzvos, and judges the non-Jews at night, when they are not involved in sins [- according to the text of Korban HaEdah]. 94 Iyov 24:15


Machshevos Charutz 15 profane their bris milah, as the Talmud says Everyone goes down because of immorality.95 The only correction for this is through Torah, which is why the Talmud says, the fire of Gehinom has no power over Torah scholars.96 They have certainly repented, because the light of Torah brings them back to the correct path and fixes their earlier sins. After repentance, they return to procreation, which preceded the original sin. Through the mitzvah of writing Torah, they merit afterwards to fulfil the mitzvah of procreation, which came first, because after the correction of sin, they return to how they were in the beginning. [11] The main purpose of writing Torah is so that future generations will know it. In this way, the writer merits having future generations. The first writing of words of Torah in the physical world was on Shavuos at the time the Torah was given, because at that time, the Ten Commandments were given. The completion of the second set of tablets was on Yom Kippur, which is the correction after the corruption, when everything was forgiven. This alludes to the writing of the Oral Torah in future generations, to complete the Written Torah. Our Sages have said that in the Oral Torah future, the non-Jewish nations distinguishes will say we are Yisrael. But between Jew and God will say to them, Whoever non-Jew
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Eruvin 19a Chagiga 27a


Rav Tzadok HaCohen has My hidden Torah97 is the real Yisrael.98 The distinction between Jew and non-Jew is only through the Oral Torah, which defines the status of Yisrael, because He did not do so for any other nation.99 However, anyone who wants to err with the Written Torah can do so. Even within Yisrael themselves, the Sadducees rejected Judaism because of the Written Torah, and they did not believe in the Oral Torah. This is the essential meaning of Moshe breaking the first Tablets,100 which were from Heaven. Only the second tablets, which were carved by Moshe, remained, as the Torah says, carve for yourself. The second tablets were in place of the first tablets after the correction of the sin. The second tablets take priority over the first tablets, as we see in the statement of the Talmud that the tablets and the broken tablets were both placed in the ark.101 The second tablets are mentioned first because they are more important. Similarly, the words of the Rabbis are more important than the wine of Torah.102 The truth is that although the Written Torah is more important, the Talmud often states since he derived it from a derasha, it is dearer

i.e. the Mishna Tanchuma Tissa 34 99 Tehillim 147:20 100 i.e. the first Tablets were entirely written and would have been accessible to everyone. By smashing them, Moshe allowed for an Oral Torah that remained only for Jews. 101 Berachos 8b 102 Shir HaShirim Rabba 1:2 and Avodah Zara 35a
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Machshevos Charutz 15 to him.103 The words of the Rabbis are new, whereas the words of the Written Torah are old. We find this idea in the Talmud based on the verse new, and also old.104 The new comes before the old because it is dearer. Moshe Rabbeinu received Oral Torah is everything at Sinai, even those contained within things that would be innovated the spaces in the by future generations of students, Written Torah because everything was contained within the tablets. This is what our Sages meant when they said, Between every word of God were all the mitzvos in both their details and specifics.105 In other words, a person who is wise and can understand by himself, like Moshe Rabbeinu, can find allusions to all the Oral Torah within the blank space between words. Moshe understood that there was nothing except for God, even in the empty spaces of the world, because there is nothing in the world that is truly empty, and no vacuum. It does not mean that there were any extra letters written on the tablets apart from the Ten Commandments. However, the light spread out from each word to the edges and Moshes keen intellect could grasp all the branches that spread out from this light and that would be discovered and
e.g. Yevamos 2b Eruvin 21b: Rav Chisda said to one of the scholars who taught Aggada before him: "Have you not heard what is meant by new and also old (Shir HaShirim 7:14)?" He answered: "'The old' refers to biblical laws and the 'new' to rabbinic laws." 105 Yerushalmi Shekalim 6:1
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen revealed in the future. Therefore, Shavuos is the time of receiving two Torahs the Written and the Shavuos gives the Oral. Through this, a person merit to have merits to have children, even children someone who by nature is barren or unable to have children, because of what is foretold in the stars. The Torah says about Avraham Avinu, that God elevated him above the heavens and the stars.106 This was through the power of Torah, which is above the sun. This power began with Avraham, because the 2000 years of Torah begin with Avraham, from the time he left Ur Kasdim, as it says in the Talmud.107 We do not find anywhere explicitly that Avraham Avinu prayed for children, as the Zohar states.108 Why do we not find any prayer for children in the entire Shmoneh Esrei? We could say that most women and men are able to have children and therefore such a Why is there no prayer would be superfluous. prayer for Nevertheless, we pray for children in the healing, even though most people are healthy. The Shmoneh Esrei Shmoneh Esrei? prayer certainly contains all
Bereishis Rabba 44:12 Avodah Zara 9a: When did the two thousand years of the Torah begin? from the time when Avraham and Sarah made souls in Haran. 108 Toldos 137b: Avraham never prayed to God to give him children, even though Sarah was barren.
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Machshevos Charutz 15 human needs, so why did the Men of the Great Assembly who established that prayer not also establish a blessing for children? Even someone who has children could still pray for his children that they become righteous, and do not leave the path of goodness. He could pray that people do not say about his children that it would have been better if they had never been born, which is worse than someone who has no children. We find our Sages mention such a prayer. There was a Cohen who would lick the dust and would pray for his children and his family that they should not follow evil ways, and that they should merit serving in the Beis HaMikdash.109 Based on what we have said, we can answer that prayer can only be for something temporary, connected with physical life. Children, however, are eternal life, through the continuation of the species. This is something that is impossible to attain except through the power of Torah. [13] Avraham was the first person to establish prayer. He established Shacharis, which is the first
Yalkut Shimoni Tehillim 37: It was taught in the school of Eliyahu that there was once a God-fearing Cohen who had ten children by his wife six boys and four girls. Every day he would pray, prostate himself on the ground and lick the dust with his tongue, and pray that none of them came to sin or behave in an unpleasant way. They said of him that within that year Ezra came and God brought Yisrael back from exile in Bavel. That Cohen came back, and before he died he merited seeing his sons and grandsons serve as High Priests and young Cohanim for fifty years.


Rav Tzadok HaCohen prayer after arising from bed, before beginning to learn Torah. He was the first one to pray, and through this, he also merited afterward to receive the Torah. This is the path of attainment, Avrahams from lower to higher, to begin as prayer had to Avraham Avinu, who is called precede his Torah the first of the converts.110 He was not able to attain Torah immediately, because it is the portion of Yisrael alone, an inheritance for the congregation of Yaakov,111 and He did not do so for any nation.112 Avraham only received Torah after he had first prayed. Through this Torah becomes available to people of any nation, as King Shelomo said in his prayer on behalf of the non-Jews who would pray at the Beis HaMikdash.113 Non-Jews have no share in the World to Come,114 but only in the temporary world. After Avraham Avinu had Torah became attained temporary life through permanent with his prayer, he did not rest and the birth of was not silent, until he also Yitzchak merited through temporary life to attain eternal life. He was the beginning of the nation of Yisrael and God redeemed Avraham for the sake of Yaakov.115 But Torah was not yet firmly
Chagigah 3a Devarim 33:4 112 Tehillim 147:20 113 Melachim II 8:41-43 114 Mishna Sanhedrin 10:1 115 Yishaya 29:22
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Machshevos Charutz 15 established for Avraham until Yitzchak was born, because he also had Yishmael who was not Jewish in any way. Avrahams eternity was established only once he had Yitzchak, who was holy from birth, even though Yitzchak also had a son Esav, yet Esav is called a rebellious Jew.116 This is because the name Yisrael was already established through Yitzchak, who was circumcised at eight days. The Torah began from him in a permanent way, because the Torah comes from the side of strength. Yitzchak established the Mincha prayer, which is the prayer after Yitzchak was the learning Torah. He merited to first person to prayer through the Torah that pray for children preceded it. Therefore, he was the first person to pray for children. The Torah describes his prayer with the word vayaater, which is related to the word eiter, meaning pitchfork or shovel. The Sages of the Talmud explain that he was able to use his prayer like a shovel to turn the attribute of justice into the attribute of mercy.117 This is because all prayer needs a time of mercy and favour, as the verse states, As for me, my prayer to You, God, is at a time of favour.118 We also find that the Sages said There are times for prayer.119 At the time of judgment, which is not a time of favour, a person is not answered.
Kiddushin 18a Succah 14a 118 Tehilim 69:14 119 Tanchuma Miketz 9
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Rav Tzadok HaCohen However, this is not the same with Torah, which is above the sun and time. The verse states of Torah learning that, God is close to all those who call Him, who call Him in truth.120 Truth in this context refers to Torah, and God is always Torah connects a close to every soul at every time person to God who calls to Him through Torah. even at a time of Through Torah, a person comes to judgment connect himself to the Living God with nothing separating between them. [14] Pesach corresponds to Avraham121 because of the prayers and entreaties of the Jews before they received the Torah. At the Red Sea, the verse says and you will remain silent.122 The Zohar explains123 that they were dependent on Atik, who is the mazal of God as revealed in the world, and is beyond the place where prayers can reach. Because Prayer for they had not yet received the temporal things Torah, they could not do anything only works if the but remain silent. Similarly, person lives at a children, life and livelihood are fortuitous time not dependent on merit but on the highest attributes, as the Talmud 124 states. Therefore, they cannot be reached by prayer.
Tehillim 145:18 See above footnote 20 122 Shemos 14:14 123 Beshalach 48a 124 Moed Katan 28a: Rava said: Life, children and livelihood do not depend on merit but on mazal.
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Machshevos Charutz 15 The Talmud states that Providing people with food is as difficult for God as the splitting the Red Sea.125 Similarly, we find Matchmaking is as difficult for God as the splitting of the Red Sea,126 which refers ultimately to children. Food is part of life in the temporary world, and therefore we have prayers for sustenance in every service. However, it will only work for someone who lives in a fortuitous time someone who was created at a time of plenty, or who prays at a time of favour and is answered. But for someone who was not created in a time of plenty, like Rabbi Elazar ben Pedas,127 everything depends on the mazal, which is within Atik, where prayer no longer works. It can only be reached through Torah - calling in truth, which is above mazal. Through this, Yisrael attach themselves to the source from where they were hewn, in the first thought, which is the highest, above all of the declensions of the world of Atzilus. [15] Through novella in Torah, we are able to bring the outpouring of renewal from this highest mazal. This is represented by the manna Matza represents itself, which is bread from the power of Heaven, which comes in the merit prayer without of Moshe through the power of Torah Torah. The matzah, which the Jews brought with them from Egypt, had only the
Pesachim 118a Sotah 2a 127 Taanis 25a
125 126


