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NAME : Sihui CHEN COUNTRY : France REGISTRATION NUMBER : 3206 Resonance effect on no-load noise of a 100KVA magnetic core

GROUP REF. : CIGRE SC A2 PREF. SUBJECT : PS3 QUESTION N : Q 6

The objective of this study is to identify the resonance effect on no-load noise problem of a 100kVA transformer magnetic core. Natural frequencies of this transformer core are calculated using FEM method. Noise measurements of no-load state and harmonic-reply experiments are carried out to identify which natural mode is more excitable during no-load state and could cause resonance effect on noise problem. A 100KVA transformer core (fig. 1) is chosen to carry out a pilot experimental study. Final objective is to carry out a major experiment on a larger power transformer core in real condition. The specification of the transformer core is shown in table 1. Magnetic Core: 100KVA Mass: 125 kg Three Limbs Three Phases Inter-Axis distance: 213 mm Window Height: 285 mm Circuit Diameter: 120 mm Total Height: 527 mm Total Width: 543 mm Layer Structure: 6 big layers by each side Magnetic sheet material: FEM 111 30 P Nominal induction: 1.725 T Table 1 The Specification of the Magnetic Core The material properties used to calculate natural frequencies are listed below and the material is considered isotropic.
E x = E y = E z = 2.12 1011 Pa

= 0.28

Fig. 1: experimental model of the 100KVA core 1. Natural frequency calculation results

Since the core is free in space, the first few rigid low frequency modes are neglected in this study. Table 2 lists the first 12 non-rigid natural frequencies. There is no need to list further more natural mode since the modes with higher order will be much less energetic. Fig. 3 shows two examples of the natural modes of the core.

Mode Frequency [Hz] 1. 464.43 2. 505.49 3. 910.01 4. 1138.9 5. 1360.3 6. 1598.2 7. 1724.1 8. 1807.1 9. 1853.9 10. 1875.7 11. 1940.4 12. 2118.4 Table 2 The first 12 natural frequencies of the core

Fig.3: example of two natural modes of this magnetic core 2. Noise level measurements of the core on no-load state

Some electrical coils are added to the three limbs of the core. A power source with variable frequency is fed to the coils so as to study the frequency response of the core (fig. 4). The magnetic flux density in the core changes in a sinusoidal form, the same as that of electrical power source. The steel laminations of the core are supposed to vibrate due to the effect of magnetostriction. The vibration of the core leads to a noise increase. Sonometer is adopted to measure the noise in sweeping the surrounding surfaces of the core.

Fig. 4 core on no-load state A few series of experiments are carried out to measure the noise. In fig. 5, the no-load state noise of the core is presented. All the noise results are that without background noise. The red line represents the noise level in Li (dBlin) with nominal flux density as 1.7T. Meanwhile, the core becomes too hot to work normally in air. Therefore, the core is merged in oil instead of air. The noise measurements are only realized for the frequencies between 0-550Hz, since the core will becomes too hot even merged in oil and the facility of electrical power source has also reached its capacity limit.

The blue lines represent the noise results in Li (dBlin) with nominal flux density as 0.7T. A full spectrum of frequencies from 0 to 1000 Hz is measured for this flux density because of the relative low flux density and reasonable core temperature.

Fig. 5 no-load state noise (Red line Li (dBlin), 1.7 T with oil, blue line Li (dBlin), 0.7T without oil) According to these results, there are two peaks of noise around 340Hz and 400Hz. For the interval from 500 to 1000Hz, two similar peaks appear. It is not difficult to find out that actually they are the second harmonic frequencies of the previous two peaks. The magnetostriction forces vary with a double frequency of that of the power source. Therefore, the exciting frequency can only excite the natural modes which have the frequencies of even times of exciting frequency. For example, a mode of 800Hz can be excited if the exciting source frequency is 400Hz. In the same way, a mode of 1600Hz is also possible to be excited. Therefore, the fourth harmonic of these two frequencies are calculated. 1360Hz and 1600Hz coincide to the two calculated natural modes in fig. 3. 3. Harmonic-reply experiments of the core on no-load state

Similar experimental equipment is used in this experiment besides three acceleration sensors are added to measure the acceleration rate of the core vibration. Many locations of the core are tested to measure their accelerations. Finally the three locations marked in fig. 6 are found to have a more representative response curves.

Fig. 6 harmonic-reply experiments with acceleration sensors In fig. 7 and 8, the speed amplitude of sensor 5 are shown. The figure 7 represents the response curve of the sensor 5 with exciting source at 200Hz and 385Hz. The figure 8 shows that at 510Hz. According to the noise measurements, it is already known that the resonance occurs near 1600Hz. Therefore, three sample frequencies, before-resonance, resonance and after-resonance frequencies, are chosen for acceleration measurements to demonstrate the resonance effect of vibration amplitude.

It is evident that the speed amplitude of sensor 5 at 200Hz and 510Hz is nearly zero. A resonance really occurs around 385Hz. The fourth harmonic of 385Hz is 1540Hz, which is near to the natural frequency 1598Hz.

Fig. 7 speed amplitudes of sensor 5 with source frequency at 200Hz and 385Hz

Fig. 8 speed amplitudes of sensor 5 with source frequency at 510Hz The speed amplitudes of three sensors 3-5 at 385Hz are shown in fig. 9 and 10. The speed amplitudes increase with the sensor number, which represents an outward deformation of the side limb. Moreover, for the middle limb, the amplitude of the peak is much less (1/10 value) than the side limbs around this frequency. It can be concluded that the excited mode on no-load state for this core by magnetostriction is the mode 1598Hz in fig. 3, image on the right.

Fig. 9 speed amplitudes of sensor 3 and 4 with source frequency at 385Hz

Fig. 10 speed amplitudes of sensor 5 with source frequency at 385Hz Reference: [1]Aspects of noise associated with GO electrical steels in transformer applications Messrs Keith Jenkins and David Snell, Cogent Power Limited [2]Noise in Power Transformers-Models for Generation, Transmission and Propagation Jan Anger, ABB Power Transformers, Ludvika, Sweden, Dr Anders Daneryd, ABB Corporate Research Center, Sweden [3]Contribution of Magnetostriction to the Vibrations of Electrical Machines: Measurement, Modelling and Calculation Tom G.D. Hilgert, Lieven Vandevelde and Jan A.A. Melkebeek [4] Low Noise Power Transformers More Energy in large cities with less noise Dr Peter Hamberger, Siemens Transformers Austria GmbH&Co KG [5] Comparison of Magnetostriction Models for Use in Calculations of Vibrations in Magnetic Cores Hilgert, T.; Vandevelde, L.; Melkebeek, J. Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on Volume 44, Issue 6, June 2008 Page(s):874 - 877 Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMAG.2007.916395 [6] vibration Analysis of a 3-Phase Model Transformer Core Masoto Mizokami, Nippon Steel Corporation, Masao Yabumoto, The Japan Research and Development Center for Metals, Yasuo Okazaki, Gifu University [7] Identification of magnetostriction vibrations in power transformers WITOLD KUBIAK Technical University of d Institute of Mechatronics and Information Systems