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Module 1
1. Spreadsheet Basics 2. The Excel Screen 3. Movement Keys 4. Accessing Help

1. SPREADSHEET BASICS
What is a spreadsheet?
A spreadsheet is the computerized equivalent of a general ledger. It has taken the place of the pencil, paper and calculator. Spreadsheet programs were first developed for accountants but have now been adopted by anyone wanting to prepare a budget, forecast sales data, create profit and loss statements, compare financial alternatives, and any other mathematical applications requiring calculations. The electronic spreadsheet is laid out similar to the paper ledger sheet in that it is divided into columns and rows. Any task that can be done on paper can be performed on an electronic spreadsheet faster and more accurately. The problem with manual sheets is that if any error is found within the data, all answers must be erased and recalculated manually. With the computer, formulas can be written that are automatically updated whenever the data is changed. By having formulas that automatically recalculate, you can play with the numbers to see how the final result is affected. The horizontal bar across the top of the worksheet is filled with letters, beginning with A and ending with the letter XFD. Each letter represents a column while the vertical bar
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along the left side of the worksheet is filled with numbers that refer to rows. The rows are numbered 1 through 1048576. The intersection between a column and a row is referred to as a cell. A cell is similar to a box that can be used to store pieces of information. Each piece of information could be a word or group of words, a number or a mathematical formula. Each cell has its own address. This address is used in formulas for referencing different parts of the worksheet. The address of a cell is defined by the letter of the column it is located in and the number of the row. For example, the address of a cell in column B, row 5 would be referred to as B5. The column is always listed first followed by the row without any spaces between the two. These cell addresses are useful when entering formulas. Instead of typing actual values in your equations, you simply type the cell address that the value is stored in. Then, if you need to go back and change one of the values the spreadsheet automatically updates the answer based on the new number(s). For example, instead of typing 67*5.4 you could enter C5*D5. The number 67 is stored in cell C5 and the number 5.4 is stored in cell D5. If these numbers change next month or next year, the formula remains correct as it references the cells - not the actual values. With the second formula, you can change the numbers stored in cells C5 and D5 as often as required and see the result recalculate immediately.

Running Microsoft Excel


Follow these steps to run Excel from the Start menu: 1. Click on Windows Start button (located along the far left side of the taskbar) to access the Windows Start menu; 2. Select All Programs from the pop-up menu; 3. Select Microsoft Office folder from the sub menu (see picture below):

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4. Select Microsoft Excel 2010 from the sub-menu.

2. The Excel Screen


The Excel 2010 user experience
After you start the program, you are taken into a blank untitled workbook where you may begin entering your data. You will notice that the program window includes many of the standard elements common to most Office 2010 applications as well as a few items that are unique to Excel. The screen can be quite intimidating the first time you see it as there are so many items displayed. However, if you take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with the various screen elements, the program will become easier to work with.

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Fig. 1-1: The Excel 2010 program window as it appears immediately after launching the program

The Excel 2010 ribbon


The very first time you launch Excel 2010, its Ribbon contains the following seven tabs, proceeding from left to right: Home: Use this tab when creating, formatting, and editing a spreadsheet. This tab is arranged into the Clipboard, Font, Alignment, Number, Styles, Cells, and Editing groups. Insert: Use this when adding particular elements (including graphics, PivotTables, charts, hyperlinks, and headers and footers) to a spreadsheet. This tab is arranged into the Tables, Illustrations, Sparklines, Filter, Charts, Links, and Text groups. Page Layout: Use this tab when preparing a spreadsheet for printing or reordering graphics on the sheet. This tab is arranged into the Themes, Page Setup, Scale to Fit, Sheet Options, and Arrange groups. Formulas: Use this tab when adding formulas and functions to a spreadsheet or checking a worksheet for formula errors. This tab is arranged into the Function Library, Defined Names, Formula Auditing, and Calculation groups. Note that this tab
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also contains a Solutions group when you activate certain add-in programs, such as Conditional Sum and Euro Currency Tools. Data: Use this tab when importing, querying, outlining, and subtotaling the data placed into a worksheets data list. This tab is arranged into the Get External Data, Connections, Sort & Filter, Data Tools, and Outline groups. Note that this tab also contains an Analysis group if you activate add-ins, such as the Analysis Toolpak and Solver Add-In. Review: Use this tab when proofing, protecting, and marking up a spreadsheet for review by others. This tab is arranged into the Proofing, Language, Comments, and Changes groups. Note that this tab also contains an Ink group with a sole Start Inking button if youre running Office 2010 on a Tablet PC or on a computer equipped with some sort of electronic input tablet. View: Use this tab when changing the display of the Worksheet area and the data it contains. This tab is arranged into the Workbook Views, Show, Zoom, Window and Macros groups.

