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On the Application of Complex

Numbers

to Geometry

ToraoUCHIDA

( /

ttic,

Libealttt,

ii

RecentlyMr.Konaka Feuerbach's will extend

has proved

theinteresting. results betweenSimson's pointcircular coordinates. Simson line. of the line h ifois

line and

circleby using F. Morley's

In this paper,l

this result in the case of Langley's

Let three points tl> tit t3 be in circle, then the equation +ytitz = ti+ t. where is conjugate The line passing of . throughthe point onthe

circum circle and

perpendicular

to the

lin has the equation

Then

the equation of the intersection of these two lines is


(zlz)

If we introduce the elementary

symmetric
t3tit

functions
Si tiMi

Sl=tZ3S2ZIZ2tt+

the previous equation is written simply

2 (si-it3z

(1)

and

the conjugate

of (1) is

Eliminating ^3 from (1) and (2), we get the equation of the Simson's respect to the triangle tltit^l

(2)

line of Z with

s32

Z3Syf" if

tS3

The

equation of the line making

given anglewith

the line Mi is

'37 x(tcota + l)tt2 cot a l)=t(icotixJt)(t)

Therefore

the equation of the intersection 'f these two lines, j-

{Z(t1)(glhXicota-1)(/cot-l)

If we

introduce

the elementary

symmetric

functions,

as before,

SIZ1+ the above equation

t3>

S2 = M2

+ M3

+ t3tl, ' S3-Z3

is written,j

{Z(t1)(SIZ3)(t15(?cota-l)}

(3)

and

this conjugate

is

1 flC?cota + l)-()(t)(?COta-l)
If line

we

eliminate

Z3 from(3) and

(4.),we

get the equation of the Langley's Simson

XZ>'53 =

{2(12s3)(t

cot a(Z3si12sSo)}

Hereafter Theorem The

we write simply (Konaka)

the above

equation (a).

locus of the intersection of Simson

lines of the

both

ends of the

diameter

of

the circleis Feuerbach's Proof. Take

circle.'. equation

three pointsti{i=1 2, 3) on the unitcircle,thenthe self-conjugate line of point on the circle with

of the Simson's given by

respect to the triangle ht.tz is

tx-S3y jy(z3slg2ss3)

(1)

where

Si, S2, S3 denote the elementary

symmetric,

functions of . the pointZbe, the self-

. Lettheother endofthediameter conjugate equation of the Simson's

passing, through

line of t' with respect to the triangle tiMi is


()

t'x-s3(3-S3)

where

The

equation

of the intersection

of (1) and

(2)

Therefore

Hencethelocus diameter origin and of the oftheintersections oftheSimson's lines of the both ends of the circle is the circle whose centre t he middle point between the

the orthocentreand

radius iS

Next

taking

this diameter passing parallel

as the through to the

special

case, Z1 of the triangle sides ht.h ByKonaka's line and Simson Feuerbach's line.Ne get

(1)the diameter (2)the diameter (3)the diameter

the point three sides

perpendicular

to the three

of the triangle

WecaneasilyprovethattheabovecircleisFeuerbach'scircle. interesting circle. results, extend theorems. we canknow the relationbetween case Simson's

I will

the Konaka's

result in the

of Langley's

the following Theorem The locus

of the

intersection

ofthe circle.

Langley's

Simson

line of the both of the line.

ends

of the ofthis

diameteris nine points

theninepoints

If a varies>

thenthelocus point

centre

circle is perpendicular

at the middle

of the Euler's

Proof. The equationof theLangley'sSimson line of the point on the circle with respect

to the triangle

tltztiis

ZS3{2(Z3s;)(?'cot1)(Z3

SIZ2sS3)}

and the equation of the Langley's Simson U' with respect to the triangle ilMz}
12(Z3s3)(?'
t-ys3'

line of the other end point of

the diameter

cot1)(Z3slZ2S2if-S3)}

Now

if we

subtract

each

other,

(l-?cot)S1(1?'cot)S3 2Z Therefore, the locus of the diameter of the

of the intersection circle ,is Feuerbach's

of the

Langley's

Simson

line of the both and

ends if

circle whose

centre 'iS1 fjot

137
circleis t)endicularto the midd

varies, the locus of the centre of this FeuerbacK's

point of Euler's line... If we Theorem The change the diameter with the chord, we getthe followir!theorems.

