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# HEAT INTEGRATION

## Process Energy Targets

Process energy targets (minimum steam and cooling water requirements) can be obtained from
Composite Curves

Cumulative process heat availability (surplus) Cumulative process heat requirement (deficit) Process heat surpluses and deficits within some specified temperature intervals

## Process Energy Targets from the Composite Curves

Representation of process streams heat content on a plot of temperature (T) versus enthalpy (H)

## Example 1: Two-stream Heat Recovery Problem

Stream Type Supply Temp. (oC) 40 160 Target Temp. (oC) 110 40 H (MW)

1 2

Cold Hot

14 -12

## Streams can be shifted horizontally

Example 2

A simple flowsheet with two hot streams and two cold streams

## Stream Data For The Flowsheet

Stream Type Supply Temp. Ts (oC) Target Temp. TT (oC) 180 H (kW) Heat Capacity Flowrate CP (kW oC1) 20

Reactor 1 Feed

Cold

20

3200

Reactor 1 Product
Reactor 2 Feed Reactor 2 Product

Hot

250

40

-3150

15

Cold

140

230

2700

30

Hot

200

80

-3000

25

Effect of Tmin

Tmin = the smallest approach temperature (T) for heat exchange Bigger Tmin gives: Less heat rocovery Maximum hot and cold utilities Maximum energy consumption Big capital cost Small Tmin gives: Maximize energy recovery Minimize hot and cold utilities Minimize energy consumption

Summary (i)

Temperature-enthalpy diagrams can be used to determine heat recovery potential Composite curves can be used to target for many hot streams and many cold streams Energy targets set from material and energy balance and Tmin Can be varied to different targets

Working Session 1
1

2
CP=1.8

a) Set up stream data table b) Construct composite curves c) Read energy targets for Tmin = 10C

## Problem Table Algorithm

What is the problem with the CC?? 1) Complicated 2) Cant get accurate point for T pinch, QHmin and Qcmin

## Problem Table Algorithm

2 Approaches: Hot and Cold Temperature Intervals Global (Shifted) Temperature Intervals General Idea Get net H for each heat/enthalpy interval
HHOT - HCOLD = (FCpHOT -FCpCOLD) T

Cascade Hnet downwards for cumulative net H Only cascade for positive heat flow eliminate negative heat flow

## Stream data, Tmin = 10C

Stream Type Ts (oC) TT (oC) FCP (kW/K)

C1 C2 H1 H2

180 230 40 80

20 30 15 25

## Determine the heat surplus (S)/deficit (D) within intervals

COLD (240) 230 (190) HOT 250 (240) 200 C2 15 -15 150 (S) -600 (D) FCP,H - FCP,C HNET

180
140 (70) (30) 20

(190)
(150) 80 H2 40 H1 (30)

C1

10
-10 20 -5 -20

100 (S)
-400 (D) 1400 (S) -200 (D) -200 (D)

0 150

## Add the largest (-) heat flow

750 150 QH,min

150
-600 100 -400 -750 1400 1400 -450 -600 100 -400

900
300

-350

400
0 Pinch

650
-200 -200 450 250 -200 -200

1400
1200 1000 QC,min

## Global (Shifted) Temperature Intervals

Shifting Rule:
Cold Stream Hot Stream +Tmin /2 -Tmin /2

## Heat flows cannot be negative! Add heat to make them at least 0!

SUMMARY (ii)

The problem table algorithm: Step 1: Adjust for Tmin Step 2: Set up temperature intervals Step 3: Calculate interval heat balance Step 4: Cascade for positive heat flows

## Then, QHmin, QCmin and pinch location without drawing graphs

Working Session 2
1

2
CP=1.8

Use the problem table method to verify your results in working session 1