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Module 2
1. Entering/Editing Data 2. Deleting Information 3. Adjusting Column Widths 4. Creating Formulas 5. Filling Data & Formulas 6. Saving a Workbook 7. Previewing/Printing 8. Changing Page Setup 9. Closing a File

4. CREATING FORMULAS
Formulas are used to obtain answers based on mathematical equations that you design. Formulas can be as simple as "2+2" or as complex as calculating the depreciation of fixed assets. When creating formulas, you may use actual values, cell addresses or a combination of the two. The steps for creating formulas are: 1. The equal sign (=) is used to indicate to Excel that you are about to enter a formula. This also ensures that formulas beginning with a cell address are not mistaken for text; 2. Enter the actual formula for Excel to calculate. When entering these formulas, the following basic mathematical operators are used: + (add); - (subtract); * (multiply); / (divide). 3. When a formula is complete and the ENTER key has been pressed, the result will be displayed in the current cell. The formula itself is displayed in the formula bar (located in the upper-left of the screen next to the cell address).
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Module 3
1. Opening an existing Workbook 2. Moving Data (copy, paste, cut) 3. Alignment 4. Formatting Values 5. Inserting/Deleting

2. MOVING DATA (COPY, PASTE, CUT)


Dragging & Dropping
Moving cells with drag & drop To drag and drop a cell or block of cells, follow the steps below: 1. Select the cell(s) to be moved; 2. Place the mouse pointer on one of the outer borders of the selected block. The pointer should change to a four-way arrow; 3. Begin dragging the block. An outline of the cells moves with you. Notice as you drag that Excel displays the current cell address so you are sure where you are dragging; 4. When you reach the correct location, release the mouse button. The selection should have now been moved to the new location.

Copying cells with drag & drop


To copy cells using drag and drop, follow the steps shown below: 1. Select the cell(s) to be copied; 2. Place the mouse pointer on one of the outer borders of the selected block; 3. Hold the ctrl key down as you drag the block. An outline of the cells moves with you and the mouse pointer now has a plus sign (+) attached to it. Notice as you drag the
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block that Excel displays the current cell address so you are sure where you are dragging; 4. When you reach the desired location, release the mouse button. The selected block should now have been copied to the new location.

3. ALIGNMENT
Horizontally aligning data Vertically aligning data

Indenting text within a cell

Changing text orientation

Wrapping text within a cell

4. FORMATTING VALUES
Select the cells to format and then choose one of the following tools (located within the Number section on the Home Ribbon):

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Formats the current selection for currency with a dollar sign, a comma as a thousand separator and 2 decimal places. If you click on the down arrow beside this tool, you can select which countrys currency symbol to use. Example: $45.00; Formats the current selection for percentage by multiplying the numbers by 100 and adds the percent sign to the end with 0 decimal places. Example: 45%; Formats the selection for comma by adding a comma as a thousand separator and two decimal places. Example: 4,500.00;

Increases the number of decimal places displayed. Each time this button is selected another decimal place is added to the selection.

Decreases the number of decimal places displayed. Each time this button is selected another decimal place is removed from the selection.

