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# Powering the Ship PBL Vocabulary

acid, base, oxidation , oxidation reaction, reduction, reduction reaction, voltage, voltmeter , ammeter, resistor, resistance, series circuit, parallel circuit, battery, electric circuit, electrode, galvanic series, Ohms Law, power, Joule, Watt, Joule, calorie, food calorie, BTU(British Thermal Unit), newton, Geothermal energy, hydroelectric energy, electrolyte, LED, alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), anion, cation

## Engagement Day 1 (5 to 15 minutes):

Students are told that NASA has discovered a large asteroid is going to hit the Earth with enough force to cause catastrophic damage. Much of the polar ice caps will melt and many will die. You are to design a ship to save yourself and nine others (10 total) and search for survivors on other continents. If fossil fuels are not available at this time, due to the catastrophe, what other sources of energy is available to power the ships instruments (lights, computers, etc.)? Discuss with the groups of students (number of students in group is decided on by teacher) different power sources that are available to move ships If you were going to design a cargo ship what power source would you use for the ship? What pros and cons do you see for each power source? How would you go about storing that energy? What would be needed?

Materials Poster board Markers/Colored Pencils Rulers Pencils and paper for recording data Graph paper TI Calculator Electrode selection Different metals and materials from the galvanic series Electrolyte selection Beakers (1 per group) Voltmeter probe Electrical wires Different types of bulbs (LED, small bulbs, etc.) Bulb socket with wire connection leads

Exploration Day 1 (30 to 45 minutes): Have students investigate and research different energy sources that are used in the world today. Examples could be fossil fuels, wind, moving water, nuclear, burning

Algebra II TEKS
(1) Foundations for functions. The student uses properties and attributes of functions and applies functions to problem situations. (4) Algebra and geometry. The student connects algebraic and geometric representations of functions.

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biomass, and solar. Students should also be researching types of batteries and how they are made and how they store energy.

(10) Rational functions. The student formulates equations and inequalities based on rational functions, uses a variety of methods to solve them, and analyzes the solutions in terms of the situation.

Day 2 (45 to 90 minutes): Have students work in groups formulating a chart with explanations of how the energy source produces usable energy, and pros and cons for each energy source. After discussing the chart the groups will then decide what energy source they would recommend for the ship. The group will then use their knowledge of batteries to experiment with different materials to attempt to create a working battery and measure the voltage using the voltmeter probe. Students will discuss how to make the battery more powerful and then create a new battery and measure the volts again. Students must then determine how many of their batteries would be needed to power the entire ships electric motor. Students will determine what types of light sources their batteries can power; and which type of circuit allows for the most lights to be lit.

Earth Science TEKS (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to: (D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories; (E) demonstrate the use of course equipment, techniques, and procedures, including computers and web-based computer applications; (F) use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures as appropriate (G) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; (H) use mathematical procedures such as algebra, statistics, scientific notation, and significant figures to analyze data using the International System (SI) units (I) communicate valid conclusions supported by data using several formats such as technical reports, lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, presentations, and technical posters. (3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom.
(12) Solid Earth. The student knows that Earth contains energy, water, mineral, and rock resources and that use of these resources impacts Earth's subsystems.

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(A) evaluate how the use of energy, water, mineral, and rock resources affects Earth's subsystems; (C) discriminate between renewable and nonrenewable resources based upon rate of formation and use;

Chemistry TEKS (10) Science concepts. The student knows common oxidation-reduction reactions. (A) identify oxidation-reduction processes (14) Science concepts. The student knows the properties and behavior of acids and bases. (A) analyze and measure common household products using a variety of indicators to classify the products as acids or bases (B) demonstrate the electrical conductivity of acids and bases

Physics TEKS (2) Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. (F) demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures (5) Science concepts. The student knows the nature of forces in the physical world. (F) design, construct, and calculate in terms of current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel combinations 511 Harrington 4226 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-4226 Tel - 979-820-3409 Fax - 979-862-4347 aggie-stem@tamu.edu http://aggie-stem.tamu.edu

(6) Science concepts. The student knows forces in nature. (A) identify the influence of mass and distance on gravitational forces (B) research and describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational, electrical, and magnetic force (C) identify and analyze the influences of charge and distance on electric forces (D) demonstrate the relationship between electricity and magnetism (E) design and analyze electric circuits

Explanation The choice in energy source is very important and depends on many constraints such as cost, pollution, and if the source is renewable or not. Students will need to take into account all of these stipulations to make the best decision to power their ship. They must then be able to explain their decisions to their peers. The turbidity test of the water goes along with the pollution that energy sources can create. Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality. In drinking water, the higher the turbidity level, the higher the risk that people may develop gastrointestinal diseases. Extension 1 511 Harrington 4226 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-4226

Safety Notes
Do not ingest water samples. Be careful with water around electrical equipment. Be careful with chemicals and electric sources.

