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Battery storage systems and Smart mini-grid

- Sharing our experiences

PARIMITA MOHANTY, TERI

mini-grid - Sharing our experiences PARIMITA MOHANTY, TERI Workshop on ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS 3-4

Workshop on ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS 3-4 April 2013, ADB Headquarters

PARIMITA MOHANTY, TERI Workshop on ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS 3-4 April 2013, ADB Headquarters

How critical the selection of energy storage

Energy storage
Energy storage
Energy storage
Energy storage

Energy storage

Energy storage
Energy storage
Energy storage
Energy storage
Power backup Telecom Micro- E - v e h i c l e mini-grid Power
Power backup Telecom Micro- E - v e h i c l e mini-grid Power

Power backup

Telecom

Micro- E-vehicle

mini-grid

Power quality

Power backup Telecom Micro- E - v e h i c l e mini-grid Power quality
Power backup Telecom Micro- E - v e h i c l e mini-grid Power quality
Lighting
Lighting

Critical

Grid

load

stability

Micro- E - v e h i c l e mini-grid Power quality Lighting Critical Grid

Comparison

Comparison

Comparison Comparison
Comparison Comparison

Storage batteries for solar lighting and

small PV applications - TERI’s experiences

Storage batteries for solar lighting and small PV applications - TERI’s experiences

TERI’s battery testing facility

TERI’s battery testing facility Battery Analyser Battery Capacity Tester Features: • 4 batteries can be tested

Battery Analyser

TERI’s battery testing facility Battery Analyser Battery Capacity Tester Features: • 4 batteries can be tested

Battery Capacity Tester

testing facility Battery Analyser Battery Capacity Tester Features: • 4 batteries can be tested simultaneously •
testing facility Battery Analyser Battery Capacity Tester Features: • 4 batteries can be tested simultaneously •

Features:

4 batteries can be tested simultaneously

Different mode are present for charging and discharging test.

Capable of testing various types of batteries such as Lead-acid, Li- ion/Lithium Polymer and NiMH

Maximum charging and discharging rate-20Amp

Environment chamber s

battery Inverter Performance evaluation experiment Battery charging experiment in DC micro-grid application Performance

battery Inverter Performance evaluation experiment

battery Inverter Performance evaluation experiment Battery charging experiment in DC micro-grid application Performance

Battery charging experiment in DC micro-grid application

Battery charging experiment in DC micro-grid application Performance testing of the solar PV modules using solar

Performance testing of the solar PV modules using

solar array simulator and load emulator

of the solar PV modules using solar array simulator and load emulator battery in Solar On

battery in Solar

of the solar PV modules using solar array simulator and load emulator battery in Solar On

On field testing of the Lantern

Battery chemistries

Sealed Lead Acid (SLA)

Battery chemistries Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Lithium Iron Phosphate

Nickel Cadmium (NiCd)

chemistries Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)

Acid (SLA) Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) Lithium

Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO 4 )

Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) Lithium Ion Cobalt

Lithium Ion

Cobalt (Li-ion)

Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) Lithium Ion Cobalt
Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) Lithium Ion Cobalt

Battery chemistry comparison

Battery chemistry comparison http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/secondary_batteries

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/secondary_batteries

Battery chemistry comparison http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/secondary_batteries

List of standards/test methods

S.NO.

Standard No

Name of the Standards

1.

IEC 61427

Secondary cells and batteries for photovoltaic energy systems (PVES) General requirements and methods of test

 

2

IEC 61951-2

Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes portable sealed rechargeable single cells NiMH (Part 2)

 

3

IS 13369 : 1992

Stationary lead acid batteries in monobloc containers specs

4

JIS C 8702-1

Small sized sealed lead-acid batteries Part 1: General requirements, functional characteristics methods of test

 

5

JIS C 8702-2

Small-sized sealed lead-acid batteries (valve regulated types) Part2: Dimensions, terminals and marking

 

6

JIS C 8702-3

Small-sized sealed lead-acid batteries (valve regulated types) Part 3: Safety recommendations for use in electric applications