Rav Tzadok HaCohen taste of manna, but was not actually manna. It is the bread of poverty because it is impoverished of Torah. It is the livelihood that we pray for every day through prayer. Even someone who does not deserve it should pray because prayer for the poor128 works in all prayers. The essence of prayer is from poverty. Rebbi opened his storehouses in the time of famine and announced that he would only give to those who learn Torah. Yonasan ben Amram came and asked Rebbi to give him food as he would to a starving dog.129 The Zohar comments on this They cry like dogs - Give us!130 In other words, they do not call in truth with the power of Torah, when God would be forced to give them, but they come with the cry, Feed us like starving dogs, even though we do not deserve it. God answers them through the power of prayer of the poor, which enwraps all prayers. Nevertheless, God wants, and waits eagerly, for us to reach the complete perfection that He willed, For I am God, who teaches you, to help131 with the ultimate helping. However, even in a time of poverty, God helps and saves with perfect salvation, and this is the salvation of the bread of poverty of Pesach, which has the taste of manna. This is the bread of princes,132 the bread of the angels.
Tehillim 102:1 Bava Basra 8a 130 Tikkunim 6 131 Yishaya 48:17 132 Tehillim 78:25
128 129


Machshevos Charutz 15 Afterward on Shavuos, we merit On Shavuos, we to the riches of Torah, and at that merit the riches time the rejoicing of gathering the of Torah produce begins, because from Shavuos until Succos, a person brings bikkurim and reads the declaration.133 [16] The two loaves of bread brought as an offering on Shavuos allow the bikkurim to The two loaves of be brought. For this reason, the Shavuos trees are blessed through the two represent the loaves, as explained by Rashi.134 power of Torah They allude to the Torah, as the verse states, Come, eat of my bread,135 which refers to bread from Heaven. There are two loaves corresponding to the Written and the Oral Torah, because the Oral Torah is also considered bread from Heaven. We find that the Talmud explains, all of them were given from a single shepherd....136 This teaches us that everything is from Sinai. We also find this idea in Berachos137 and in many other places.138 The Torah is the tree of life in the midst of the Garden of Eden, as explained in Tanna de-vei Eliyahu Rabba139 and many
Bikkurim 1:6 Rosh Hashanah 16a 135 Mishlei 9:5 136 Chagiga 2b 137 5a 138 e.g. Megillah 19b 139 chapter 1: The Tree of life is the Torah, as the verse states, It is a tree of life to those who grasp it (Mishlei 3:18).
133 134


Rav Tzadok HaCohen other places. It is the centre of the Garden because all the other trees derive their nourishment from it. The tree of knowledge of good The tree of and evil, which is also mentioned knowledge and in the verse, seems to be directly the tree of life adjacent to it, also in the middle of represent the the Garden, because all the trees Written and the also derive their nourishment Oral Torah from that tree. The truth is that they are both really one tree. Had Adam not sinned, the tree of knowledge would also have become the tree of life of Torah. Evil would have been completely destroyed from the world. Through his sin, the tree of life, which is Torah, also became part of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, valid and invalid, impure and pure, as explained in Tikkunim.140 It seems to me that these two trees correspond to the Written Torah and the Oral Torah. If Adam had not sinned, there would only have been a Written Torah, directly from God, and there would have been no need for an Oral Torah. This is similar to that which is explained in the Talmud, If the Jews would have merited [and not have sinned with the Golden Calf and the spies] they would only have been given the Torah and the book of Yehoshua, which gives the boundaries of the land of Yisrael.141 In other words, the book of Yehoshua would have replaced the entire Oral Torah.

140 141

Tikkun 56 Nedarim 22a


Machshevos Charutz 15 The boundaries of the spiritual earth, which is the root of the Oral Torah, are contained within the boundaries of Yisrael which is the physical earth, as is well known. This was after Adam was thrown out of the Garden. Yisrael corrected that sin at the The boundaries time of the giving of the Torah of the land of and receiving the tablets, they Yisrael represent were then free from the angel of the Oral Torah, death. They merited to inherit the in lieu of the land of Yisrael in lieu of the Garden of Eden Garden, and therefore required the book of Yehoshua. Had Adam not sinned, the Garden would be in lieu of the land of Yisrael. Instead of the combinations of the letters of the Torah, there would have been combinations of the order of the trees of the Garden, and in place of the garments of light, there would have been light, and everything would have been included within the Written Torah. [17] This is how things will be in the future. All the days of this physical world are the time of revelation of the Oral Torah in completeness through the wise people of Yisrael in each generation. Each generation has its own portion, until the generation of the Mashiach, when everything will be revealed and death will be swallowed up forever.142 This will not be like when the Torah was given, which was only temporary respite from the angel of death. Then it was still possible for them to sin afterward.

Yishaya 25:8


Rav Tzadok HaCohen However, at that time in the future, there will be no more sin because the evil inclination will be nullified completely, and the side of evil and descendants of Amalek will be destroyed from the world. Then the world will return to its final perfection as it was before the sin of Adam. All of the Oral Torah will be contained within the Written Torah because the light of When Mashiach the Written Torah will be revealed comes, we will be to all. But the Oral Torah also will free of sin, and be contained within it. Therefore, all Oral Torah a person will no longer teach his will be contained friend143 because everyone will within the know. Everything will be from the Written Torah Written Torah, and there will no longer be any need for a student to learn Oral Torah from a teacher. This was not the case at Shavuos, when the Torah was received through Moshe Rabbeinu and all of Yisrael were his students. God wanted the complete perfection at that time through the first two commandments, which they heard directly from God. Had they been able to hear God, they would not have required Moshe Rabbeinu, just like it will be in the future. But they were not yet at that level, and were unable to bear it, so they said to Moshe you speak to
Yirmiya 31:33: A person will no longer teach his friend, nor each man his brother, saying: Know God; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says God; for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will no longer remember their sin.


Machshevos Charutz 15 us, and we will hear, and let God not speak to us lest we die.144 The truth is, through this, they would have merited eternal life. Hearing Torah However, this was the beginning through Moshe the of their sin because they were in was beginning of the physical world, the world of lies, where everything appears the their sin opposite of the way it truly is. In the place of true life, they had the fear of death. From the perspective of the physical world, it would really have been death because they certainly would have died in this world. Yet had they merited complete perfection, they would have entered directly into the Garden of Eden with the life that was created as the tabernacle of a person. They would have left his physical world, but they would have merited eternal life. The appropriate time had not yet arrived, and they had not yet merited having this light fixed permanently in their hearts as a permanent acquisition. Nevertheless, it was a beginning, and both the Jews of that generation and the souls of all future generations, who were also there, merited to hear the first two commandments from God. They merited complete prophecy on the level of Moshe Rabbeinu.


Shemos 20:15


Rav Tzadok HaCohen within these first two commandments were both the The first two Written and Oral Torah. They commandments correspond to I am the Eternal, represent the you God and You shall have no Written and Oral other gods before Me. The other Torah gods implies a certain reality to other gods and the side of evil. Therefore, there was still a need for the Oral Torah. It was impossible for each person to recognise the light within the Written Torah, which was the light of the six days of creation, which was hidden within the Torah. With that light, a person could see form one end of the world to the other. But it was hidden and concealed. Though the Oral Torah, we bring the hidden out into the revealed, one bit at a time. This is why the two loaves on Shavuos are made of wheat. It is known that the numerical value of wheat (chitah) is 22, corresponding to the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet with which the Torah is written. For this reason, in the future, wheat will rise as high as a palm tree, as the Talmud states.145 Not like nowadays when the light is hidden. This is also how it was before the sin, and for this reason, Rabbi Yehudas opinion is that the tree of knowledge was wheat, which was then a kind of tree. On Shavuos, it returns to being a tree, because at that time in every year, the light that existed at the time of the giving of the Torah awakens. This was the beginning of the future perfection, and through the



Kesuvos 111b


Machshevos Charutz 15 first two commandments comes the holiness of the two loaves of bread. Blessing comes to Therefore, these loaves bring the trees through the blessing to the fruits of the trees two loaves, which because all the trees derive their represent the nourishment from the tree of trees of the knowledge of good and evil. Garden of Eden Through the two loaves comes the power to turn the tree of knowledge into the tree of life. And this brings the spiritual energy of children because the Talmud says, If our ancestors would not have sinned, we would not have come into the world.146 In other words, all the souls of Yisrael have their root in the Torah, and based on the renewal of the Oral Torah in the heart of the Sages of Yisrael in every generation, so too is the renewal of souls in every generation. If our ancestors would have merited having everything If everything had revealed in the Written Torah been explicit within the Written Torah, for all of Yisrael, they would there would have have understood all the been no need for innovations of all future future generations generations. Then there would have been no place for those later souls to be created. It would still have been necessary to have the souls actually in the world, but it would be as if they had not come into the world at all. Everything would already be revealed within the ancestors as well, and there would be nothing new.

Avodah Zara 5a


Rav Tzadok HaCohen

[19] Every Shavuos this light awakens, with complete understanding of the Written Torah as it will be in the future. Every person attains the root of the light of the Torah that is now hidden and that will be revealed in the future through each of his children after him. On Shavuos, each There is no person who is not person has the ready to have children because potential for children not for emptiness was the world created.147 If someone is unable to have children from birth, it is only within the natural world, based on the imperfections within the person. But God made man straight148 with no imperfections. It is an aberration for any creature to depart from the form and purpose which was created for it. The purpose of creation is to procreate and to have children, and for this purpose the organs of procreation were created. This was Channahs challenge to God,149 These breasts that You created for me are they not to nurse children?150 She spoke politely but included the organs of procreation within her challenge. Avraham and Sarah were unable to have children151 because they were the beginning of the correction of the sin of Adam and Eve. They were created based on
Yishaya 45:18 Kohelles 7:29 149 Shmuel 1 chapter 1 150 Berachos 31b 151 Yevamos 64a
147 148


Machshevos Charutz 15 the ruin of the sin when the snake had relations with Eve.152 Adam fathered demons and male and female spirits for the 130 years153 that created people unable to have children as a punishment for this. After Avraham and Sarah had corrected what they had to correct, they also merited to have children. Similarly, if a person does not After correcting any have children, it must be blemish in their soul, because of some sin in this a person is able to body, in a previous have children incarnation, or in his part within Adam. If he was sterile from birth or unable to have children or some other issue, this shows the blemish in his nature. If he was not sterile from birth, but became so later, it must certainly be from his own sin. The light of the souls of children and all of his descendants, which is within every person of Yisrael, is not able to be revealed. The souls of the children are always contained within the parents, but they are deeply concealed. [20] This comes through the light of Shavuos, which is the revelation of the light that was hidden and concealed from the souls of that generation. It is the lights of the Oral Torah which will be revealed through those generations. Even though these lights are still completely hidden, and they have not actually been revealed yet, nevertheless, Shavuos is the beginning of the revelation. The root of this revelation
152 153

Shabbos 146a Eruvin 18b. See above, footnote 66


Rav Tzadok HaCohen awakens to shine light in the heart. And though this, a person is able to draw down the outpouring of revelation, to bring it from potential into physical existence in this world. This comes through giving birth to children of souls and the lights of Oral Torah, which are concealed in it. The beginning of this is on Yom Kippur corrects Shavuos, and it is the the sin of bris milah beginning that precedes sin. The process is completed on Yom HaKippurim, which is the correction after the sin when everything is atoned. Then everything returns to the way it was before the sin, as if the sin had never happened. At that time, the thing that began on Shavuos is completed. Then Esav separates from them on his journey to Seir,154 to Azazel in the desert. This atones for the actions of Uza and Azael,155 who sinned with their bris milah. This is was the main challenge of Esav, who injured Yaakov in his thigh.156 Yaakov continued to travel to Sukkos,157 which is the time of our happiness. Any pain that a person has in this physical world is through sinning with bris Milah. It is this that prevents the complete happiness158 of the heart will
Bereishis 33:16 Yoma 67b: It was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael that [the goat for Azazel] atones for the sin of Uza and Azael. This is based on Bereishis 6:2, 4. Rashi explains that the sin was sexual immorality. 156 Which represents bris milah 157 Bereishis 33:17 158 See below [23]
154 155