12' line (in commomeaning) of the both !ds o f the any

intersection of the Simson

chord 1 20f the circum circle of the triangle t:t3is the c?rthopole of the line . Proof. The equation of the Simson line of the point "i with'respectto the triangle ZI3 is

yss(13S112SAS Similarly the equation of the Simson line of theppin:t "z is

ys3 =(Sl<'/*-S2''2-S3)" Now if we subtract each other

(s112--

Therefore Theorem When point

we

get

the theorem.

the lines passing through the point on the citcum circle M^t-i rotate respect to the triangle around the

V, the locus

of the orthopoles yf these lintS wrth

h /2 Z3 ihe

I.t Simson line of Theorem If 14 with nine the origin points (the drcumcentre)inTheorem i3 the locus of the

II coincides is the

orthopoles

circle.y general following

Instead jl of proving Theorem and Theorem14, we willmore theorem. Theorem15 If ti is any point in Theorem 13 the above !ocus is the ellipse.

Proof. The equation of the line passing through the poirit ttis

Z1 where The V is conjugateof equation of the line tt. passing through h and perpendicular to (1),

xt-y = M2 h

The

equation

of the intersection of (1) and (2)


(3)

()}

The

equation

of the line

t->t3,

i+yt.4a =t2 + t3

(4y)

Therefore

the equation of the line passing through (3) and

perpendicular

to (4-) is

=,1
Similarly we get

(ut-ht) tl

xih ={z()}

{llt-U

Therefore

the intersection

of these

two

lines,

x{{zj(zlz)}(j7t)=-(sl)(zs)
{(Si), Therefore the locus of the orthopoles is the ellipse whose centre is thatis

iddle

point

of

the

segment

which

passes

through

and

the

orthocentre.

Theorem

The

intersectionofthe

nine

points

circle

and

the

pedalcircle

of

the

isogonal

tpw.th.respect.to.the.trian

.ZIZ3.is.the.intersection.of.the.Simson.line s . o f . t h e

both.ends.of.the.diameter.passing.through.

Proof.

Leti

iU

l,

2,

3)

bethelengths

of

the

perpendicular

fromthetwoisogonal

points

tthethree

sides

ofthetriangle,

and

Xj,

(i

l,

2,

3)

bethe

sym

metric

points

about

the

thr e e

sides,

then

by

Ptolemy's

theorem

we

get

where

is

the

diamete r

of

the

pedal

circle

and

is

equal

to

lx'.

From

l-yxi=--a2)(13))

we

get

easily

the

equation

of

the

circle

which

passes

through

xi,

X2>'

1=(1l)()(1

(1)

Let

the centre

of this circle be 1, then

we

get

1(1)(
On subtracting (2) from (1) we get at once (1
)(1 (1
Z

(2)

1-yt

1r

,37

where1. HenceP = l-x'2=(1y)(1) Therefore


(1)(l-x)()()(1)(!) 4ii=(1-)(1)

Hence

the equation of the pedal circleis

2z= x(1)Z

As

X and'

are isogonal

conjugate

points,

we

get"

' + Sa3'J'' = Sl. Therefore the equation of the pedal circle iSalso written as follows

2 2 = Si-S3VV'( If we putoslwe centreis themiddle can know that this circleis t nine points circle whose passing through the circum centre and the

point of the segment

orthocentre.I 2z = si+ t Fr Therefore the intersection of the nine points circle" andthe pedal circleis