Website:

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Pamphlet for Energy Source Students will need to create a colored pamphlet to sell their energy source to prospective buyers. A PowerPoint presentation can also be made to add to the explanation. Extension 2 Determine the Turbidity of the Drinking Water Students will examine water samples from different parts of the school and from peoples homes to check for turbidity (amount of particles suspended in the liquid). With many energy sources, pollution is a concern and can cause a high turbidity rate. Evaluation PBL Rubrics Teacher-created TAKS formatted questions related to high stakes objectives/TEKS-TAKS presentation TI Navigator technology demonstrating teacher formatted questions as application for classroom immediate assessment

## Access the PowerPoint for this lesson plan at ntstem.tamu.edu

Institute for Learning (IFL) Effort creates ability Focus on classroom instruction at all levels Coherent standards, curriculum, & fair and credible assessments Nested learning communities Self-management of Learning Socializing intelligence Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Oral communication skills Written language skills Listening skills Reading skills Preparation Building background Comprehensible input Strategies Interaction Practice and application Review and assessment Meaningful activities aggie-stem@tamu.edu http://aggie-stem.tamu.edu

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Link past learning and experiences to new concepts Read objectives orally Ask higher order questions to elicit high level thinking Have students justify their answers Provide multiple opportunities to interact with peers, teachers, and text to acquire content and language skills faster Support group configurations large/small Use of manipulatives Provide regular feedback Frequent review of key vocabulary and key concepts Monitor student progress Assess student progress to check for learning

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Writing/Journal Rubric
All entries have the date. Each bulleted list or paragraph includes sentence and/or phrase structures. Charts, graphs, pictures, or equations are always included when needed or asked for by teacher. Theory, procedure, data collection, conclusions, and evaluations are always included.

Proficient 6-5
Most entries have the date. Most of the bulleted lists or paragraphs include sentence and/or phrase structures. Charts, graphs, pictures, or equations are included most of the time when needed or asked for by teacher. Theory, procedure, data collection, conclusions, and evaluations are included most of the time. Somewhat easy to follow the thinking of the writer through the journal. Most aspects of the project can be seen from the pages of writing. Considers purpose to create a written text that matches most of the students and

Basic 5-4
Some entries have the date. Some of the bulleted lists or paragraphs include sentence and/or phrase structures. Charts, graphs, pictures, or equations are included some of the time when needed or asked for by teacher. Theory, procedure, data collection, conclusions, and evaluations are included some of the time.

Minimal 3-0
Few entries have the date. Few of the bulleted lists or paragraphs include sentence and/or phrase structures. Charts, graphs, pictures, or equations are included few times when needed or asked for by teacher. Theory, procedure, data collection, conclusions, and evaluations are included rarely.

Coherence

Easy to follow the thinking of the writer through the journal. All aspects of the project can be seen from the pages of writing. Clearly considers purpose to create a written text that matches the students and groups needs.

Not easy to follow the thinking of the writer through the journal. Some aspects of the project can be seen from the pages of writing. Somewhat considers purpose to create a written text that matches some of the students and groups

Unable to follow the thinking of the writer through the journal. Little to none of the aspects of the project can be seen from the pages of writing. Does not consider purpose. Or, does not consider the appropriate purpose. Or, does not create a written text that

Purpose

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groups needs.

needs.

## matches the students and groups needs.

Project Rubric
CATEGORY Research 8-7
Performs research of all questions proposed by the teacher. Takes initiative to answer questions that are relative to the project yet not proposed by the teacher. Documents information clearly in journal with list of pros and cons of each energy producer. Demonstrates understanding of the energy producers, batteries, and their function. Participates actively in group conversation.

6-5
Performs research of all questions proposed by the teacher. Documents information clearly in journal with list of pros and cons of each energy producer. Demonstrates understanding of the energy producers, batteries, and their function. Participates actively in group conversation.

4-3
Performs research of some of the questions proposed by the teacher. Documents information in journal with list of pros and cons of each energy producer, but format does not flow and key points are not annotated. Demonstrates marginal understanding of the energy producers, batteries, and their function. Makes few comments in group conversation.

2-1
Performs very little research on some of the questions proposed by the teacher. Journal entries are small and key points are not listed. Demonstrates very poor understanding of the energy producers, batteries, and their function. Does not participate in group conversation.

0
Performs no research of the questions proposed by the teacher. Documents nothing in journal Demonstrates no understanding of the energy producers, batteries, and their function. Does not participate in group conversation.