Machshevos Charutz 15 rejoice of all those who seek God.159 This is someone who refrains from making his wife happy. The wife referred to here is the woman who fears God alluded to in Eshes Chayil.160 [21] Our Sages tell us that Yaakov wanted to dwell in tranquillity. Immediately, The sale of Yosef the anger of Yosef jumped nearly destroyed upon him.161 This refers to sin foundation, the with the bris milah, which is holiness of bris milah the concept of the sale of Yosef into slavery to the nations. Yosef represented the level of the righteous is the foundation of the world162 and was sold to Egypt, the most immoral of nations. This forms the basis of the kelipah,163 which is the anger of Yosef. Yaakovs tranquillity led to anger, which is the opposite of tranquillity and happiness. However, after the correction, it turns out that the tribes of Yisrael the Through repentance, descendants of Avraham, the sin of the sale Yitzchak and Yaakov only became merit intended to sin. Nevertheless, through their repentance, which covers all bad actions like a mother who covers her children, the intentional
Divrei HaYamim 1 16:10 Mishlei 31:10 161 Bereishis Rabba 84:3 162 Foundation, represented in the body by bris milah, is what distinguishes Yisrael from non-Jews. (See below. See also Dover Tzedek 59b) 163 Kelipah is the evil inclination that surrounds everything of holiness
159 160


Rav Tzadok HaCohen sins become merits. This is as the verse states, You thought against me evil, but God thought it for good.164 It turns out after the fact that the entire sale of Yosef was for good. Yaakov was worried that because of this sin, he would go down to Sheol in mourning.165 For if Yosef would have assimilated amongst the nations, and if the foundation had been destroyed what could a righteous person do? Without foundation, there is nothing, and the entire structure is built upon the foundation. The foundation must be strong and firm. The main difference between Yisrael and the nonJewish nations is the holy bris. Bris Milah separates Even uncircumcised Jews are Yisrael from non-Jew called circumcised, and even non-Jews who are physically circumcised are considered spiritually uncircumcised. The foreskin is called after them, as the Talmud states in Nedarim.166 This means that they are the foundation of evil, and their root is from the
Bereishis 3:20 Bereishis 37:35 166 31b: If someone takes a vow not to benefit from the uncircumcised, he may benefit from uncircumcised Yisrael but not from circumcised non-Jews; If he made a vow not to benefit from the circumcised, he is forbidden to benefit from uncircumcised Yisrael but not from circumcised non-Jews, because uncircumcised is a term applicable only to non-Jews, as the verse states, For all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Yisrael are uncircumcised in the heart (Yirmiya 9:25).
164 165


Machshevos Charutz 15 kelipah of foundation. The descendants of Yisrael have their foundation sanctified to God, as an inheritance from their ancestors. When Yaakov saw that Yosef was lost, he was afraid that the holiness of the foundation had perhaps left his children, and Yisrael were going to be like all the other nations. The truth is that God thought it for good, and it was the ultimate perfection of perfected foundation. Through the Yosef correct behaviour of a foundation in the righteousness person, the midst of depravity holiness of the bris milah was actualized. This happened through the prime descendant of Yaakov, who was Yosef.167 He completed this perfection even though he was in the place that is the source of immorality for the world. Yosef was at the prime of his youth, and Potiphars wife tried everything she could to entice him, using clothes and such, as the Talmud says.168 This alludes to the clothing of impurity from
Bereishis 37:2: These are the generations of Yaakov Yosef. Rashi explains: The Torah connects the generations of Yaakov to Yosef because of many things: one is that Yaakov only worked for Lavan for the sake of Rachel, Yosefs mother. Furthermore, Yosefs features resembled Yaakovs, and whatever happened to Yaakov happened to Yosef. Yaakov was hated, and Yosef was hated. Yaakovs brother, Esav, tried to kill him, and Yosefs brothers tried to kill him. There are many other similarities, as explained in Bereishis Rabba (84:6). 168 Yoma 35b: They said about Yosef the Righteous that every day Potiphar's wife used to try to seduce him with her talk. The clothes she wore in the morning she would not wear in the evening, and vice versa, and she continually said to him, Listen to me; do what I ask of you.


Rav Tzadok HaCohen the kelipah of evil. She was not able to defeat him because the image of Yosef was saved by his father appeared before the image of his him, which refers to the root of father, the root of holiness that is inherited into every soul of Yisrael from the holiness Patriarchs. The main source of holiness is from Yaakov, who is the culmination of the Patriarchs. All of the Patriarchs are called by his name. The Sages explain that this is because all of the holiness within them was only that which would eventually come out through Yaakov. Yaakovs bed was complete, and there is no defect in any of his children.169 This is the meaning of the verse, Yaakov, who redeemed Avraham170 because he is the central beam stretching from one side to the other. He was completely attached to the Living God, so that there was no room at all for the forces of evil to spread out. [22] This was also the actualization of the rest of the tribes because they are all the sons of truth - Yaakov. It seems from the Torah that The consequences of this was not the case. Yosef the sale of Yosef told his father that they were brought out the true doing bad things, such as potential of the looking at the non-Jewish brothers women of the land, and this was the cause of the sin of the sale of Yosef. It appears as though they wanted to destroy the righteous person who is the foundation
169 170

Bereishis Rabba 63:2-3 Yishaya 29:22


Machshevos Charutz 15 of the bris milah. But the sin of the brothers is remembered forever as a hope to the world, as explained in Bereishis Rabba.171 The meaning of remembered is the beginning and the first, as we find that Rosh Hashana is called the day of remembrance. There is a principle that the final action is contained within the first thought.172 The day of the conception of the world was through thought, as explained in Remembering is the Tosefos Rosh Hashana.173 In beginning; hope is Tishrei, God thought of the end creating the world. Therefore, it is the time of remembering to judge every soul and spirit. The beginning of the thought is the remembrance that is remembered higher than the thoughts of any action that God does. Hope means the end, as we find in the verse, to give you an end and a hope.174 Hope is always for the future. This is the deeper meaning of end, which comes after the time of action and ultimately everything is for good. Similarly, the beginning of everything was the people of Yisrael, who entered into Gods thought.175 Their
84:17: Rav Achva bar Zeira said that the sin of the tribes is a remembrance for the world, and is hope for the world. 172 Lecha Dodi prayer composed by Rav Shlomo Alkabetz (15001580) 173 27a 174 Yirmiya 29:11. See also Yirmiya 31:16 There is hope for your end. 175 Rashi Bereishis 1:1 explains: God created the world for the sake of the Torah, which is called the beginning of His way


Rav Tzadok HaCohen sins are laid out and clear from the six days of creation, as explained in the Talmud.176 This means that from the beginning of creation, God thought that ultimately it would be good. Even though God foresees the sin and sees their mistakes, He did not refrain Ultimately, from creating because of everything is good Yisrael. They are the essence of creation. Everything ultimately switches to become good. Even with sin, after the correction, the true depth of the original thought and the ultimate ending reveals that everything is good. In this way, everything that transpired in between also becomes sweet. [23] The true strength and power of happiness is when it is clear after the sin True happiness is that everything was for good, correction of sin and there was really no stumbling at all. Quite the opposite - everything that happened came to add to the goodness and the merits. Imagine if someone lost all of his possessions but then found them later. And he also found that he now had twice as much. That would be true happiness. That person would be happier than someone who never lost his possessions at all. This is particularly true regarding the correction of the sin of bris milah, for the righteous rejoice when they
(Mishlei 8:22) and for the sake of Yisrael, who are called the first of His grain (Yirmiya 2:3) 176 Shabbos 8b


Machshevos Charutz 15 see revenge.177 After correction, the mistake a righteous person becomes straight of heart178 and merits happiness.179 Therefore, the brothers did not drink wine from the time they sold Yosef until they saw him for the first time. Even though they did not know that it was him, their mazal recognized him. The revelation of the Divine Presence in its attributes and the roof of the world were now complete.180 Now happiness filled their hearts, and they drank wine. Therefore, a voice comes out from Heaven at the end of After Yom Kippur, every Yom Kippur saying, Go God tells us to be and eat your bread with happy, because he happiness and drink your has accepted our wine with a good heart.181 As repentance soon as Yom Kippur is completed, when God has accepted all the deeds, it means that all the actions that were done, even those before the correction, retroactively turn out to have
Tehillim 58:11 Tehillim 97:11: Light is sown for the righteous, and happiness for the straight of heart. 179 See Divrei Sofrim 18b [38] 180 This represents the completion of the spiritual building. The phrase comes from Yalkut Shimoni Bereishis 162: These are the names of the children of Yisrael who came to Egypt (Bereishis 46:8). They are the roof of the world. Someone who puts up the roof properly places the bottom of one tile next to the top of the next tile. How do we know they are the roof of the world? The verse states, Listen to me Yaakov and Yisrael My called [or My roof] (Yishaya 48:12). 181 Kohelles Rabba 9:7
177 178


Rav Tzadok HaCohen been good actions. Through this happiness is awakened in the heart and we travel to Sukkos, which is the time of complete happiness, when we merit eternal life. This is alluded to in the four species: lulav has the numerical value of life, myrtle (haddas) has the numerical value of life (with the extra 1 for the word), and esrog has the numerical value of Torah (with the extra 1 for the word), which is eternal life. Willow (aravah) has the numerical value of seed (zerah) because it has no Children create taste and no smell. This alludes to an eternity, even the sinners of Yisrael. Yet even for sinners they will not be abandoned. Their merit to enter eternal life is through their children, who come after them, because a child can bring merit to a parent.182 We find this also in the Talmud183 that the way an am haaretz can merit the resurrection of the dead is through marrying off his daughter to a Torah scholar. Even those who are completely rejected (Heaven forbid!), who have no correction, like all those mentioned in the last chapter of Sanhedrin184 who
Sanhedrin 104a Kesuvos 111b 184 90a: The following have no portion in the World to Come: someone who claims that resurrection is not from the Torah; someone who says that the Torah is not from Heaven; and a heretic. Rabbi Akiba added: someone who read apocryphal books and also someone who whispers a charm over a wound and says, I will not bring any of these diseases which I brought on the Egyptians upon you, for I am God who heals you.' Abba Shaul
182 183



Machshevos Charutz 15 have no portion in the World to Come. Yet even though they have no individual continuation, they have continuation as part of the species. They merit eternal life through their children who are called by their name. We find this in the Torah And his name will not be erased from Yisrael.185 Through the children who merit the World to Come, this persons name will also not be destroyed from that world. The remembrance of a name is not an empty thing because a son is deeply connected to his father, with the abilities of the father. It is well known that the fathers are the root of the souls of their children and their mazal. If the soul of the son continues to A father lives on exist forever, then the father, who through his son is the root of the sons soul, also exists forever. This is the meaning of the opinion of Dorshei Reshumo, who say that everyone has a share in the World to Come.186 The completion of the power of the fathers through their son is not recognizable in actuality, but only through the reshimu187. That reshimu is never destroyed from any member of Yisrael. Because all of Yisrael are the children of Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov by birth,
says: also someone who pronounces Gods name as it is written. 185 Devarim 25:6 186 Sanhedrin 104b: Dorshei Reshumos maintained: that all of them will enter the World to Come. 187 Reshimu is the imprint that remains after the holiness has left. See the introduction (Chanoch la-Naar) of Tanya: Shaar HaYichud ve-ha-Emunah, which explains that after a fall from a higher to a lower spiritual state, the reshimu of that higher level still remains.