))
the coordinates axis sach that !is on the fea! axis, we get

.lk where Si, S2> S3 denote the elementary symmetC functions Of t,. Now if we take

x'^-y'

{(sls)

On

the other hand

the equation of the Simson

line of the point on the circum circle

hhti is

xt-ys3==Z3Z2S1SS3

Hence

replacing 1, we get the equation of.the passing through and

Simson

lines of the

both ends of

the diameter

yss =-9(1SIS2S3)

VS3 =(S1S2

-S3)

We

get the intersection of these lines


(s1s)

that is the intersection of the nine points circle and Thus the proof of our theorem is complete.

the pedal circle.

Theorem17 IfthetwotrianglesMztiandh'tiareinscribed in the same of the intersection of Langley's to the two Proof. The equation of the Langley's Simsonline of the point on the circum circle with triangles tltzsand Simsonline of any circle, the angle

point on the circle with respect

ty't..

respect to the triangle ZIis

()Xt-yS:i

{2(Zs3)(t1)(Z3s112s2Zs3)}(1)

Similarlythe

equation

of the

Langley's Simson

line of the pointZ with respect to

the triangle t/t2is

(:xt-ys{2(13s)(t1)(Z3S1s2s)}(2)

where

Sls-.'.sdenote the elementary

symmetric

functions of ti'' that is = t/ti

SZZZS2'=tlZ2Z31Si'

Let the angle of the intersectionof L(a) and Ua')

bethen

we get

jjj123
where We ty.j get

2 3).

(12)t. 2

Therefore

we

get the theorem.

Theorem The degree. Proof. Eliminatingfrom the above equations L{a) and ( ). locus oftheintersection of the above Simson's lines is the curve of the second

y(SS3)(2(sS3)(t1)(sS1)Z(sS2)SS2}

8 Therefore

537

2(1)(ly-+{(? cot-1) + 2U

If we

put
- Si''-Si S3^-S:i

lY

-=c+id S3'-S3

Zj

we get the quadratic

equation of and

2X=(-bcot1)(l^a)

cot a+b}

sin 6dcot a c

2(1)t(1Z*).sin eccot.

Eliminatingwe

get the equation of the second degree whose variablesare X,


X+2(bcota + a-l)Y-C)t2

2(1)t}

cotbe-ad22(1b)X'+2{(l-a)cota&}c(l-a) t(ad-bd-2) 2b) cot a cg(1)t(&

cot a&ab-a-&1

Theorem19' When Simson similar Proof. Three Lang!ey's Simson lines have two triangles tiMi and

. in the same le. three triangle Langley's which is

are inscribed to the

lines of the points

withrespect

.iangle

titih' make

to the triangle .

the follbwi(!uations,

iTi-ys

{2(Q3S3)(?COt

a-l)(o-i'*-Sicri^S2O-1-S3)}-

0-2

VS3

{2(23s)(?'cot

a 1)23S4S3)}

{2(s)(/cot Xirs -ySi a !)(0-3'*Si(r:j2S2a-2S3)-

where Let

s1 Si, S3 denote the equation

the elementary

symmetric

functions

of fl) '2' .. Xi,3, then

of the intersections

of t?9 three

lines1)

Xl 0-2k(jcol 1)(i71)

X2-<r:i + 0-1+j/cot

1)(+

0-1S)

(1)

c2(?COta; l)(tri +)

The

condition

that

the triangle

is similar

to the triangle

Cl) CZr3

is

(2)

Substituting tdeterminant Theorem The and Langley's

the

abovevalues

of

Xi,23>

we

can

easily

prove

that

the

value

of

of the left hand

side of (2) is 0.