Click on the down arrow beside this tool (located within the Number section of the Home Ribbon) to choose from a list of formats.

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Module 4
1. Working with Function Arguments
General mathematical functions are provided with Excel to carry out calculations on data within the spreadsheet and can take the place of certain types of formulas. Functions begin with the = sign just as formulas do. For example, if you had a large column of numbers to be added (A1:A100), you might think you need a long formula to include all of the addresses (=A1+A2+A3....+A99+A100). However, Excel provides a mathematical function which is used primarily to add blocks of numbers. The formula could be rewritten as =SUM(A1:A100) which is much shorter. To calculate the sum of a block of numbers, move to the cell where the answer is to be placed and use this function argument: =SUM(FIRST CELL:LAST CELL) You must define the block just like any other block by specifying the first and last cell addresses. To calculate the average value for a block of cells: =AVERAGE(FIRST CELL:LAST CELL) To return the largest value in a block of cells: =MAX(FIRST CELL: LAST CELL) To return the smallest value in a block of cells: =MIN(FIRST CELL:LAST CELL) To count the number of numeric entries in a block of cells: =COUNT(FIRST CELL:LAST CELL)

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Module 5
1. Applying Attributes 2. Working with Fonts 3. Borders and Colors 4. Adding Cell Shading 5. Using Cell Styles

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Module 6
1. Creating and editing charts
Creating a chart
To quickly create a chart, follow these steps: 1. Select the data to be included within the chart; 2. Switch to the Insert Ribbon; 3. From within the section labeled Charts, select a chart category (column, line, pie, bar, area or scatter);

4. A pull-down list of available chart types will be displayed. This list will display only those charts within the selected category. Select the exact type from this list. Excel will create a chart based on the data in the cells you selected and the type of chart you have chosen.

Editing the chart


Once the chart has been added to your worksheet, you can edit it using the new tabs across the top of your screen. The Design Ribbon is used to change the type of chart, save it as a template to base other charts on, modify the data being plotted, change the chart layout or style, and move the chart to another worksheet. The Layout Ribbon is used to work with the current selection, insert objects within the chart, edit the various chart labels, show/hide the axes and gridlines, define the chart background, add analysis features to the chart, and name the chart. The following tools are all located within the Labels section on the Layout Ribbon:

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This tool defines where and if a chart title will be included. To enter the text for the chart tile, select the title and begin typing. Press Enter when done.

This tool defines where and if horizontal, vertical, and depth axis titles will be displayed. Depth axis titles are only available within 3D charts.

Use this tool to define whether a legend will be displayed and, if so, where in relation to the chart. A legend simply defines what is being plotted.

This tool is used to display or hide data labels. These labels represent the actual values that are being plotted for your chart.

Use this tool to add or remove a data table from the chart. The table is placed below the chart and provides a complete list of what is being plotted. These two tools are located within the axes section:

This tool defines whether the horizontal and vertical axes data will be included within the chart.

Use this tool to display or hide the horizontal and vertical gridlines within the chart. The Format Ribbon also appears when the chart is selected. This Ribbon contains tools for formatting the current selection, resetting the current selection to match the originally selected style for the chart, changing the shape and style of the current selection, selecting WordArt styles (if text is selected), and adjusting the arrangement and size of the current selection.
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Module 7
1. Absolute cell addressing 2. Working with templates