Rav Tzadok HaCohen the beginning of their formation was from a good root. This gives them the light that is planted for the Through the righteous because All of Your 188 reshimu, a people are righteous forever.... person merits Through this, they will merit entering the World to Come. eternal life However, when a person destroys through his actions, he separates himself from that light and darkens it a little bit at a time. Eventually, through his actions, he can cause that light to be removed from him completely. Nevertheless, it is well known that every light, even after it is removed, leaves a reshimu behind, and that reshimu can never be removed. Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov put the light of the righteous in all their children. All the sinners of Yisrael, as long as they are still their descendants, even though they sin with their actions to the point when life is completely cut off from them, the reshimu remains. Through this imprint, they merit to have righteous children. Dorshei reshumos understood the concept of Reshimu and were able to state that everyone has a share in the World to Come. This is the power of the happiness that we reach after Yom Kippur, when everything is forgiven. Even the sinners in Yisrael are all made part of the group through the light of the imprint that comes from their children after them. [25]

Through this all the four letters of Gods Name

Yishaya 60:21


Machshevos Charutz 15 completed combine to form the Tetragrammaton. All the sinners of Yisrael grasp hold of the final heh, whose leg descends to death. Through the opening in the bottom, they can go down to the place of death, Heaven forbid. This is the opening of someone who wishes to make himself impure is permitted to leave.189 But nevertheless, the root remains still, holding firmly to its place in Knesses Yisrael, which is this heh. This letter is also is part of the Source of Life, blessed is He, and therefore is alluded to with the willow. Four times the numerical value of life is arav, and the final letter heh in aravah alludes to the final heh of Gods Name. Every letter of Gods Name has a separate source of life, to draw down eternal life to everyone who wishes to attach himself to the Living God. Corresponding to these four ways are the four species. The esrog corresponds to the yud. This letter represents wisdom of the brain, which is the seat of the pure soul, where evil has no power. The seat of the evil inclination is in the heart, as is known. The world of Atzilus is drawn down from Abba, where there is only good. This is represented by the esrog, which has both taste and smell. For this reason, its numerical value is equivalent to the word Torah including the 1 for the word. Included within this is the hidden source of wisdom, which is alluded to in the crown on the yud. This alludes to the things that fall from the supernal wisdom, and therefore its essence is in the brain. The

Yoma 38b


Rav Tzadok HaCohen drug of life pours from it to the heart, to those who follow the correct path. This is the antidote to the evil inclination and destroys it. The myrtle corresponds to the first heh, which represents the understanding in the heart before thoughts are put into action through the powers that reveal the actions. Therefore it has smell but no taste because taste is something actual, whereas smell is something spiritual, something that the soul benefits from, as explained in the Talmud.190 For this reason, it has the numerical value of life with the extra 1 for the word, which means with the source of life that is in the heart. As the verse states, From it is the results of life.191 The lulav corresponds to the letter vav, which is eternal life. This spreads through the souls of Yisrael, who are the descendants of Yaakov. The Vav is the letter vav brings the truth of Yaakov down to the earth. Vav is the letter of truth of truth, which gives forth life, as explained in the Zohar192 on the verse, You have given me life, said by Rachav. Vav is the letter of truth, which was alluded to in the crimson, silk thread, which looks like a vav. The lulav also looks like a vav.
Berachos 43b Mishlei 4:23 192 Vayechi 241:2: She asked for a sign of life, as the verse states, You will keep me alive. She said that the sign of life is only in the letter of truth. What is the letter of truth? It is vav because life rests in it.
190 191

The four species of the lulav represent the four letters of Gods Name


Machshevos Charutz 15 This is the source of life, which spreads to the six dimensions,193 which are all the physical energies of creation. Therefore, all four species are included in the word lulav in the blessing.194 The Talmud tells us that this is because it is the tallest of the species,195 which means that it has the greatest ability of revelation of all of them. It is the energies of action that are revealed into actuality. For this reason, the last two letters of Gods Name are revealed, and the first two are hidden, as is known.196 The lulav has taste but no smell because perfection goes according to action, even if the hidden thoughts are not in accord, because God does not include evil thoughts with the action for the descendants of Yisrael.197 [26] The final heh includes all of Knesses Yisrael, even those who have no taste and no smell. Despite whatever sins they Sinners cling to may have done, they are still the final letter of Yisrael. They have not become Gods Name separated from the root, which has the ability to receive them. This is the power of this

The numerical value of vav is 6 We recite the blessing on taking the lulav before taking all the species, so they are all included within the word lulav. 195 Sukkah 37b 196 Based on the verse And he said: 'The hand is on the throne of yud-heh. God will be at war with Amalek from generation to generation (Shemos 17:16). 197 Kiddushin 40a
193 194


Rav Tzadok HaCohen heh, which is like a dalet with a child.198 She is poor and needy because she has nothing of herself.199 For this reason, Yisrael count the calendar according to the cycle of the moon, which resembles heh and which in the future will be renewed when it will receive a new light every day. Every place that says poor or impoverished refers to Yisrael200 because poverty is beautiful for them.201 This alludes to poverty of Yisrael are intellect, meaning the feeling of considered poor lacking, that they have nothing because they know of their own. They have no that everything Torah and no mitzvos to protect comes from God them, and there is nobody to and they have rely on except for our Father in nothing of their Heaven,202 Who is the helper of own the poor. Then God will rest His Presence, as the verse states I dwell in the high and holy place, and also with someone who is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble,


The only difference between the letter dalet and the letter heh is the half leg on the left side, which looks like a child contained within the dalet shape. 199 The Talmud Shabbos 104a describes the letter dalet as poor: The Rabbis told Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: The children in the Beis Hamidrash are saying things that were not said even in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun. Alef Beth means 'learn wisdom. Gimmel Dalet means show kindness to the poor. 200 Bereishis Rabba 71:1 201 Chagiga 9b 202 Sotah 49a


Machshevos Charutz 15 and to revive the heart of the contrite ones.203 In this way, he will be attached to the Living God. Thus, all the kinds of life are contained within the people of Yisrael. The last heh receives from the first three letters that precede it, and gives its own life, which is its power of receiving. Combining that with the Supernal Source, all five partzufim204 are completed, which are alluded to in this letter heh. This is the heh of the willow, which includes everything else within it. It is the Even momentary mirror that receives all the regret of sin lights, and when the structure is connects a person complete, then everything is with his spiritual fixed. root The sinners of Yisrael are filled with regret. It is impossible for anyone who is part of the children of Avraham, Yitzchak and Yaakov never to have had a single instant in his life when he examined himself to recognize his lowliness and entrenchment. This makes him regret and recognize that he was not created for this purpose of sinning. That thought may only last for a moment, and he may immediately return to his sinning ways. Nevertheless, no good thought or idea is ever wasted, and that thought that came into his heart is from the root of his soul, because he still has something in that root that is not completely disconnected from its Source. The vast majority of his actions have led him to commit whatever sins he has done, and he is judged
203 204

Yishaya 57:15 See above, footnote 6


Rav Tzadok HaCohen with Sheol and destruction. However, that part of the root remains for eternity, and with that, he can come back in through the higher opening of the heh.205 This takes him back to the place where the penitents stand. He did not really repent because that repentance did not completely spread throughout his entire spiritual structure. Nevertheless, the root of his soul, from which that moment of regret came into his heart, and which is the source of his life, returns and regrets and is included within the heh. [27] This is the festival of Sukkos, which is given to the people of Yisrael, and to everyone who has the root and trunk of holiness. The test of the non-Jewish nations in the future will be with Sukkos is the time as that Yisrael the mitzvah of Sukkah 206 connect with their explained in the Talmud , and in the verse This will be the sin spiritual root of the non-Jews when they will not come to celebrate the festival of Sukkos.207 They have no connection at all to that happiness and to the World to Come. Even the righteous of the nations, who have a portion in the World to Come, will be servants to Yisrael, and this is the basis of their righteousness and attainment, when they recognize the high level of Yisrael. In the present physical world, they worship idols and have another master, which they call god of gods. The
205 206

Into the gap between the roof of the letter heh and the left leg. Avodah Zarah 3a 207 Zechariah 14:19


Machshevos Charutz 15 verse states, That the Eternal, your Lord, gave as a portion to all the nations.208 This is their portion under the dominion of God Himself, but they do it through an intermediary. However they sin in making that intermediary into a god and an idol. However, the essence of their idea is correct, that God did not take them for His portion. Their task is to bring themselves close and to convert like the converts in the time of Yehoshua209 and to become servants to Yisrael. This is how it will be in the future when God pours His spirit into all flesh, and all will recognize the power of His majesty. They will say the Eternal, the God of Yisrael, is King and will recognize that He is only the God of Yisrael, and Yisrael are the masters and intermediaries for them. A non-Jewish servant is exempt In the future, from the mitzvah of Sukkah, Yisrael will be the which is the protection in the intermediary shadow of God, the shade of the through which Faithful One. This is only for non-Jews connect someone who has no other to God master but God, who finds protection in the shadow. This is only for the descendants of Yaakov, who God brought out of Egypt, away from slavery, and said to them You are My slaves. This is the deeper meaning of the halacha that the roof of the Sukkah must be made only out of something that cannot become impure and which grows from the ground, because truth will flourish
208 209

Devarim 4:19 Yeshoshua 9:3-21


Rav Tzadok HaCohen from the ground.210 This is the level of Yaakov, whose bed was complete, and who cannot become impure in any way. This is the lower fear, which covers all the souls of Yisrael with its wings. Even those who behave badly and destroy everything are still called descendants and children because they are all descendants of truth. Temporarily, he acts in a foolish way and is the grief of his mother.211 But his root remains as a descendant of Yaakov Avinu, and this cannot be broken. Based on that root, he is wise and brings happiness to his father, and this is his connection to the time of our happiness. Therefore, the numerical value of Sukkah is equivalent to the numerical Sukkos represents value of the two well-known the unity of God Names of God212, which allude to the letters vav and heh. They and Yisrael represent the Holy One, blessed is He, and the Divine Presence, the secret of Yaakov and Knesses Yisrael. Everyone in Knesses Yisrael is holding onto the root from their father, and they unite. Sukkos is also sometimes written without the letter vav, which gives it the numerical value (480) of seven times life (68, plus an extra 4 for the 4 letters of life). This corresponds to the seven lower
Tehillim 85:12 Mishlei 10:1 212 The four letter Name of God (26) and Adonai (65) equal Sukkos (91)
210 211



