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PG- Marketing Pranay Narayani Roll No.


1) Hugh rank model

Rank's model of persuasion states that persuaders use two major strategies to achieve their goals. These strategies are nicely set into two main schemas known as (1) Intensify, and (2) Downplay. The basic premise of the model stresses that people will either intensify or downplay certain aspects of their own product, candidate, or ideology, or those of their receiver's. The persuader will do this in one of four methods.

1) Intensify their own strong points. 2) Intensify the weak points of the opposition. 3) Downplay their own weak points. 4) Downplay the strong points of the opposition. Intensify In Intensification, the persuader seeks to increase the significance of certain elements that they want the other person to take more seriously or see as particularly important. Intensifying may be done by repetition, association and composition. Repetition Repetition of a word or visual pattern not only causes it to become remembered (which is persuasive in itself), it also leads people to accept what is being repeated as being true. Thus an advertiser of soap powder may focus on how wonderfully white clothes become by repeating the word 'whiteness'. Association Association links the item with an idea or something which already has emotional connotation, for example something desired or feared. The soap powder advertiser may thus use attractive people in wonderfully clean (but not too up-market) houses. It also is using the unspoken idea that cleanliness is desirable (and, by extension, extreme cleanliness is extremely desirable).

Composition Intensification may also be enhanced through the overall composition of what is being presented, for example contrasting the message with an opposite. Thus the soap powder advertiser may start with a person wearing muddy clothes. Downplay Downplaying is the opposite of intensification and can be done using the same (but reversed) techniques. In addition, the following three methods can be used. Diversion When we divert or distract a person from something we do not want them to attend to, then we may succeed in reducing their attention to it. The soap powder advert may divert from concerns about damaging the environment by highlighting the small quantity of powder needed for each wash. Omission Another way of downplaying is simply to say nothing about the things that will counteract our arguments. Thus the soap powder manufacturer will not talk about the damaging effects of constant washing of clothes. Confusion Confusion may be used when the other person knows about an opposing argument. it may also be used to obfuscate weaknesses in one's own position. A typical way of doing this is by showering the other person with data, or perhaps asking them complex questions about their own position. Soap powder manufacturers may, for example, give a scientific argument about how their product works.

2) Monroe's model

Monroe's Motivated Sequence: The Five Steps Alan H. Monroe, a Purdue University professor, used the psychology of persuasion to develop an outline for making speeches that will deliver results. It's now known as Monroe's Motivated Sequence. This is a well-used and time-proven method to organize presentations for maximum impact. You can use it for a variety of situations to create and arrange the components of any message. The steps are explained below. Step One: Get Attention Get the attention of your audience. Use storytelling, humor, a shocking statistic, or a rhetorical question anything that will get the audience to sit up and take notice.

Note: This step doesn't replace your introduction it's part of your introduction. In your opening, you should also establish your credibility, state your purpose, and let the audience know what to expect. Delivering great presentations provides a strong foundation for building the steps in Monroe's Motivated Sequence.

Let's use the example of a half-day seminar on safety in the workplace. Your attention step might be as follows. Attention Shocking Statistic Workplace safety is being ignored! Despite detailed safety standards and regulations, surveys show that 7 out of 10 workers regularly ignore safe practices because of ease, comfort, and efficiency. Some of these people get hurt as a result. I wonder how comfortable they are in their hospital beds... or coffins?

Step Two: Establish the Need Convince your audience there's a problem. This set of statements must help the audience realize that what's happening right now isn't good enough and it needs to change.

Use statistics to back up your statements. Talk about the consequences of maintaining the status quo and not making changes. Show your audience how the problem directly affects them.

Remember, you're not at the "I have a solution" stage. Here, you want to make the audience uncomfortable and restless, and ready to do the "something" that you recommend. Need Examples and Illustrations Apathy/lack of interest is the problem Safety harnesses sit on the floor when the worker is 25 feet above ground. Ventilation masks are used more to hold spare change than to keep people safe from dangerous fumes. Ignoring safety rules caused 162 worker deaths in our province/state last year. I'm here to make sure that you aren't part of next year's statistic.


Step Three: Satisfy the Need Introduce your solution. How will you solve the problem that your audience is ready to address? This is the main part of your presentation. It will vary significantly, depending on your purpose.

Discuss the facts. Elaborate and give details to make sure the audience understands your position and solution. Clearly state what you want the audience to do or believe. Summarize your information from time to time as you speak. Use examples, testimonials, and statistics to prove the effectiveness of your solution. Prepare counterarguments to anticipated objections. Everyone needs to be responsible and accountable for everyone else's safety. Habits form over time. They are passed on

Satisfaction Background

from worker to worker until the culture accepts looser safety standards. Facts Position Statement Introduce more statistics on workplace accidents relevant to your organization. When workers are responsible and accountable for one another, safety compliance increases. Present one or more case studies. Safer workplaces are more productive, even in the short term so workers aren't more efficient when they don't take the time to follow safety rules.

Examples Counterarguments

Step Four: Visualize the Future Describe what the situation will look like if the audience does nothing. The more realistic and detailed the vision, the better it will create the desire to do what you recommend. Your goal is to motivate the audience to agree with you and adopt similar behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs. Help them see what the results could be if they act the way you want them to. Make sure your vision is believable and realistic. You can use three methods to help the audience share your vision: 1. Positive method Describe what the situation will look like if your ideas are adopted. Emphasize the positive aspects. 2. Negative method Describe what the situation will look like if your ideas are rejected. Focus on the dangers and difficulties caused by not acting. 3. Contrast method Develop the negative picture first, and then reveal what could happen if your ideas are accepted. Visualization Contrast Method Negative Method Picture a safe and healthy workplace for everyone. Continue the status quo (keep doing the same thing), and someone will be seriously injured. Picture yourself at a colleague's funeral. You were right beside him when he decided not to wear his safety harness. How do you face his wife when you know you were right there and didn't say anything?

