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Bibliography

Primary Sources Books


Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand, and Sissela Bok. Gandhi - An Autobiography. The Story Of My Experiments With Truth. Trans. Mahadev Desai. Boston: Beacon Press, 1957. Print. I chose this source because I learnt from this in Gandhi's own words the reasons for his choosing a path of non-violence and how he started Satyagraha first in South Africa and then in India. I learnt that initially he was calling it "Passive Resistance", but in a meeting with the Europeans he found the term too narrowly construed. He needed a new word to designate India's struggle. He coined the word "Sadagraha" and then in order to make it clearer, he changed the word to Satyagraha. I also learned that the Satyagraha movement had started long before the word was actually coined.

Images
Bettmann/CORBIS. Mahatma Gandhi and Sarojini Naidu During Salt Protest. 1930. Bettmann, India. U126884ACME. Corbis Images. Web. 1 Jan. 2013. I chose this source because it shows me how the lifestyle of the people were back then. It shows how they dressed, how the terrain was and that a number of people of involved. I see in the picture that they are showing that Gandhi is a leader because he was leading them. This photo gave me a visual of two leaders of the Salt March - Mahatma Gandhi and Sarojini Naidu.

Birth of India's Freedom. 15 Aug. 1947. Image. The Times of India. I chose this image because it is an image of a news article that appeared when India gained independence from the British. I wanted to use this in my research timeline.

Gandhi is Shot Dead. 30 Jan. 1948. Image. The Star. I chose this image because it is an image of a news article that appeared right after Gandhi was assassinated. I wanted to use this in my research timeline.

Great March for Liberty Begins. 12 Mar. 1930. Image. Daily Herald. I chose this image because it is an image of a news article that appeared in the local newspaper when the march began. I wanted to use this in my research timeline.

Mahatma, A State Prisoner in Yeravada Jail. 6 May 1930. Image. Daily Herald. I chose this image because it is an image of a news article that appeared in the local newspaper when Gandhi was arrested, a month after the march. I wanted to use this in my research timeline.

Interviews
Shanker, Uma. "Interview: C.K. Nair (Part One)." Interview#200 dated July 25, 1974. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1974. 7-8. Centre of South Asian Studies. Web. 24 Nov. 2012. I chose this source because it was an interview of C.K. Nair, who was accompanying Gandhi on the Salt March. It gives a personal account of the event with details that is not present in any other secondary source that I have come across. I learnt from a Satyagrahi himself, how Gandhi planned his movement. He provided details on how the planned meticulously down to the smallest detail, how they anticipated what action the British would take and their reaction to such action.

Newspapers
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. "History of Salt Manufacture." Young India [Ahmedabad] 27 Feb. 1930: 70-71. Print. I chose this source because it provided details on where salt was manufactured in India. Gandhi provided information on the sources of salt, the tax revenue generated from salt, the sale price of salt and consumption of salt in different parts of the country.

Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. "Remember 6th April." Young India [Ahmedabad] 3 Apr. 1930: 117. Print. I chose this source because in this article Gandhi is appealing to Satyagrahis

all around India to start mass civil disobedience regarding the salt laws starting April 6th, after he has broken the law at Dandi. Gandhi also stipulated that everyone had to observe non-violence to the fullest sense of the term. He further stated that mass civil disobedience would entail spontaneous action where the workers would merely guide the masses in the beginning, following which the masses would regulate the movement themselves. This is the start of the events that made the Salt March to Dandi a turning point.

Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. "Salt Tax." Young India [Ahmedabad] 27 Feb. 1930: 68. Print. I chose this source because it provided details about the Salt Tax and the laws in the Salt Act. It provides, from Gandhi's perspective, why salt is important for a person and why he chose it as an issue in his battle against the British.

Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. "Some Rules of Satyagraha." Young India [Ahmedabad] 27 Feb. 1930: 69. Print. I chose this source because it, in the words of Gandhi himself, provided the rules of Satyagraha. It defines the thought and explains the process that has to be followed to practice Satyagraha. It provides a list of 17 rules that every Satyagrahi (follower of Satyagraha) has to follow when as an individual, as a prisoner, as a unit or in communal fights.

Nehru, Jawaharlal. "The Satyagraha Pledge." Young India [Ahmedabad] 27 Mar. 1930: 106. Print. I chose this source because it explained the pledge every Satyagrahi (follower of Satyagraha) has to take in order to volunteer to become part of the civil disobedience movement. This uniform pledge was drawn up by the All India Congress Committee (AICC), in consultation with Gandhi. During a meeting of AICC on the banks of the Sabarmati River, the AICC passed a resolution authorizing Gandhi to embark upon his civil disobedience movement of protesting the salt tax.

Shroff, Madhavlal. "How to Manufacture Salt?" Young India [Ahmedabad] 24 Apr. 1930: 139. Print. I chose this source because it provides information on how to make salt. Gandhi, in the newspaper, is reaching out to the public at large on how they can make their own salt after then Salt Act is broken by him at Dandi.