7

IEC 60896 11

Stationary lead acid batteries Part 11 Vented types general requirements and methods of tests

 
 

8 IES 61960

Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes Secondary lithium cells and batteries for portable applications

 
 

9 PVRS 5A

PV GAP recommended specification Lead acid batteries for solar photovoltaic energy systems General requirements and methods of test for modified automotive batteries

 

10 PVRS 11A

   

PV GAP recommended specification : Portable solar photovoltaic lanterns Design qualification and type approval, Extension to include lanterns with nickel-metal hydride batteries

 
 

Recommended battery testing details

Recommended battery testing details
Recommended battery testing details

Battery capacity analysis of 2 nos. of 6V/4.5Ah lead acid battery of same

make and same manufacturing date (MFD)

acid battery of same make and same manufacturing date (MFD) Model-A Charging cycle M o d

Model-A Charging cycle

and same manufacturing date (MFD) Model-A Charging cycle M o d e l - B c

Model-B charging cycle

Model A

Battery Capacity : 4.61 Ah

Runtime with LED lantern : 5.74 hrs*.

: 4.61 Ah • Runtime with LED lantern : 5.74 hrs*. Model-A discharging cycle Model-B discharging

Model-A discharging cycle

with LED lantern : 5.74 hrs*. Model-A discharging cycle Model-B discharging cycle Model B Battery Capacity

Model-B discharging cycle

Model B

Battery Capacity : 2.81

Runtime with LED lantern : 3.98 hrs.*

Ah

discharging cycle Model-B discharging cycle Model B Battery Capacity : 2.81 Runtime with LED lantern :

Capacity measurement of SMF @ various temperature

Capacity measurement at -20 ° C

Nominal Battery capacity : 4.5Ah

Observed Battery Capacity : 2.29 Ah

% variation in battery capacity: -49.11

Capacity measurement at 25 ° C

Nominal Battery capacity :4.5 Ah

Observed Battery Capacity : 4.61 Ah

% variation in battery capacity: +2.45

Capacity measurement at 45°

C

Nominal Battery capacity : 4.5Ah

Observed Battery Capacity : 4.74 Ah

% variation in battery capacity: +5.34

Nominal Battery capacity : 4.5Ah • Observed Battery Capacity : 4.74 Ah • % variation in

Capacity of 6V/4.5Ah lead acid battery at 20°C, 25°C, 45°C

Capacity of 6V/4.5Ah lead acid battery at 20°C, 25°C, 45°C
Capacity of 6V/4.5Ah lead acid battery at 20°C, 25°C, 45°C

Capacity measurement of 7.2V/2Ah Lithium Ion battery at

various temperature

Capacity measurement at -20 ° C

at various temperature Capacity measurement at -20 ° C Model-E Charging cycle Model-E discharging cycle •

Model-E Charging cycle

Capacity measurement at -20 ° C Model-E Charging cycle Model-E discharging cycle • Nominal Battery capacity

Model-E discharging cycle

Nominal Battery capacity : 2 Ah

Observed Battery Capacity : 1.48 Ah

% variation in battery capacity: -26 %

Nominal Battery capacity : 2 Ah • Observed Battery Capacity : 1.48 Ah • % variation

Capacity measurement at 25°C

Capacity measurement at 25°C Model-B discharging cycle • Nominal Battery capacity : 2 Ah • Observed

Model-B discharging cycle

Nominal Battery capacity : 2 Ah

Observed Battery Capacity : 2.07 Ah

% variation in battery capacity: +3.5%

Nominal Battery capacity : 2 Ah • Observed Battery Capacity : 2.07 Ah • % variation

Capacity measurement at 45°C

Capacity measurement at 45°C Model-B Charging cycle Model-B discharging cycle • Nominal Battery capacity : 2

Model-B Charging cycle

Capacity measurement at 45°C Model-B Charging cycle Model-B discharging cycle • Nominal Battery capacity : 2

