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Approaches, Themes, Concepts and Tools
Approaches, Themes, Concepts and Tools
“The study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at individual places and
“The study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at individual places and
“The study of the interaction of all physical and human
phenomena at individual places and of how interactions

among places form patterns and organize space.” Bergman & Renwick, 2008

Geographers are interested in:  
Geographers are interested in:

Where things happen and why (location, patterns, distributions).

How each place is made unique by the interaction of different

features and phenomena (both physical and human).

different features and phenomena (both physical and human).  How different places are interconnected through

How different places are interconnected through different physical

).

and human phenomena (i.e. systems, networks

physical ). and human phenomena (i.e. systems, networks  The interrelationships between physical and human
physical ). and human phenomena (i.e. systems, networks  The interrelationships between physical and human

The interrelationships between physical and human processes.

The interrelationships between physical and human processes.  How and why the patterns and distributions we

How and why the patterns and distributions we know are changing.

How and why the patterns and distributions we know are changing.  How we conceptualize, organize

How we conceptualize, organize and transform space.

Physical Geography Human Geography Climatology Geomorphology Pedology Hydrology Biogeography Earth Science
Physical Geography
Human Geography
Climatology
Geomorphology
Pedology
Hydrology
Biogeography
Earth Science
Economic geography
Population geography
Cultural geography
Environmental
Political geography
Geography
Urban geography
Behavioural geography
Health geography
Geographic Techniques
Regional Geography
Cartography
Remote sensing
GIS
 Observation  Fieldwork  Remote sensing
 Observation
 Fieldwork
 Remote sensing

Using remote sensing to monitor reforestation in Niger, West Africa.

 Observation  Fieldwork  Remote sensing Using remote sensing to monitor reforestation in Niger, West
 Observation  Fieldwork  Remote sensing Representation   Maps
 Observation
 Fieldwork
Remote sensing
Representation
Maps
Topographic
Topographic
Topological
Topological
Thematic Fertility Rates, 2008
Thematic
Fertility Rates, 2008
Cartograms
Cartograms
Cartograms
 Observation  Fieldwork  Remote sensing Representation   Maps
 Observation
 Fieldwork
Remote sensing
Representation
Maps
 Theories  Models  GIS
 Theories
 Models
 GIS
 Fieldwork  Remote sensing Representation   Maps  Theories  Models  GIS 

Analysis

 Fieldwork  Remote sensing Representation   Maps  Theories  Models  GIS 
Geographic Information Systems
Geographic Information Systems
Mapping the affected areas of the 2010 Pakistan Flood.

Mapping the

affected areas of the 2010 Pakistan Flood.

Using GIS for urban planning.

Using GIS for urban planning.

GIS study of “food deserts” in Montreal (urban geography).

GIS study of “food deserts” in Montreal (urban geography).

Using GIS to determine accessibility in the Peruvian Amazon.
Using GIS to determine
accessibility in the
Peruvian Amazon.
Place and Space   Region  Location  Distance Accessibility  Spatial Interaction (diffusion)
Place and Space
 Region
 Location
 Distance
Accessibility
Spatial Interaction (diffusion)
 Scale
A place is a specific geographical location that can be described by its distinctive physical
A place is a specific geographical
location that can be described by its
distinctive physical and human features.
“Place is space filled with meaning”
Yi-Fu Tuan
can be described by its distinctive physical and human features. “Place is space filled with meaning”
can be described by its distinctive physical and human features. “Place is space filled with meaning”
A region is an area delineated by one or more distinctive characteristics.
A region is an area delineated by
one or more distinctive characteristics.
A region is an area delineated by one or more distinctive characteristics.
A region is an area delineated by
one or more distinctive characteristics.
Location  Nominal  Absolute
Location
 Nominal
 Absolute
E.g. 45 o 15’ 30” N 12 o 25’ 40” E

E.g. 45 o 15’ 30” N

12 o 25’ 40” E

Location Nominal 
Location
Nominal
Location Nominal   Absolute  Relative (a.k.a. Situation)
Location Nominal   Absolute  Relative (a.k.a. Situation)

Absolute


Location Nominal   Absolute  Relative (a.k.a. Situation)

Relative (a.k.a. Situation)

The Montreal Forum The Pepsi Forum
The Montreal Forum
The Pepsi Forum
Location Nominal 
Location
Nominal
Location Nominal   Absolute  Relative (a.k.a. Situation) Cognitive 
Location Nominal   Absolute  Relative (a.k.a. Situation) Cognitive 

Absolute


Location Nominal   Absolute  Relative (a.k.a. Situation) Cognitive 

Relative (a.k.a. Situation)

Cognitive 
Cognitive
Location Nominal   Absolute  Relative (a.k.a. Situation) Cognitive 
Distance Absolute 
Distance
Absolute
Distance Absolute   Relative Cognitive 
Distance Absolute   Relative Cognitive 

Relative

Distance Absolute   Relative Cognitive 
Cognitive 
Cognitive
Distance is a constraint of geography The friction of distance As the effort (cost, time,
Distance is a constraint of geography
The friction of distance
As the effort (cost, time, opportunity cost)
required to overcome distance increases, the
level of interaction tends to decrease.
A shrinking world
A shrinking world
Accessibility  Proximity
Accessibility
 Proximity
Accessibility  Proximity  Connectivity Economic, cultural and social factors 
Accessibility  Proximity  Connectivity Economic, cultural and social factors 

Connectivity

Economic, cultural and social factors 
Economic, cultural and social factors
Spatial Interaction  Expansion diffusion Relocation diffusion  Hierarchical diffusion 
Spatial Interaction
 Expansion diffusion
Relocation diffusion
Hierarchical diffusion
Scale Glocal
Scale
Glocal