Machshevos Charutz 15 attributes,213 which include the two structures of Yaakov and Knesses Yisrael.214 They are the power of action that is actualized. Through these sefiros, a person rules over the knowledge of good and bad in this physical world. From this comes life and death. The descendants of Yaakov are attached to life through all seven kinds of powers, which correspond to the seven days of the festival of Sukkos and the seven Clouds of Glory that surrounded them. The remaining three215 correspond to the three first attributes, which themselves are the three sources of the seven attributes, as is known. This is the perfection of the entire structure, and the perfection of life. It has the power to destroy the side of death, which is the female side of kelipah.216 This also has the numerical value of 480, as is known. This is the source of death and the opposite of life.217 She brings The structure of attributes mourning to the world through her nullifies the enticement. Happiness is the power of death antithesis of mourning, and therefore represented by the festival of Sukkos nullifies her Lilith power. For this reason, our Sages tell

Kindness, Strength, Splendor, Eternity, Beauty, Foundation, and Kingship 214 Yaakov, as Zer Anpin is represented by the six sefiros, and Knesses Yisrael is Nukva, represented by Kingship 215 The three higher attributes: Crown, Wisdom, and Understanding 216 i.e. Lilith. see note in Tanya chapter 7 217 See Tikunei Zohar 86a


Rav Tzadok HaCohen us that Yaakov Avinu never died.218 Within him is the root of holiness of the festival of Sukkos, which is the source of life pouring out life to the world. The numerical value of Sukkos (with the extra vav) and Yaakov (with the extra vav) is 10 times life, which is the perfection of drawing all kinds of life from the entire structure, which is the perfection of the ten Sefiros, each of which draws down its own unique kind of life. [29] Bris has the numerical value of 9 times life,219 because it corresponds to the holiness of foundation, which is the ninth attribute. It is only attained after drawing out nine kinds of life until reaching foundation. Yet still the structure is not complete, even though the completely righteous is the foundation of the world.220 Bris corresponds Similarly, Torah, with the extra 1 to foundation" for the word, has the same and to Torah numerical value. Torah comes down from the supernal Wisdom, which is also the ninth attribute from bottom to top. This is the correct way of things, because when acquiring Torah, a person goes from bottom to top, each day gaining more. Conversely, righteousness means overpowering the evil inclination, which grown stronger every day, and as a person stands firm against it, he goes from the top to
Taanis 5b Bris = 612. Life = 68. 68 x 9 = 612 220 Mishlei 10:25
218 219


Machshevos Charutz 15 the bottom. He derives new strength every day to overcome the evil inclination, which is always at the bottom. Everyone who overcomes the evil inclination and goes to a higher level pushes the inclination down to a lower level until eventually that person is free from even the lowest level. The highest level is where he is completely free from the evil inclination; there he is attached to the source of his soul, Which You gave me, and it is pure, The further away a person is from the source, the stronger is the evil within him, and he needs the strength of the righteous to overcome it. In all the acts of creation, it says Every act of that it is good because this is creation was the purpose of all of creation to good be good and to distance from evil. Therefore, man was warned against eating from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, so that there should be only good. This is deeper meaning of the letter tes, which alludes to good, as our sages have said221 in the Midrash and Zohar222 and many other places. The word good always means Torah, 223 as the verse

Bava Kama 55a: Rabbi Yehoshua said: If someone sees the letter tes in a dream, he should regard it as a good omen for himself. Why? because it is the first letter of the word good written in the Torah. 222 Bereishis 204a: God said to the letter tes, Why wont you settle in your place? She replied Because you made me the beginning of good. 223 Berachos 5a


Rav Tzadok HaCohen states, I have given you a good teaching.224 Similarly the righteous are called good.225 These are the two kinds of perfection within Yisrael; the righteous and the Torah scholars. In other words, the masters of Torah and the masters of mitzvos, which are the roots of the two tribes of Yehuda and Yosef, and all of Yisrael are called by their names. Yosef is called Yehosef, as we Yosef contains find in the verse testimony to nine attributes. Yehosef226 because he merited Yehuda contains to three letters of Gods Name, all ten which include the nine sefiros without kingship, which he did not merit. The crown of kingship was given only to Yehuda, and therefore his name contains all the letters of Gods Name, as explained in the Talmud.227 The only extra letter is the dalet which alludes to poverty and recognition of his lacks,228 and the dalet therefore merits filling this gap when it receives the child and becomes a heh, making the entire Name. [30] In the future, this will all be made clear when God joins them together into a single piece of wood.229
Mishlei 4:2 Chagiga 12a 226 Tehillim 81:6 227 Sotah 10b 228 See above footnote Error! Bookmark not defined. 229 Yechezkel 37:16-17: 'And you, son of man, take one stick, and write upon it: For Yehudah, and for the children of Israel his companions. Then take another stick, and write upon it: For Yosef, the stick of Ephraim, and of all the house of Israel his
224 225


Machshevos Charutz 15 Ephraim will no longer be jealous of Yehuda, because he will recognize his own level in comparison to his. Then there will be the completion of all ten levels through all the seed of Yisrael because all will be known as Yehudim, after Yehuda. This is the completion of the three vavs that are missing. In Vav represents the this world, which is a world of unity of Yisrael, falsehood, the truth is hidden, which will come and therefore the vav, which is with Eliyahu and the letter of truth, appears Mashiach hidden. Even though truth was thrown to the ground,230 this is only a small part of the good in the world of action. It is mostly evil, so that it is almost impossible to see the good at all, and it is almost as if there is no good, since the world is judged according to its majority. However, Yisrael are important and therefore are not nullified, and through them, there are the hidden letter vav of Yaakov, which is hidden in this world, but will be revealed in the future. As we find, our Sages tell us that there are five times that Yaakov is written with the extra vav, and Eliyahu is written without a vav. This is because the vav of Eliyahu was taken as a security.231 This means that with Eliyahu, it will be revealed because he was the only person in this world who
companions. And join them together into one piece of wood, and they will become one in your hand. 230 Daniel 8:12 231 See Rashi Vayikra 26:42


Rav Tzadok HaCohen never sinned and never died. God will send him to inform us that Mashiach is coming, which means at the time that everyone is perfected to be like him. Therefore, the vav of Eliyahu is the same vav that is missing from Yaakov, which is missing in this world. It is even hidden within Yaakov Avinu himself, who did not die. In this world, the fact that he did not die is hidden, because they embalmed him and buried him. Eternal life was only revealed through Eliyahu. The truth of This does not mean that Eliyahu Yaakov remains was greater than Yaakov. Really, hidden in this his power was only because he was a descendant of Yaakov. world Since Yaakov contained within himself all the souls of his children, it did not appear like this in the physical world. Therefore, it was impossible to be revealed. But Eliyahu had no children, as mentioned in the Zohar,232 and he himself was completely purified. Therefore, he was able to bring the vav into actuality. However, it is still missing in five places, not because of Eliyahu himself, but because the rest of Yisrael have not yet reached perfection. Eliyahu is also part of Knesses Yisrael. As long as everyone in Knesses Yisrael has not reached perfection like him, the lack affects even him. Knesses Yisrael is an entirely perfect structure, and he is one of its limbs. Therefore, even though Eliyahu lives forever, nevertheless, he is hidden from this world. This is the meaning of the five times that the vav is hidden, corresponding to the five levels of soul

Chadash, Rus 84:3


Machshevos Charutz 15 nefesh, ruach, neshama, chaya, yechida. These are alluded to in the four letters of Gods Name and the crown of the yud. From these letters, life comes into the world to all the five levels of soul. This corresponds to the five times that Yaakov is mentioned with an extra vav because the vav of Eliyahu is also the vav of all of the seed of Yaakov. This will be revealed in the future, and it will be clear at the time when he comes to bring peace to the world. Then the poorest Ultimate person in Yisrael will be like Eliyahu, peace is truth as our Sages have said on the verse in Shir HaShirim Your head is like Carmel.233 This world is all fighting, and peace was not sent to the world, only truth, as it says in Bereishis Rabba.234 In truth, and only in truth, there is no argument. However, because truth is hidden in the world, and its goodness is hidden with it, there is argument in this world as to what is truth and goodness. [31] This is the argument between Yehuda and Yosef, and the division of the kingdom of the house of David by Yeravam, a descendant of Yosef.235 This was because of the lack in this physical world, that there is no righteous person on earth.236 There was not yet
Shir HaShirim Rabba 7:6: Your head on you is like Carmel (Shir HaShirim 7:6). God said to Yisrael, The poorest amongst you are like Eliyahu on Mount Carmel. 234 8:5 235 Melachim 1 chapter 12 236 Kohelles 7:20


Rav Tzadok HaCohen a person with the complete perfection of a true Torah scholar and truly completely righteous in ultimate perfection. Rather, each one had his complete nine Sefiros. It says in Tikkunei Zohar237 that someone who unites The attributes the nine Sefiros without kingship cuts down the saplings,238 and without kingship can this is the source of all kinds of lead to idolatry Avodah Zarah. This was the sin of Yeravam and all the other kings of and division Yisrael who were descendants of Yosef. It also spread to the house of David through the marriage of Yehoshafat with Achav.239 In truth, it is all one assembly and one nation. Any lack in one part of the assembly affects the whole assembly, and this caused the destruction of the First Beis HaMikdash. The Men of the Great Assembly came to fix the entire nation by nullifying the evil inclination for idolatry.240 For this reason, they were called the Great Assembly, because they made the whole assembly great. But the evil inclination for sexual immorality remained, which caused lawlessness and removing the yoke. This led to heresy and the Sadducees. Someone who takes kingship without the other nine
Tikkun 69 116b This phrase is used to describe Elisha ben Avuhya after he became a heretic. See Chagiga 14b 239 Yehoshafats son, Yehoram, married Achavs daughter. See Melachim 2 8:16 240 Yoma 69b
237 238


Machshevos Charutz 15 Sefiros denies God. This will become clear in the time preceding Mashiach, when insolence will become prevalent.241 Insolence is a king without a crown,242 which means denying the aspect of God that is Crown and the Source. The heretics will become numerous because of our many sins. This is the essence of evil, which comes from the evil Kingship wisdoms, which are external to the without the wisdom of Torah. The Torah other nine remains as the good, hidden and attributes leads concealed now in this world. We to insolence have no remnant except for this Torah. Everything comes from separation and argument, when the assembly is not yet complete in its full structure. [32] Therefore, there is no complete happiness in this world, as the Sages say on the verse Happiness, what does it do?243 It is forbidden to fill ones mouth completely with laughter in this world244 until the time of the end. Then our mouths will be filled with laughter.245 Then the happiness will be complete and perfect. There is a feeling of this in the physical world during
Sotah 49b Sanhedrin 105a 243 Kohelles 2:2. Midrash Rabba there brings several stories of people for whom the day of happiness became a day of sadness. 244 Berachos 31a 245 Tehillim 126:2
242 241


Rav Tzadok HaCohen the festival of Sukkos, which is the time of our happiness. It brings down great blessings into the world, after everything has been written and sealed on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur for life. The completion of this is on Hoshana Rabba, the seventh day of Sukkos, which is the conclusion of the surrounding of seven times life, which includes all ten times life.246 This is the day of the willows, which is the correction even for the sinners of Yisrael who have no taste and no smell of mitzvos. Afterward comes the completion of happiness, which Hoshana Rabba is perfected on Shmini Atzeres. is the completion This corresponds to the righteous of the happiness, people who are good, and refrain even though it is from filing their every desire. a day of Simchas Torah is the good teaching of Torah. judgment All of the festival corresponds to Yaakov Avinu, who includes everything and unites even the two extremes. Therefore, it also includes children and sustenance; one is the continuation of life, and the other the continuation of the species. Both help create eternal life and are included within eternal life. Even though the judgement is written and sealed on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, the final completion is only on the day of the willows. Its heh provides the great spiritual blessing of children as known from the

246 On Hoshana Rabba We circle the Synagogue 7 times, and recite 10 special hoshana prayers.


Machshevos Charutz 15 secret of heh for yourselves seed.247 From the heh comes the spiritual outpouring of seed, meaning children, and also in its literal meaning of seed for food to provide sustenance. Both come from it, because the woman of valour provides food for her house and sustenance for her children. The letters of erev (evening) are the spiritual outpouring of life from all the four directions, even in the darkness of evening time and to those walking in darkness and evil. Therefore, even though it is the last of the festivals and months according to the moon, it is also the beginning of the year for years that goes according to the sun. From Gods perspective, the end of the action is included within the first thought. For those receiving, it appears as the end because it is the purpose of everything.