Model-B discharging cycle

Nominal Battery capacity : 2 Ah

Observed Battery Capacity : 2.11 Ah

% variation in battery capacity: +5.5 %

Nominal Battery capacity : 2 Ah • Observed Battery Capacity : 2.11 Ah • % variation

Capacity of 7.2V/2Ah Li-ion battery

at -20°C, 25°C, 45°C

Capacity of 7.2V/2Ah Li-ion battery at -20°C, 25°C, 45°C
Capacity of 7.2V/2Ah Li-ion battery at -20°C, 25°C, 45°C

Comparative assessment of lead acid battery based and li-ion

battery based LED lantern

lead acid battery based and li-ion battery based LED lantern Lead acid based lantern and li-ion

Lead acid based lantern and li-ion based lantern are being charged by power supply

and li-ion battery based LED lantern Lead acid based lantern and li-ion based lantern are being

Test results of Li-ion battery lantern vs. lead acid battery

based lantern

Test parameters

(lead acid battery based LED lantern)

(li-ion battery based LED lantern)

Battery (V/Ah)

6V/4.5Ah

7.2V/2Ah

Charging time (hrs.)

15.60

7.4

 

-49% @-20 deg C

 

% variation capacity in battery

2.45% @ 25 deg C 5.34%@ 45 deg C

-26% @-20 deg C 3.5 % @ 25 deg C

5.5 %@ 45 deg C

% variation capacity in battery 2.45% @ 25 deg C 5.34%@ 45 deg C -26% @-20

Field observations

Quality issues in both Lead acid

and Lithium ion- batteries

Battery management /electronics

is more critical for Lithium based

than Lead acid based batteries

ion- batteries • Battery management /electronics is more critical for Lithium based than Lead acid based
ion- batteries • Battery management /electronics is more critical for Lithium based than Lead acid based
ion- batteries • Battery management /electronics is more critical for Lithium based than Lead acid based

Smart Mini-grid- An electricity distribution network operating below 11 KV, providing electricity to a community. It is supplied by a diverse range of small, local, conventional generators, such as a diesel gensets combined with a range of renewable generators, such as micro-hydro power plants, wind turbines, biomass and solar PV.

Solar Power plant Wind Generators Central generating station Transmission Tower Requirement of multiple local
Solar Power plant
Wind Generators
Central generating station
Transmission Tower
Requirement of
multiple local
control system
Require effective power
Mini grid
management for power routing
Reliability and quality
of power

Courtesy: TERI

Distributed Generation based Smart Mini-Grid system at

TERI, Gram, India

4/5/2013

23

Distributed Generation based Smart Mini-Grid system at TERI, Gram, India 4/5/2013 23
Introducing the SMG facility at TERI, GualPahari Charge Controller Inverter Generator Switch

Introducing the SMG facility at TERI, GualPahari

Charge Controller Inverter Generator Switch
Charge
Controller
Inverter
Generator
Switch
Charge Charge Controller Controller Inverter Inverter Analog Digital Generator Generator Intelligent Load
Charge
Charge
Controller
Controller
Inverter
Inverter
Analog
Digital
Generator
Generator
Intelligent Load
Switch
Dispatch
Interface

Role of storage batteries in Mini-grids -

Role of storage batteries in Mini-grids - TERI’s experience

Standard Design

Standard design

Standard Design Standard design
Standard Design Standard design
Optimal placement of batteries: Efficient, Reliable and Flexible Solar PV system The improved design separates
Optimal placement of batteries: Efficient, Reliable and Flexible
Solar PV system
The improved design separates day/night, critical/non-critical loads and offers
flexibility in connecting other energy resources and in the future, the grid.

To summarize

The overall configuration, performance and

cost economics of any power application

mainly depends on

Optimum

Planning and Placement of energy storage

Scheduling and

selection of energy storage

energy storage management

– Planning and Placement of energy storage – Scheduling and selection of energy storage energy storage

THANK YOU

THANK YOU