1. ABSOLUTE CELL ADDRESSING


During the copy procedure, Excel adjusts formulas depending on the cell(s) the formulas are copied to, thus ensuring that the formulas being copied appropriately refer to other locations on the spreadsheet. This is referred to as relative addressing since the cell addresses of a formula adjust "relative" to their new position. There may be instances, however, when you may not want the formulas to be adjusted according to the cell(s) they are copied to. For example, if you have a list of salaries and want to uniformly increase those salaries by a percentage (5%), you would multiply the current salaries by the cell containing the 5%. All salaries would need to be multiplied by that one cell. When creating a formula to calculate new salaries, that cell would, then, be referred to as absolute, meaning that no matter how many times you copied the formula down a column or across a row that particular cell address would not change within the formula. Excel uses the dollar sign ($) to signify that a cell is absolute. For example, to make cell C2 absolute you would enter $C$2 within the formula. By placing dollar signs before the column and again before the row, you are indicating that both the column and row are to be absolute (never adjusted when copied). Below are examples of how the dollar signs can be used depending on which portion of the cell should be absolute and which portion should remain relative. C2 Column C is relative, row 2 is relative; $C2 Column C is absolute, row 2 is relative; C$2 Column C is relative, row 2 is absolute; $C$2 Column C is absolute, row 2 is absolute.
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2. WORKING WITH TEMPLATES


Creating a template
The simplest method for defining a new template is to create a workbook as you would any other and then save it as a template. After creating the workbook and inserting all of the necessary information for the template, follow the steps outlined below to save it as a template for future workbooks to be based on: 1. Select Save As from the pull-down list of options within the File tab on the Ribbon; The following window will be displayed:

2. Click on the down arrow beside the Save as type option and select Excel Template (*.xltx); 3. Be sure you have entered a descriptive name for the template before clicking on the Save button.

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Using a template
To use the template that you created, you will follow the usual steps to create a new workbook with one exception. You will choose your template as the one to base the new workbook on. To create a new workbook based on an existing template, follow the steps outlined below. 1. Select New from the pull-down list of options within the File tab on the Ribbon; The following window will be displayed:

2. Select the My templates category; The following dialog box will be displayed:

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3. From within this dialog box, select the template to base your new workbook on; 4. Select Workbook as the type of new file to create; 5. Choose OK to actually create the new file based on the currently selected template.

Opening a template
If you realize that a template needs to be modified, you can open it as you would any other workbook. Once opened, you will be able to edit the template and then save it again. You can also edit the Blank Workbook template to set any defaults you would like applied to all workbooks created using the default template. To open a template, follow these steps: 1. Select Open from the pull-down list of options within the File tab on the Ribbon; The following window will be displayed:

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2. Change the Files of type: section (located at the bottom of the dialog box) to include only Workbook templates (*.xltx). You may need to switch drives/folders to locate it; 3. Select the template to modify and choose Open; Make the changes youd like to the template and then save it again as you would any other workbook.

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Appendices
1. Appendix A: Function Keys 2. Appendix B: Movement Keys 3. Appendix C: Shortcut Keys

1. APPENDIX A: FUNCTION KEYS

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2. APPENDIX B: MOVEMENT KEYS

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3. Appendix C: Shortcut Keys

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Practice Exercise
Copy and paste in Excel worksheet the followings: ,1st Qtr,2nd Qtr,3rd Qtr,4th Qtr,Total Computers,$300,$548,$474,$684, Printers,$450,$745,$523,$621, Monitors,$657,$954,$748,$887 Accessories,$485,$547,$316,$592 a) b) c) d) Split this text into a table; Resize the columns and rows width to fit the text; Create the formula for Total column; Rename the column Total as Brut and add 3 new columns next to it: TVA, Net and TVA Value. Under the TVA Value column add 16%. Create the formulas for TVA and Net columns using the TVA Value; Insert a new row between Monitors and Accessories and copy-paste the followings: Mices,100.25,200.50,150.75,250.50 Repeat step a). Format cells so the content type will be currency with two decimals; Format the Net column so its content will be rounded (Ex.: for the 100.50 value the result will be 101; for 100.30 the result will be 100; for 100.75 the result will be 101); Add a new column named Average Value and create the formula that calculates the average value for every item; Add table borders and lines. Shade the header and the averages section; Create a 3-D column chart based on the sales data from the worksheet using the data for 1st Qtr,2nd Qtr,3rd Qtr,4th Qtr.

e)

f) g) h) i)

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