Periodicals
"INDIA: Gandhi at Dandi." Time 14 Apr. 1930: Print. I chose this article because it talks about the events after Gandhi reached Dandi. He spoke to his followers on Dandi beach after he and 76 followers has scooped a handful of sea water and was waiting for the water to evaporate and salt to be left behind. The article also explained how Gandhi mission of keeping the movement non-violent was successful as it says that 319 million Indians were peaceful and no violence had occurred in the 25 days of the march. It also highlighted the inaction of the British government.

"INDIA: March-to-the-Sea." Time 24 Mar. 1930. Print. I chose this article because it was printed by Time showing the significance of event outside India. It described how a small set of followers, from different religions, started marching with Gandhi to protest the Salt Act. Though some of the references to places are incorrect, it provides a good description of how the days went, the fact that they became tired and then rested overnight at one of the villages on the way. It list some of the places where we stopped and urged the villages to join the movement by making and wearing homespun clothes, thus refusing the British cotton fabric. It also described other events related to the independence movement that took place at those times. It gave a background of how much salt India could produce, despite which the British imported their own salt to India.

"INDIA: Mobs, Toddy, Scotch Bankers." Time 28 Apr. 1930. Print. I chose this article because it described the number of other protests that spawned across the country, following the Dandi march. There was violence from the police almost everywhere. It also described how Indian women joined the movement, led by Mrs. Gandhi.

"INDIA: National Week." Time 21 Apr. 1930. Print. I chose this article because it talks about Gandhis wrath at the actions by the British of seizing the salt from the followers. He urged the Satyagrahis to remain calm and non-violent in the process. The article has referenced the infamous Jalianwala Baug massacre where over 300 innocent civilians were gunned down at the orders of General Dyer. Of the 11th anniversary of this, a huge blood-red papier-mache monster symbolizing the salt tax, was dumped into the ocean.

"INDIA: Pinch of Salt." Time 31 Mar. 1930. Print. I chose this article because this was written during the march and provided a more accurate description of the events. It gave an idea of the rate at which he was walking. The article highlighted the action (or inaction) of the British Government. It also discussed some of the view US had on Gandhi and his actions related to salt and home-spun clothes. It ended on question would Gandhi succeed in his intentions when he reached Dandi? Will enough Indians respond to the action and will there be mass civil disobedience as Gandhi wished? This was the Time magazine issue where Gandhi was on the cover.

"INDIA: Saintnapping." Time 12 May 1930. Print. I chose this article because it described the way Gandhi was arrested for breaking the salt laws. It was an interesting account how Gandhi was arrested and transferred to a jail in luxury, first in a first class train compartment, then in a limousine and was provided the food of his choice during the journey. Time referred to this as saintnapping and it proves how nervous the British government became due to the success of his movement.

"INDIA: Saint's Progress." Time 7 Apr. 1930. Print. I close this article because I found the reference to Gandhi being a Saint as interesting. Though the arti cle is on April 7th, it was written earlier as it conjectured actions of the British Government when Gandhi reached Dandi and broke the law. It also mentioned that 18 of the 79 people that

started the walk had dropped exhausted and could not complete the walk. These followers were distraught and wept stating that they had failed the master.

"INDIA: Soul Force." Time 30 Mar. 1931. Print. I chose this article because it shows how Gandhis Satyagraha movement affected the rest of the world, particularly, the United States. People wanted to know when he would come to the U.S. Gandhi reiterated to the world that he was neither a Saint not a Mahatma (Great Soul), rather he was just a Satyagrahi. The article also described some of the activities that were taking place in preparation for Indias independence.

"INDIA: Tea Amid Terror." Time 5 May 1930. Print. I chose this article because it described the number of other protests that spawned across the country, to parts further away from Dandi, following the Dandi march, such as the Afghan border. It described some of the responses from the British government.

Speeches
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. "Speech at Dandi." Dandi. Dandi Beach. 5 Apr. 1930. MarchJune 1930. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Trust, 1971. 181-85. Print. Vol. XLIII of The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. I chose this because it was speech that Gandhi have at Dandi the night before breaking the salt act. In this speech, Gandhi reflected on the last few days and lays out the action for the next day and the time to come. He states that he knows that he may be arrested and is prepared for the same and believes that there are enough followers to continue the work despite his arrest. He explains how Dandi was an important place and should be treated like a scared ground. I found this speech in the book titled "Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi" at the library of Gandhi Memorial Center in Washington SC. This is a multi-volume collection of his works and this article was published in volume XLIII. The original speech was first published in the Gujarati newspaper "Navajivan" on April 13, 1930.

Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand. "On the Eve of the March." Sabarmati Sands. Ahmedabad. 11 Mar. 1930. The Choice before Students. Ed. Gandhi. Thursday, March 20, 1930 ed. Ahmedabad: Young India, 1930. 102-03. Print. Vol. X11/12 of Young India. Young India A Weekly Journal. I chose this source because it was a speech by Gandhi himself the day before the march. It tells me what Gandhi's views of the event were and what he thought would happen. He also said what he and maybe others would do after the march. He said he knew he would go to jail because he was breaking the law. He urged everyone to remain non-violent and face the consequences of their actions. I learnt what Gandhi's thoughts were and how he inspired the people while conveying his message of non-violence.