Making a Battery

Develops a battery based on what was learned from the research. The battery is safe and able to be easily moved around. Shows an understanding of the batterys function and can properly identify the

Develops a battery based on what was learned from the research. The battery is safe, but is difficult to move around. Shows a moderate understanding of the batterys function and can properly identify the

Develops a battery based on what was learned from the research. The battery is safe, but is difficult to move around. Shows a moderate understanding of the batterys function

Develops a battery with no regard for the research. The battery is unsafe and is difficult to move around. Shows a poor understanding of the batterys function and has trouble properly

Does not make the battery. Shows no understanding of the batteries function and cannot identify the anode, cathode, and electrolyte of

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anode, cathode, and electrolyte of the battery. Understands what a redox reaction is.

anode, cathode, and electrolyte of the battery. Understands what a redox reaction is.

## Testing the Battery

The battery is appropriately set-up for the different tests and is done in a safe manner. The battery achieves a relatively high voltage (above the class average) and is able to power a light bulb. Understands the difference between a series and parallel circuit and their effect on voltage. Documents the results well in the journal with detailed schematics of the experimental set-up and experimental values. The results are evaluated properly in the journal.

The battery is appropriately set-up for the different tests and is done in a safe manner. The battery achieves a voltage near the class average and is able to power a light bulb. Has a moderate understanding of the difference between a series and parallel circuit and their effect on voltage. Documents the results in the journal with underdetailed schematics of the experimental set-up and experimental values. The results are evaluated in the journal, but some improvement could be made.

and can properly identify the anode, cathode, and electrolyte of the battery. Understands what a redox reaction is. The battery is set-up for the different tests, but is not done in a safe manner and some instruction was needed from the teacher/peers. The battery achieves a voltage below the class average, but is unable able to power a light bulb. Has a moderate understanding of the difference between a series and parallel circuit and their effect on voltage. Documents the results in the journal with under-detailed schematics of the experimental set-up and experimental values. The results are evaluated in the journal, but large improvement could be made.

identifying the anode, cathode, and electrolyte of the battery. Has a poor understanding of what a redox reaction is. The battery is set-up for the different tests, but is not done in a safe manner and large instruction was needed from the teacher/peers. The battery achieves a voltage far below the class average and is unable able to power a light bulb. Has a poor understanding of the difference between a series and parallel circuit and their effect on voltage. Documents the results in the journal, but with no schematics of the experimental setup and very few experimental values. The results are not evaluated in the journal.

## the battery. Has no understanding of what a redox reaction is.

The battery is not set-up for the different tests. Has no understanding of the difference between a series and parallel circuit and their effect on voltage.

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Redesign

Problems and solutions to the batterys performance are listed in their journal. A schematic of a new battery design is drawn up and a statement to why they think this new model will outperform the older model is also made. The new battery is carefully formed based on the design and retested and performs better than the older model. Results and conclusions based on those results are made in the journal. The student has a good understanding of the importance of documentation of results as well as what makes up a good battery.

Problems and solutions to the batterys performance are listed in their journal. A schematic of a new battery design is drawn up and a statement to why they think this new model will outperform the older model is also made, but lacks detail and scientific grounds. The new battery is carefully formed based on the design and retested and performs slightly better than the older model. Results and conclusions based on those results are made in the journal. The student has a moderate understanding of the importance of documentation of results as well as what makes up a good battery.

Problems and solutions to the batterys performance are listed in their journal. A schematic of a new battery design is drawn up and a statement to why they think this new model will outperform the older model is also made, but has poor detail and scientific grounds. The new battery is carefully formed, but does not quite match with the design. The battery is tested and performs the same as the older model. Results and conclusions based on those results are made in the journal, but lack detail. The student has a moderate understanding of the importance of documentation of results as well as what makes up a good battery.

Problems in the batterys performance are listed in their journal, but solutions to these problems are not. The schematic and design process is skipped. The new battery is formed, but has no design to match. The battery is tested and performs worse than the older model. Results are listed in the journal, but with no conclusion statement. The student has a poor understanding of the importance of documentation of results as well as what makes up a good battery.

Problems and solutions to the batterys performance are not listed in their journal. The schematic and design process is skipped. The new battery is not formed. The student has no understanding of the importance of documentation of results as well as what makes up a good battery.

Mathematics Rubric
CATEGORY 8-7 6-5 4-3 2-1 0

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## Knowledge and Understanding

Demonstrates complete understanding of the Algebra II concepts and principles. Is able to apply knowledge to challenging problems in unfamiliar situations. Executes algorithms completely and in a correct manner.