Simson

line

of the point

Z61 0n

the

circumcircle is perpendicular

of the triangletv to it are concurrent.

those of the both

ends

of the chord

U2Z13- Which

Proof. The equation of the Langley's Simson line of Ml and M2with respect to the triangle

titit.iare respectively,

zfs37

{2(23s)(i

cot1)(z,sl22S..?<2

s)}

Therefore

the equation of the intersection of these lines is

.=jy{(g27jJ)(t1)(t1)s1}

(1)

Letthe ^i, r

coordinates roots

ofthe intersections of the following

of ) and equation,

the unit

circle be ^l> ^2> then

are two

quadratic

x11;-{2(zg13s;)(^

cot1)(13

s2lS&)}

From

the relation of the roots and

coefficients,

1 Z11 By the assumption;


'-1^2ti2Zh Therefore,

as U2U3 is perpendicular
= 0

V2.

23l2

()

' Substituting the values of (2) in (1), we have

the equation,

1g2g3)(t1)(t1)SI}

10

37
this epuation is the symmetric functionoftH> Wo, 3>weget the theorem

As

Theorem Let then

21 which makes of the the angle a withtheLangley's Simson line of the point titits be U2U3J

the chord the

circumcircle tCill2 make

triangie t.i with a withthe

respect" to the triangle Langley's Simson

u-Ati and

the angle

lir!es of ti2, u-i with Langley's

respect to the triangle titzt-Aand also tit-At txtt!, tj..make the angle with the F-.J Simson lines of ti.h with respect to the triangle tllUzl Make respectively make the angle oc with the Simson

line of Z1j2Z3 with

respect

to the triangle

tlltl^Uz-.

Proof.l' The equation of the Langley's Sim son line of til with tespect to the triangle ht.h is

x^^-ys3 =

{2(ljs))T(?cdt

a 1)(13si12s2s3)}

The (a)

equation

of the line passing

through' zandmakir! angle

with the line

is

(1)

itiX-S3V

tUlllo.

where

2iis

Let line

the intersection passing through

of the line U2 and

L (a)

ar!d the.. unitcircle be Ua,

the equation

of the

Us is.j:
(2)

X + U2U:iy As the lines (1) and (2) are the same,


riS3 -123

Therefore
-S.i = '^tli2Z3

The triangle

equation

of

the le

Simson Simson

line line

L (aO passing (apassing

through through

Ui respect Ui with with

to the

tit2.t:i is

i {2(S3)(i

U2 - yss =

cot 3SIS2tt2S3n

(3)

Substituting the above values in (3), we get


2(z2.s)(jci)t.1)(zg23.S)1,t.-S3)} j;zglzg2 (4)

11

On

the other hand

the equation of the line passing through

the points th> U-jis

1
Let theintersectioa which makes 0f the line iblU-, and the angle a with the Sim sonlineL'{a) the line passing through be xi, the equation the point l is

of the line

;tiZt-iy=Xi

+ Xi^thu-i

As

the

point

Xl is on

the

line

a),

we

get

j;1Xi'^thih

2s

cot (W2''-Sl22S3

Therefore

the above equation coincides with thenwe Similarly we can prove- the latter part.

get the former

part of

the theoren.

References

CD CCO Ol

Kobayashi : Simson's line, J. M. E. Vol. 11 (1921). J. H. Weaver:On isogonal points. A. M. M. Vol. 42 (193B). . Morley S. Konaka : On the metric geometry of the lines. . . . S. Vol. 6 (1906). : The relation between Simson's line and nine points circle, Research (1931). Sugakukai Sugakukai Sugakukai Numbers Numbers (1948). (194S). (1949). to Geometryl. to Geometry Kyusyu SugakukybReports of Report of

the Tottori University (1953). S. Ogino : On the Simson's line. Sugaku . Uchida : On . Uchida : On . Uchida : On T. Uchida : On the Simson's the Simson's the Simson's line, Nihon line, Nihon line, Nihon

the Application

of Complex

ikukai (1950). T. Uchida : the Application of Complex the Kochi University . 2 (1952).

II. Research

(Received

September

30, 1956)