Bereishis 47:23


Rav Tzadok HaCohen

Machshevos Charutz 21
[1] The main concept of Shavuos is that it is the time of the Giving of the Torah. We see this in the words of the prayers established by the Men of the Great Assembly. They established the wording of all of the prayers.1 It is strange that the Magen Avraham claims that the basis for the custom of saying the time of the Giving of our Torah is from Rambam.2 Why does he say that this is only a custom, when it has spread throughout the world to all Jews since the Why is Shavuos beginning of time? Clearly it was called the time established by the Men of the of the Giving of Great Assembly, who established the Torah? the wording of all the blessings and prayers. Nobody argues that this is the sanctity of the holiday. Every festival was established because of an event that happened on that date. The Magen Avraham asks: according to the opinion of Rabbi Yossi the Torah was given on the seventh of Sivan3, and according to the other Rabbis it was given on the fifty first day of counting the Omer. If so, how can we claim that the sixth of Sivan, the fiftieth day is the time of the Giving of the Torah? He answers, in the name of some explain that it alludes to the second day of the festival, which is celebrated outside of Yisrael.
1 2

Berachos 33a Shulchan Aruch Orech Chaim 494 at the beginning 3 Shabbos 87a


Machshevos Charutz 21 This doesnt seem correct to me. The main festival is on the first day, and furthermore, in the land of Yisrael they only celebrate the first day, and this is the real mitzvah from the Torah! How is it possible that the Torah would make the main festival on a day that we didnt receive the Torah, if the main purpose of the festival is the time of the Giving of the Torah? [2] It seems to me that we can answer based on the simple reading of the Torah in Parshas Emor which states, You shall count... seven weeks... you shall count fifty days.4 This is also difficult. We do not count for fifty Counting the days. Furthermore, the words Omer is similar until the day after the seventh to the counting week (Shabbos) seem to be of purification redundant. Perhaps we can say that it is based on the well known idea that the counting of the Omer is similar to the counting of clean days that a woman counts after her menstrual period.5 Both come to purify and cleanse all the seven attributes, which are each comprised of seven. The fiftieth day corresponds to the concept of understanding in the heart, from where all the attributes are derived. [3] When the Jews left Egypt there was a revelation that didnt follow as a process from their previous state. This is alluded to in Shir HaShirim Rabba on the
4 5

Vayikra 23:15-16 Zohar vol. 3 97a


Rav Tzadok HaCohen verse, Jumping on the hills, leaping....6 Even though they were not worthy of seeing it, God lit up their eyes through the revelation of the Divine Presence on that night, I passed through the midst of Egypt, I and not a messenger.7 Through this all of Yisrael had the light of the Divine Presence, blessed is He in all the chambers of their hearts. This pushed away all the darkness in which they were entrenched from their hearts and everything became clear. However Gods lighting up of their hearts was only temporary. Afterwards this light The light from disappeared. For this reason above only becomes they had to count the days until permanent when it the Giving of the Torah, when is followed by they would return to that level of clarity through their own gradual growth efforts. After God had first lit everything for them on Pesach, though this light had disappeared, yet the imprint remained. This makes it easier to return and attain that light through their efforts and toil. The light that God gave them did not become permanently fixed within themselves until they reached the level of purity of the Giving of the Torah. This is the Torah which was given from the
Shir HaShirim Rabba 9:1: God jumped from Egypt to the Red Sea; from the Red Sea to Sinai and from Sinai to the future. In Egypt they saw Him At the Sea they saw Him At Sinai they saw Him. 7 Mechilta on Shemos 12:12


Machshevos Charutz 21 wilderness as a gift.8 It is a gift which becomes theirs when they bring it down to earth. This is what our Sages have said, In the end it is called our Torah.9 The light of Torah becomes a permanent acquisition of the heart after counting the days from the day after the Shabbos of Pesach. Pesach is called Shabbos because it is well known that the holiness of Shabbos is Pesach is called permanent and constant, God Shabbos because sanctified it immediately with the it is an eternal creation of the universe without and permanent any human efforts. However holiness festivals are sanctified by Yisrael because they commemorate the miracles that Yisrael merited through their efforts. Pesach is included in the festivals, because the Jews merited to be brought out of Egypt through their cries and prayers, and God heard their cries.10 Yet the strength of the revelation of light on Pesach which everyone reached through the revelation of the Divine Presence within their hearts was not through their efforts. All Yisrael reached this level immediately even though they had been made small through their slavery with bricks and mortar and other forms of entrenchment to the extent that our Sages tell us that They worshipped idols and had reached the forty ninth level of impurity.11
Pirkei Avos 6:2 based on Bamidbar 21:18 Avodah Zara 19a 10 Shemos 3:7 11 Vayikra Rabba 23:2
8 9


Rav Tzadok HaCohen God, in His love and mercy, jumped and leapt over the normal process which they should have taken through their mortal efforts. The days of counting the Omer allowed them to reveal the great light that they had experienced on Pesach, which is called Shabbos, through their own efforts. We count seven weeks, and in each week there is a day of Shabbos. Even after all Torah is a gift the efforts what became which comes entrenched in our hearts and after effort and which allows us to grow is only searching from God. Therefore when He gave the Torah God had to hold the mountain over us like a barrel, to tell us that it was against our will. God did not give this sanctity to Yisrael through their choice. Nevertheless, we must strive during the preceding days of counting. Like in the future, about which it says, with a poured anger I will rule over you.12 The Rabbis explain - let Him get angry as much as He wants, as long as He redeems us soon.13 However it requires preparation from the preceding days of exile. This is what the Sages tell us You must strive to find.14 Finding something can only come after it has been forgotten, as we find in Sanhedrin.15 But after all
Yechezkel 20:33 Rosh Hashana 32b 14 Megillah 6b 15 97a: Three things come without intention: Mashiach, a found object and a scorpion.
12 13



Machshevos Charutz 21 the effort, it still remains something found, because despite all a persons efforts, it is impossible for him to reach any level of holiness that will be permanently fixed in his heart. Ultimately it is a find, which can only come after much effort. The verse states I have given you a good teaching.16 Our Sages tell us that the Torah is acquired through purchasing it.17 This means that The Torah must be because a person toils first it is as purchased, but is if he has acquired it through nevertheless a gift buying, but ultimately it is only a gift. After all the efforts of a person during the six days of work, it becomes fixed in the heart afterwards through the sanctity of Shabbos which is permanent and constant, and which comes from God without any effort on the part of man. Therefore every festival which Yisrael sanctify is also called Shabbos because after the efforts of Yisrael, God establishes it with His holiness.


Shemos Rabba 28:1: You may have thought that Moshe took the Torah for free. Therefore the verse states, You have have received gifts among men (Tehillim 68:19). It was given to him as a purchase. You may think he had to pay money for it. Therefore the verse states gifts (ibid.) I was given to him as a gift. 118


Mishlei 4:2

Rav Tzadok HaCohen [5] There is an argument in the Talmud18 about someone who is wandering in the desert and has lost track of time. Some say he should first count six days and then sanctify the seventh as Shabbos, and other say he should first sanctify Shabbos, and then count the following six days. The first opinion is how God saw creation, so it is appropriate From Gods for a person to strive in the same perspective the way, since he was created in the six days of work image of God. The second opinion precede Shabbos. is from Adams perspective. He From Adams experienced Shabbos first, before perspective it the six days of toil. According to was the opposite this opinion a person first requires an awakening from above. Without that he will never be able to achieve anything through his efforts. This is similar to the counting of the Omer after the Shabbos of Pesach. For this reason the mitzvah I am the Lord your God precedes You shall have no other gods before Me when God gave the Torah. It is not written as a command because it is not possible to command someone to believe in God. If he doesnt believe he wont obey the command! Rather the beginnings of faith have to come from God, who pours into the heart of the Children of Yisrael so that they should be believers and should attain this great light of I am the Lord your God. Only after that can we come through effort to the mitzvos of the Torah. Similarly when God created the first man, He

Shabbos 69b


Machshevos Charutz 21 immediately brought him into Shabbos so that he could imbibe the great holiness within it. Only afterwards could he begin to work during the days of activity that followed, so that afterwards he would reach the second Shabbos through his efforts. This is the meaning of the keeping Shabbos twice mentioned in the Talmud - If only Yisrael would keep Shabbos twice according to halacha they would immediately be redeemed.19 We find another example when Shabbos was first given to the Children of Yisrael through the manna. They recited a The manna was blessing and sanctified Shabbos first given to with the manna, as it says in Yisrael and only Bereishis Rabba.20 He blessed and after did they he sanctified was said to Moshe keep Shabbos on the first, And it will be on the sixth day that they will prepare... Moshe only told it to the people on the sixth day. Even though our Sages tell us that Moshe was punished for this, as the verse states, for how long will you oppress them...21 and as Rashi explains there.22

Shabbos 118b 11:2 21 Shemos 16:22 22 Based on Shemos Rabba 25:17. The Torah punished Moshe when God said to him How long will you refuse to observe My commandments (verse 28). God did not exclude Moshe from the rest of sinners.