Positive Method

Consider the opposite. Imagine seeing your co-worker receive an award for 25 years of service. Feel the pride when you teach safety standards to new workers. Share the joy of your team's rewards for an outstanding safety record.

Step Five: Action/Actualization Your final job is to leave your audience with specific things they can do to solve the problem. You want them to take action now. Don't overwhelm them with too much information or too many expectations, and be sure to give them options to increase their sense of ownership of the solution. This can be as simple as inviting them to have some refreshments as you walk around and answer questions. For very complex problems, the action step might be getting together again to review plans. Action/Actualization Review your safety procedures immediately. I've arranged a factory tour after lunch. Everyone is invited to join us. Your insights will really help us identify areas that need immediate attention. If you're unable to attend this afternoon, I've left some pamphlets and business cards. Feel free to call me with questions, concerns, and ideas.

3) Stages and types of negotiation Types of negotiation These two approaches align more or less with the two main types of negotiation:

Distributive Distributive negotiation is a way of dividing up a single, fixed quantity where a gain to one side results in a loss to the other. While both sides may benefit from the deal, one side will definitely benefit more than the other. Integrative Integrative negotiation involves a more collaborative approach, where both sides work together in the hopes of achieving the greatest possible benefit for both sides.

Even in a negotiation where theres direct competition between the two sides, there are often opportunities for collaboration. Its rare to find a negotiation thats purely distributive or purely integrative. Most fall somewhere in between, but its important to understand each type on its own.

Stages of Negotiation: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Preparation Discussion Clarification of goals Negotiation towards a WIN-WIN situation Agreement Implementation of a course of action

1. Preparation Before any negotiation takes place, a decision needs to be taken as to when and where a meeting will take place to discuss the problem and who will attend. Setting a limited timescale can also be helpful to prevent the disagreement continuing This stage involves ensuring all the pertinent facts of the situation are known in order to clarify your own position. In the work example above, this would include knowing the rules of your organisation, to whom help is given, when help is not felt appropriate and the grounds for such refusals. Your organisation may well have policies to which you can refer in preparation for the negotiation. Undertaking preparation before discussing the disagreement will help to avoid further conflict and unnecessary wasting time during the meeting.

2. Discussion During this stage, individuals or members of each side put forward the case as they see it, that is their understanding of the situation. Key skills during this stage are questioning, listening and clarifying. Sometimes it is helpful to take notes during the discussion stage to record all points put forward in case there is need for further clarification. It is extremely important to listen, as when disagreement takes place it is easy to make the mistake of saying too much and listening too little. Each side should have an equal opportunity to present their case.

3. Clarifying Goals From the discussion, the goals, interests and viewpoints of both sides of the disagreement need to be clarified. It is helpful to list these in order of priority. Through this clarification it is often possible to identify or establish common ground.

4. Negotiate for a WIN-WIN Outcome This stage focuses on what is termed a WIN-WIN outcome where both sides feel they have gained something positive through the process of negotiation and both sides feel their point of view has been taken into consideration. A WIN-WIN outcome is usually the best outcome, however it may not always be possible but through negotiation it should be the ultimate goal. Suggestions of alternative strategies and compromises need to be considered at this point. Compromises are often positive alternatives which can often achieve greater benefit for all concerned rather than holding to the original positions.

5. Agreement Agreement can be achieved once understanding of both sides viewpoints and interests have been considered. It is essential to keep an open mind in order to achieve a solution. Any agreement needs to be made perfectly clear so that both sides know what has been decided.

6. Implementing a Course of Action

From the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented, to carry through the decision. Failure to Agree: If the process of negotiation breaks down and agreement cannot be reached, then re-scheduling a further meeting is called for. This avoids all parties becoming embroiled in heated discussion or argument, which not only wastes valuable time but can also damage future working relationships. At the subsequent meeting, the stages of negotiation should be repeated. Any new ideas or interests should be taken into account and the situation looked at afresh. At this stage it may also be helpful to look at other alternative solutions and/or bring in another person to mediate.

4) Negotiation in sales Pre requisites of a sales person: 1. Knowledge: Company, Products and achievements Technical/Commercial Customers

2. Communication skills: Verbal Non verbal Listening

3. Administrative skills Organising Planning and prioritizing Coordinating

4. Strategies Sensing customer reactions Understanding customer type Questioning techniques Handling complaints and dissatisfied customers Managing customer perception and expectations Evolving solutions

5. 'You' Factor Interpersonal skills Attributes and qualities

Negotiation includes following stages: 1. Attend to the customer 2. Understand/Identify/create a need 3. Generate sufficient interest by providing information and help the customer to evaluate your offer

4. Get consensus on their need 5. Offer right/relevant solutions and keep flexibility for any changes 6. Close for a commitment and complete the transaction. Important Points in sales negotiations: 1. Be prompt and regular in attendance 2. Share freely your experience 3. Allow and encourage others to contribute 4. Listen attentively and take notes 5. Ask questions when you don't understand 6. Appreciate the other person's point of view 7. Provide constructive feedback and receive the same willingly 8. Provide relevant information about the product 9. Opt for a win-win strategy 10. Always make sure to close the transaction