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10

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

1 A

[1]

2 B

[1]

3 B

[1]

4 B

[1]

5 C

[1]

6 C

[1]

7 A

[1]

8 A

[1]

9 B

[1]

10 C

[1]

11 A

[1]

Structured questions

12

a Totipotent – all the genetic information in some cells in any tissue can be used to produce different tissues

[1]

b Meristematic tissues

[1]

Examples of meristems: apical, lateral, buds

[1]

Non-meristematic: leaf / stem / root / flower

[1]

c Hormone: auxins

Hormone: cytokinins

Sucrose

Inorganic ions e.g. potassium, magnesium and nitrate

Trace elements e.g. iron and copper

Vitamins

Any 1 point [1]

[max 4]

d Prevent microbial contamination

[1]

Culture medium contains suitable nutrients for growth of microbes, as microbes grow faster than plant they could outgrow plants in a few days

[1]

e Explant stimulated to produce a callus

[1]

Callus can be divided

[1]

Produce a large number of clones / identical plants in a short time

[1]

f Advantages

Rapid production of large numbers of plants from few plants

 

Genetically identical plants produced

Plant diseases can be avoided

Plants can be produced any time of year

Any valid point

Any 1 point [1]

Disadvantages

Must be carried out under sterile conditions

Not as convenient as sowing seeds in large quantities

Since plants are genetically identical, all plantlets susceptible to same disease

 

Any valid point

Any 1 point [1]

13

a

Asexual

[1]

b

All plants are genetically identical / same genetic composition

[1]

c

Offspring genetically identical to parent therefore would be well adapted to the environment

 

Offspring plants can use nutrients from parents until they have developed their own shoot and root systems

Ease of propagation

No need for fusion of gametes / pollinating agents

Any valid point

Any 2 points [2]

 

d

Clones

[1]

e

No

If Yes or No [1]

 

Even though genetically identical, plants may absorb varying amounts of nutrients, light etc.

May look different

Yes

Plants are genetically identical / plants develop through process of mitosis

Reason [1]

 

f

Plants are genetically identical so all susceptible

[1]

g

Use meristem tissue from suckers / apical meristem

 

Under sterile/aseptic conditions

Grow on nutrient agar medium

Add a particular mix of cytoknin and auxins to stimulate shoot and then root growth

Place plantlets in semi-solid nutrient agar

7–8 points [4]

Incubate in light

5–6 points [3]

Subdivide plantlets

3–4 points [2]

Then to a sterile soil to grow into plant

1–2 points [1]

 

h

Disease-free seedlings

 

Genetically identical so all bananas have same qualities

Large number of plants produced in a short time

Any valid point

2 points [2]

Essay questions

14 a

Meristematic

Unspecialised / undifferentiated cells in plants

Able to undergo mitotic division

To form identical new cells

Callus

1 point 1 mark [max 3]

 

Mass of undifferentiated cells

Produced by mitosis

Mass of cells genetically identical to parent plant

1 point 1 mark [max 3]

b

Piece of plant tissue removed

From either meristematic / apical tissue or non-meristematic tissue / leaf / root

Under sterile / aseptic conditions / dipped into a disinfectant solution immediately on removal from parent plant

Grow on nutrient agar medium

Which includes sucrose / vitamins / inorganic ions

For normal growth

13–14 points [9]

Add a particular mix of cytokinins

11–12 points [8]

To promote shoot growth

9–10 points [7]

And auxins

7–8 points [6]

To stimulate root growth

6 points [5]

Place plantlets in semi-solid nutrient agar

5 points [4]

Incubate in light

4 points [3]

Subdivide plantlets

3 points [2]

Then to a sterile soil to grow into plant

2 points [1]

15 Asexual: One parent produces one or more new individuals through mitosis

a

[1]

[1]

Vegetative: Common form of asexual reproduction in plants

b

i In prokaryotes / bacteria

 

Splitting of cell into 2

Example [1]

Diagram could be used

Well explained [1]

ii In Penicillium / fungi

Aerial hyphae develop

At tips conidiophores formed

Produce blue–green spores by mitosis

Spores called conidia / conidiospores

Example [1]

Diagram could be used

Well explained [1]

iii In animals / starfish / ribbon worms

Example [1]

Splitting parts of their bodies

Well explained [1]

iv Sugar cane / African violets / cassava

Break a piece of plant and place in soil

Piece of plant eventually grows new roots and becomes complete plant

Pieces of sugarcane usually have a node with buds

Other plants may require rooting powder / auxins to stimulate root formation

Example [1] Well explained [2]

c Advantages

Offspring genetically identical to parent therefore well adapted to the environment

Ease of propagation

No need for fusion of gametes / pollinating agents

Effective in dispersing the species

Any valid point Disadvantages

All plants susceptible to same diseases

No genetic variation in offspring, does not allow to adapt to changing environment

Any valid point

Any 3 points [3]

d Complex organisms

Need for genetic variation to colonise new areas

Any valid point

[1]