Demonstrates nearly complete understanding of the Algebra II problems concepts and principles. Is able to apply knowledge to challenging problems in familiar situations. Executes algorithms completely, but computations may contain minor mistakes. Identifies the important elements of the Algebra II problems and shows general understanding of the relationship between them. Selects and applies problemsolving techniques to recognize patterns. Draws conclusions consistent with findings. Fails to provide justifications. Follows nearly correct mathematical notation. Moves between different forms of mathematical representation with some success. Reasoning is clear, but not always logical or complete. Supports findings by using some visual tools.

Demonstrates understanding of some of the Algebra II problems concepts and principles. Is able to apply knowledge to simple, familiar problems. Executes algorithms with some mistakes, and computations contain major errors. Identifies some important elements of the Algebra II problems and shows general understanding of the relationship between them. Selects and applies problem-solving techniques to recognize patterns.

Reasoning

Identifies the elements of the Algebra II problems and shows understanding of the relationship between them. Selects and applies problemsolving techniques to recognize patterns. Draws conclusions consistent with findings. Provides justifications or proofs were appropriate. Successfully follows correct mathematical notation. Moves effectively between different forms of mathematical representation. Reasoning is concise, logical, and complete. Supports his findings by effective use of diagrams, charts, and other visual tools.

Demonstrates very limited understanding of the Algebra II problems concepts and principles. Is not able but still attempts to solve simple, familiar problems. Executes algorithms with major mistakes, and computations contain serious errors. Identifies only the unimportant elements of the Algebra II problems and shows very limited understanding of the relationship between them. Applies, with guidance, mathematical problemsolving techniques to recognize patterns.

Does not understand the Algebra II problem. Does not solve the problem. Does not execute algorithms or computations.

Communication

Follows mathematical notation with some errors. Shows good use of mathematical language and/or forms of mathematical representation, but unable to move between them. Reasoning is not clear.

Attempts to follow mathematical notation. Shows basic use of mathematical language and/or forms of mathematical representation. Reasoning is difficult to follow.

Does not identify elements of the Algebra II problems and does not understand relationships between them. Does not apply mathematical problem-solving techniques. Does not recognize patterns. Does not follow mathematical notation. Does not use mathematical language or representation. Reasoning does not exist.

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Science Rubric
CATEGORY Knowledge and Understanding 8-7
Demonstrates complete understanding of the Chemistry concepts and principles. Is able to apply knowledge to challenging problems in unfamiliar situations. Executes algorithms completely and in a correct manner.

6-5
Demonstrates nearly complete understanding of the Chemistry problems concepts and principles. Is able to apply knowledge to challenging problems in familiar situations. Executes algorithms completely, but computations may contain minor mistakes. Identifies the important elements of the Chemistry problems and shows general understanding of the relationship between them. Selects and applies problemsolving techniques to recognize patterns. Draws conclusions consistent with findings. Fails to provide justifications. Follows nearly correct scientific notation. Moves between different forms of scientific representation with some success. Reasoning is clear, but not always logical or complete. Supports findings by using some

4-3
Demonstrates understanding of some of the Chemistry problems concepts and principles. Is able to apply knowledge to simple, familiar problems. Executes algorithms with some mistakes, and computations contain major errors. Identifies some important elements of the Chemistry problems and shows general understanding of the relationship between them. Selects and applies problem-solving techniques to recognize patterns.

2-1
Demonstrates very limited understanding of the Chemistry problems concepts and principles. Is not able but still attempts to solve simple, familiar problems. Executes algorithms with major mistakes, and computations contain serious errors. Identifies only the unimportant elements of the Chemistry problems and shows very limited understanding of the relationship between them. Applies, with guidance, mathematical problemsolving techniques to recognize patterns.

0
Does not understand the Chemistry problems. Does not solve the problem. Does not execute algorithms or computations.

Reasoning

Identifies the elements of the Chemistry problems and shows understanding of the relationship between them. Selects and applies problemsolving techniques to recognize patterns. Draws conclusions consistent with findings. Provides justifications or proofs were appropriate. Successfully follows correct scientific notation. Moves effectively between different forms of scientific representation. Reasoning is concise, logical, and complete. Supports his findings by effective use of

Communication

Follows scientific notation with some errors. Shows good use of scientific language and/or forms of scientific representation, but unable to move between them. Reasoning is not clear.

Attempts to follow scientific notation. Shows basic use of scientific language and/or forms of scientific representation. Reasoning is difficult to follow.

Does not identify elements of the Chemistry problems and does not understand relationships between them. Does not apply mathematical problem-solving techniques. Does not recognize patterns. Does not follow scientific notation. Does not use scientific language or representation. Reasoning does not exist.

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visual tools.

## Tel - 979-820-3409 Fax - 979-862-4347

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