Rav Tzadok HaCohen Nevertheless he himself applied the popular dictum brought in the Talmud because of the thorn standing next to it the cabbage suffers.23 In other words, Moshe certainly was not rebelling or forgetting to say this to Yisrael. Rather he knew and recognized their spiritual level and understood that they would not be able to attain the sanctity of Shabbos Moshe was through their own efforts. They punished for not first had to experience a Shabbos giving Yisrael from God. He thought that the the mitzvah of original command was spoken Shabbos at only to him on the first day, Marah because he had already experienced the light of the holiness of Shabbos. This sanctity of Shabbos was enough for him that he could be commanded about Shabbos already when Yisrael were in Marah, as the Talmud tells us.24 However because of the thorn - he should have put this sanctity also into the hearts of Yisrael when he was with them and while they were next to each other. Then he could have told them also from the first day, and they would not have sinned on the second Shabbos. [6] It is well known that the two letters heh in Gods four letter name represent this concept of keeping Shabbos twice.25 From Gods perspective,
Bava Kamma 92a Shabbos 87b 25 The crown on the top of the yud represents Crown. The yud represents wisdom. The first heh represents understanding. It is
24 23


Machshevos Charutz 21 from top down, the higher Shabbos precedes the six days of activity, and the second Shabbos follows. However from the perspective of Yisrael who strive from bottom to top it is the opposite. First they receive the holiness of God who dwells with them in their impurity, on the lowest level. Then through their efforts they reach the higher Shabbos which is the understanding of the heart because they create for themselves a heart pure from any kind of impurity. This is the great Shabbos, the gate of freedom of the great Jubilee26, that comes after The gift of the seven cycles of seven years. They first Shabbos have Shabbos seven times, which allows a person is the Sabbatical year at the end of to achieve the each seven year cycle, which must heights of a also be purified and cleansed second Shabbos seven times. Corresponding to them is the seventh Sabbatical cycle of seven years, which defines the sanctity which comes through their efforts, and then they merit afterwards to the year of Jubilee which is the upper Shabbos. Therefore on Pesach there was great wonders of the revelation of the Divine Presence in Egypt, in the place of impurity. Afterwards they had to purify the seven attributes in seven ways, and then through the understanding of their hearts they merited to the gate
followed by vav, with the numerical value of 6, representing the six days of effort and the six attributes from kindness to foundation. Finally the last heh represents kingship and completion. 26 See Yisroel Kedoshim 56a [9] (p. 113) and Resisei Laila 56b [end of 50] (p. 119a)


Rav Tzadok HaCohen of freedom when they accepted the Torah. Do not read hewn (charus) but freedom (cheirus).27 Nobody is considered free except for someone who is involved with Torah. Therefore the Torah does not call the sacrifice brought on Shavuos a sin offering because at that time they had already purified themselves from any sin, and this was through the attainment of the Children of Yisrael. [7] From Gods perspective it is the opposite. When the light of understanding wants to be revealed it is impossible for it to be revealed in the physical world From Gods unless it is hidden, and clothed perspective the within levels, so that only the light descends to lowest level can be revealed in the world. The revelation is in a lower levels hidden way, so it is not a clear light in the heart. It is comparable to the light of the moon in contrast to the light of the sun. It has no light of its own at all. It is only reflected light that God shines temporarily, and when that light is removed it returns to darkness. However when God shines light with the last of His attributes, which it closest to the lowest level, it is possible to contain that light within their hearts. This is as our Sages have said on the verse, and my heart is awake.28 God is the heart of Yisrael, as the verse states, the Rock is my heart.29 There is an
27 28

Eruvin 54a and Avos 6:2 Shir HaShirim 5:2 29 Tehillim 73:26


Machshevos Charutz 21 independent light in the depths of the heart that can never become dark.30 This is the attainment of understanding in the heart. This is based on the concept that the regalim (legs) of the higher level become the mochin (minds) of the lower level which receives from it.31 [8] This is deeper meaning of the two sanctities of Shabbos the night time and the day time. These correspond to the moon and the Two different sun. Within every Shabbos there is sanctities of also an aspect of a double Shabbos, Shabbos allude as is known. Each higher level to the lower and contains all the lower levels within the higher it. This is also true with each part spirituality and each detail, with infinitely small divisions. The three meals of Shabbos also correspond to the two levels that we are talking about, and a third one which includes the others. Everything that is divided into parts also returns to include everything in one. Similarly with the addition of sanctity of Shabbos through the manna which didnt fall on Shabbos. They were commanded to prepare on Friday everything
Shir HaShirim Rabba 5:2 See Shaar HaKlalim introduction to Etz Chaim who explains that the light comes down to the top three attributes of Crown and from there spread down to the lower seven attributes. From the lower seven of Crown the light spreads down to the top three of Wisdom and so on. This is described as the legs of the higher world providing the light for the mind of the world below. Thus the higher light is reflected onto the lower worlds.
31 30


Rav Tzadok HaCohen they would need for Shabbos, so that the weekday also becomes part of Shabbos through the preparations. This is also an aspect of the double Shabbos. It comes after both the preparation of the six days of activity, and after the Shabbos about which they were commanded at Marah32 which was the first Shabbos. Including the Shabbos of Marah itself they had Shabbos three times. The Jews left Egypt was a Thursday,33 and therefore the seventh day was a This is the Wednesday. They travelled meaning of if through the Red Sea and went Yisrael would keep for three days in the desert Shabbos twice they Thursday, Friday and Shabbos would immediately until they reached Marah. Then they received the mitzvah of be redeemed Shabbos. They experienced Shabbos another three times before the Sunday after the fifteenth of Iyar when the manna began to fall. This is not according to Tosefoss calculation, however.34 Tosefos had difficulty explaining the statement that if Yisrael had only kept the first Shabbos. According to our calculation we can explain that the Shabbos of Marah was only the sanctity that was eternal and constant from God, without any human effort to sanctify it.
Shemos 15:25: There He made for them a statute and an ordinance. The Mechilta (ibid.) explains: Statute this refers to Shabbos. Ordinance this refers to honoring parents. See also See Rashis explanation there and Sanhedrin 56b 33 Shabbos 87b 34 Shabbos 87b s.v. Ka-asher that there was only one Shabbos


Machshevos Charutz 21 Nevertheless, there are two levels even in this. Each thing always contains the whole within it. After Yisrael accepted the mitzvah to keep Shabbos they could taste the holiness more on the next Shabbos. Afterwards they had the third Shabbos which contained everything, as we explained above. [9] The manna was a revelation of the sanctity of Shabbos that comes through preparation. For this also they required a second time for all of Manna Yisrael based on their level. They had represents to have a Shabbos before the six days preparation of activity, so that the sanctity of for Shabbos Shabbos would come with the sanctity of the days of preparation. In this way they had the spiritual energy to prepare afterwards. The sanctity of this Shabbos comes with preparation. The spiritual energy of Yisrael in their preparations to bring this holiness is what gives them the merit that no nation or people should have power over them. The sanctity of Shabbos is eternal and constant from the time of the beginning of the creation of the world and everything comes from God and His creation. Nevertheless Yisrael still merit having their share through their preparations. Therefore they were commanded at that time about oneg Shabbos. This was with the words, Eat it today....35 We learn the requirement for three meals on Shabbos from the fact that the word today is used


Shemos 16:25


Rav Tzadok HaCohen three times.36 The Torah also says afterwards, See that God has given Shabbos to you.37 This means that it is yours, and your gift. This is the first Shabbos of manna after the preparations. Now we can also answer Tosefoss second question. We can agree with their opinion that the seventh day when they went out to gather manna was the following Shabbos and not that same day. This is not necessarily clear from the words of the Torah; nevertheless, it still makes sense to Shabbos was call it the first Shabbos. It was the first given as a Shabbos that came after six days of gift only preparation that had been preceded after human by the holiness of Shabbos, as I wrote preparation above. This was the last Shabbos of the days of counting that preceded the Shabbos when they received the Torah, when they got Shabbos as a complete gift included with the rest of the Torah. And it was engraved on the tablets so that it should be engraved and fixed in the hearts of the Children of Yisrael as A sign between Me and them...38 This was the third Shabbos from the Shabbos of the manna, which included everything all the individual holiness combined, to engrave it on their hearts, and this is the engraving that has the double meaning of freedom, giving them the freedom of the gate of freedom of the supernal Shabbos.
36 37

Shabbos 117b Shemos 16:29 38 Shemos 31:13


Machshevos Charutz 21

[10] Based on what we have written there are seven levels within Shabbos. Each one is divided into two, as we explained. And each one is made up of three two parts, and a third which combines the other two. This makes a total of six, and there is a seventh which combines everything together. This final combination is different than the two which only combined each of the two sets of three, whereas this combines all six together. Shabbos contains Corresponding to these seven seven parts aspects of Shabbos are the seven corresponding to days of Yom Tov in the Torah the seven days of which are sanctified by Yisrael. the week and the They are: first and last day of seven festivals Pesach, first day of Sukkos and Shemini Atzeres, Shavuos, Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur. They are also called Shabbos because they are sanctified by Yisrael. The first and last days of Pesach correspond to the first two days of the week, and are followed by Shavuos which combines them. The first day of Sukkos and Shemini Atzeres are the two levels of the second Shabbos which comes after preparation because that is when they gather all the crops from that year that they have prepared. This is really the end of the previous year, and Rosh Hashana, which is the beginning of the following year, combines them. And Yom Kippur is Shabbos Shabbason39 which combines all the other six together.

Vayikra 16:31


Rav Tzadok HaCohen On that day of Yom Kippur the second tablets were given which was the end and completion of the Giving of the Torah. This is the freedom on the tablets which is the gate of freedom that atones for all their sins. On this day the second tablets were given which were engraved and not destroyed. No sin or crime was able to destroy them. For on this day He will atone for you.40 This is like the World to Come in which there Yom Kippur is will be no eating or drinking.41 Then the completion the sins of Yisrael will be sought but of the Giving of will not be, for I will forgive....42 the Torah This is the level of understanding which contains repentance and atonement, as the prophet states, The heart will understand and he will return and be healed.43 [11] For this reason there must be also seven weeks during the counting of the Omer, one for each of the seven attributes of Shabbos which fix the holiness in the heart. This sanctifies it from above with the little holiness from below. Through these weeks and using them the stature of Shabbos is built. This is the holiness of the supernal Shabbos on the fiftieth day. It seems to me that at that time in the desert, before they received the Torah they had only five weeks beforehand. Perhaps we can say that the first week
Vayikra 16:30 Berachos 17a 42 Yirmiya 50:19 43 Yishaya 6:10
40 41


Machshevos Charutz 21 was replaced by the seventh day of Pesach, the day of the splitting of the sea, at which time they merited to have the sanctity of Yom Tov. The Zohar explains44 that it comes from Atik.45 It is well known that Atik is above the stature or the attainment of man. The miracle of It is what God gives over of the Red Sea came Himself. The creatures of the from Atik which lower worlds cannot reach it is beyond human through their own endeavors. attainment Only God Himself, in His great mercy and kindness, opens for them the gates of wisdom which are above their ability to attain through their efforts. Therefore it says there God will fight for you and you will remain silent.46 This is like the holiness of Shabbos which is eternal and constant, and it stood for them then in place of the first Shabbos of the counting of the Omer. Pesach represents the attribute of kindness, personified by Avraham. This is the ultimate in kindness which comes from its source in the attribute of kindness when it is combined with the attribute of strength. In the supernal source both are one, and there is no separation between them. Your right hand, God - which is the attribute of

vol. 2 48a: God said to Moshe, Why are you calling to Me? Rather the matter depends on Atik. 45 Atik is the highest aspect of God in creation. It is above the highest revelation of Adam Kadmon in kabbalistic structure of the worlds. 46 Shemos 14:14


Rav Tzadok HaCohen kindness, crushes the foe47 which is the attribute of strength. At the splitting of the sea, which was kindness for Yisrael, the spoils of the sea were greater than the spoils from Egypt.48 This is the Great Hand. They saw Gods attribute of greatness, which is the outpouring of kindness. At the same time the result of this was they feared God - fear and not love, because it For God was clothed in the attribute of kindness and strength. Gods creations were strength are drowning in the sea. For this reason the same thing the angels were not permitted to sing a song of praise,49 which comes from happiness. There was no rejoicing because it was clothed in the attribute of strength to create fear and awe, rather than happiness. However this was only the external clothing. Ultimately it was Your right hand, God, is majestic in strength,50 and everything was purely from the kindness of God. When it reached the heavenly holiness there all the attributes are combined together, as it says in Tanna devei Eliyahu As for Me, My fear comes from My happiness, and My happiness from My fear.51 This happens when a person reaches the perfection of both fear and of happiness. This comes from the outpouring from God from the supernal holiness. This sanctifies
47 48

Shemos 15:6 Bamidbar Rabba 13:20, based on Bamidbar 7:25-26 49 Megillah 10b 50 Shemos 15:6 51 Rabba 3


Machshevos Charutz 21 him from above, and then everything becomes combined together, even though in this world they are two opposites. [12] This is what happened with the splitting of the sea, which was the ultimate expression of the attribute of kindness for Avraham. Avrahams happiness was at the redemption from Egypt, because he had been the cause of the exile when God told Avrahams him that you shall surely know happiness at that your descendants will be the redemption strangers in a land which is not their was because he own.52 The exile was in order to had caused the purify the essence of the holiness exile that Avraham had dug and found in the wells of water.53 It represents the fountain of the attribute of kindness which spreads over the lower world as Kenesses Yisrael. This remains constant and eternal in all of his children for eternity. But only in those who are called his seed, as the verse states, through Yitzchak will your seed be called, as is explained in Nedarim.54 The completion of the redemption from Egypt was at the splitting of the Red Sea. Until that time the Egyptians were still chasing after them and the Children of Yisrael were afraid of them.
Bereishis 15:13 Bereishis 26:15: All the wells which his [Yitzchaks] father's servants dug in the days of Avraham his father, were blocked up by the Plishtim, and they filled them with earth. 54 31a
53 52


Rav Tzadok HaCohen The Children of Yisrael still has some spiritual connection to the Egyptians, so it was not yet a complete redemption. The Egyptians represent sexual immorality, and are thus the negative side of kindness, with evil desires which come out of the Nile. This is the evil water which is the husk and impurity and the antithesis to the holiness of Avraham Avinu. For this reason Avraham went to Egypt during the famine. He knew that the famine only came to the world because of Avrahams kindness is the him. It was so that he would go to antithesis of Egypt and make preparations for the Children of Yisrael. He Egyptian desires enabled them to refrain from immorality, and in this merit they were redeemed. The Mechilta55 says that this was the entire purpose of the exile and purification there. It all came from the sanctity of Avraham Avinu, who directed the attribute of kindness to the holiness and kindness of God, and removed it from human desires. This is the deeper meaning of Sarah being taken by the king. When a man and woman unite they become one flesh and one body. Because of the physical clothing of the bodies in this world they are divided into two. Woman,56 whose clothing is the lower level and the beginning of enticement, gives strength to the evil inclination. She which wants to access the holiness. This is what happened with Adam and Eve.
55 56

Bo 5 Woman here refers to Nukva, the lowest Partzuf who grounds Zer Anpin and achieves holiness through unity with him.


Machshevos Charutz 21 The Egyptians thought that they could also overpower Avraham Avinu in the same way, through Sarah. They tried to implant the pollution of Pharaoh within her. Since she was half of Avrahams body, through this act the evil inclination could also enter into him and strengthen the desire for the Sarah protected evil waters within him. herself and However, the Egyptians were Avraham, and all not successful, because she put future generations boundaries around herself and of women protected herself from immorality. In so doing she gave all the women who are descended from her the ability to guard themselves in her merit, as explained in Vayikra Rabba57 and Shir HaShirim Rabba.58 [13] The Children of Yisrael were steeped in the forty nine gates of impurity. This was what the angels protested at the splitting of the sea when they said Both these and those worship idols. Yet Yisrael received the holiness of the fiftieth gate, from God Who sanctifies them from above. This was because they had not yet sunk to the fiftieth level of impurity. They achieved this because of the essential goodness that they had received from the Patriarchs and Matriarchs. In this way they achieved the final stage of the redemption. As you see Egypt today you will no

57 58

32:5 4:12


Rav Tzadok HaCohen more see them again.59 This was the final time they saw the Egyptians and they severed the last connection that they still had even after leaving Egypt. They were one nation taken out of another, like a baby leaving the womb. At first they were still connected by an umbilical cord.60 The idol of Michah came with them through the sea,61 because they still had some of the essence of the pollution. Michah rebelled against the command I am the Eternal, your God as it says in Tanna de-vei Eliyahu Rabba,62 which is the essence of Judaism. That command was not said as a commandment, because it is fundamental principle fixed within the Children of Yisrael who are believers and children of believers, as an inheritance from their ancestors. They were promised that they would no longer see the Egyptians because now at the The last day of splitting of the sea the pollution Pesach represents of Egypt was removed from the the holiness of completely. This came through Shabbos because it the revelation of the Holiness of is impossible to God Who sanctified the achieve such descendants of Yisrael from heights through above, higher than their human human efforts efforts could achieve. Because of this we can understand why the seventh day of Pesach, the first day of the splitting of the Red Sea,
Shemos 14:13 Midrash Shochar Tov 107:4 61 Sanhedrin 103b 62 26
59 60


Machshevos Charutz 21 represents the holiness of Shabbos in the first week of the counting of the Omer. [14] They still lacked one Shabbos of the attribute of strength, which was the essence of the Giving of the Torah, for Torah comes from the aspect of strength.63 Until they had accepted the Torah and brought it down to earth there was still not a full revelation of Shabbos, which is the supernal sanctity from above within this attribute. This was the completion of the attribute of kindness, so that it can be from His right hand fire of religion to His The fiftieth day was people.64 This was the Shabbos the final gift of of the Giving of the Torah. Giving the Torah Therefore it turns out that they were still lacking the first Shabbos of preparation for the fiftieth day. This was not part of the days of counting which comes through mans effort. Rather the fiftieth is entirely a gift. However since this gift only comes after human efforts, it also requires effort and striving to reach this gate as well. This comes through the seven days of Shabbos which themselves come through the efforts of the six days of work during these seven weeks. Just as I have written that through this the preparation for the revelation of the fiftieth day is complete. Since Shabbos is the essence of this preparation, if even a single Shabbos is missing the whole
63 64

Zohar vol. 3 80b Devarim 33:2


Rav Tzadok HaCohen preparation is incomplete. Therefore they had to add another day Rabbinically; either making Iyar into a 30 day month, or through the day that Moshe added in of his own volition according to Rabbi Yossi. This was so that the Torah was received through the efforts of Yisrael, either by sanctifying the moon or through Moshes additional day. The day that was lacking in the sanctity of the The additional, preparation, was not yet ready fiftieth, day had to to be one of the days of Shabbos come from human which is eternal and constant. effort Nevertheless, from Gods perspective there is no need for human efforts at all. So it was necessary that the additional day came only from Yisrael. [15] The argument between Rabbi Yossi and the Rabbis65 is whether the additional day was special preparation at the end, or within the seventh week. Was the added day after the Was the extra day seven weeks of the seven after the counting, attributes were complete, and or during the Moshe Rabbeinu added another seventh week? day of preparation of his own accord with human efforts? The fiftieth day thus corresponds to the fiftieth gate and the day of revelation of the Giving of the Torah. That aspect was still lacking from their necessary preparation. Or was the day added within the seventh week, because the seventh week corresponds to Shabbos in

Shabbos 86b-87a


Machshevos Charutz 21 the days of building. During this time the efforts and striving are in preparation for finding the Torah. This is so that afterwards it will be sanctified by the holiness of Shabbos which is eternal and constant. Corresponding to this are the Shabbos in each of the seven weeks. Since they were missing the sanctity of the second Shabbos, therefore they added another second day in the seventh week. They began counting in that year when they left Egypt on a Friday, and Shabbos was the second day of their Adding a day to counting. So this was already Iyar created an Monday, partial preparation for the extra which gave extra sanctity of the second day of the week and the second attribute strength which they were lacking. They had Shabbos five times, since they were commanded on a Monday. This represents the attribute of strength within those other attributes. This was contained within the holiness of Shabbos which is eternal and constant. In order to complete everything they doubled that Monday on the final week, to add their effort to it on the Sunday that came afterwards. They added it through adding an extra day to Iyar, and made Rosh Chodesh on Monday. That day was additional effort doubling the holiness of the day that came before it. [16] Ultimately according to everyone they counted a total of fifty days, because they required preparation of effort also on the fiftieth day. This was certainly not 138

Rav Tzadok HaCohen for protection. They had not been given Shabbos earlier, apart from the other reasons that we have explained, because God wanted to show them that also on the fiftieth day they require preparation. Shabbos cannot come completely without effort. Then they required putting their preparation into practice, through complete efforts on the days of activity. This was still before they received the Torah. The poison of the primordial serpent had not yet left them, until the Torah was given, as explained in the Talmud.66 The pollution was The poison of the the impurity that is constant serpent was the and eternal negative, which antithesis of Shabbos corresponds to the sanctity of Shabbos. Therefore the serpent came before Shabbos and hurried to seduce Adam and Eve before Shabbos began, because later he would have no chance. This parallels the creation of the world, when there was first darkness and only afterwards light. The day of Shabbos came to light up the darkness of Adam in his repentance for what he had done. However this process was not completed until the time of the Giving of the Torah, when they were given the mitzvah of Shabbos. It was engraved on the tablets, so that the sanctity should be fixed within the heart as well, and in this way the poison of impurity ended. Before this it had not completely stopped, and it was not yet possible for the sanctity of Shabbos to be revealed in its entirety in all of the seven attributes. Shabbos could not yet appear in the attribute of

Shabbos 146a


Machshevos Charutz 21 strength which would have fixed it in their hearts and made it immovable, and would have allowed it to overcome the power of evil of the poison of the evil inclination. Therefore they still required human effort in this. [17] But for future generations, after the Giving of the Torah, the pollution has already been removed. Shabbos was given as a constant and eternal holiness in all its perfection within After the Torah was the hearts of the Children of given the sevenfold Yisrael, God promises them Shabbos of the Omer is that the seven times of adequate preparation Shabbos within the counting for receiving the Torah of the Omer will be perfect, and will not lack anything from the holiness of Shabbos during the seven weeks. Therefore it is until the day after Shabbos count fifty days.67 They should count all the fifty days that they need to count as preparation for the Giving of the Torah during those seven weeks until the day after Shabbos. The holiness of the fiftieth day is included within the seven weeks, and the sanctity of the fiftieth day comes through Yisrael. Therefore through counting seven complete weeks they also count fifty days. Now we understand why this festival always falls out on the day of the Giving of the Torah. Nevertheless from our perspective the fifty days are included within in the forty nine days that we count and complete, as I

Vayikra 23:16


Rav Tzadok HaCohen have written. All of this is clear to those who understand.

Here ends the book Machshaves Charutz from the manuscript in his holy hand. With the help of Heaven.