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EIGRP

Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Enhanced Internal Gateway Routing Protocol - EIGRP


Kreiran 1994. godine kao unapreenje IGRP-a Cisco proprietary protokol Kompatibilan sa IGRP

Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

EIGRP
EIGRP Message Format
EIGRP packet header - contains AS number Type/Length/Field - data portion of EIGRP message

EIGRP
EIGRP packet header contains

Opcode field Autonomous System number

EIGRP parameters contains


Weights Hold time

EIGRP
TLV: IP internal contains Metric field Subnet mask field Destination field TLV: IP external contains Fields used when external routes are imported into EIGRP routing process

EIGRP
Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM)
EIGRP uses PDM to route several different protocols i.e. IP, IPX & AppleTalk PDMs are responsible for the specific routing task for each network layer protocol

EIGRP
Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)
Purpose of RTP
Used by EIGRP to transmit and receive EIGRP packets

Characteristics of RTP
Involves both reliable & unreliable delivery of EIGRP packet Reliable delivery requires acknowledgment from destination Unreliable delivery does not require an acknowledgement from destination Packets can be sent Unicast Multicast using address 224.0.0.10

EIGRPs 5 Packet Types


Hello packets Used to discover & form adjacencies with neighbors

EIGRP

Update packets

Used to propagate routing information Used to acknowledge receipt of update, query & reply packets

Acknowledgement packets

EIGRP

Query & Reply packets


Used by DUAL for searching for networks Query packets can use
Unicast Multicast

Reply packet use only


unicast

Hello Protocol

Purpose: To discover & establish adjacencies with neighbor routers Characteristics:


Hello interval
Time interval for sending hello packet Most networks it is every 5 seconds Multipoint non broadcast multi-access networks unicast every 60 seconds

Holdtime
This is the maximum time router should wait before declaring a neighbor down Default holdtime 3 times hello interval

EIGRP Bounded Updates


EIGRP only sends update when there is a change in route status Partial update

A partial update includes only the route information that has changed the whole routing table is NOT sent When a route changes, only those devices that are impacted will be notified of the change

Bounded update

EIGRPs use of partial bounded updates minimizes use of bandwidth

EIGRP

Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)

Purpose
EIGRPs primary method for preventing routing loops

Advantage of using DUAL


Provides for fast convergence time by keeping a list of loop-free backup routes

EIGRP
Administrative Distance (AD)

Defined as the trustworthiness of the source route Summary routes = 5 Internal routes = 90 Imported routes = 170

EIGRP default administrative distances


EIGRP

Authentication EIGRP can


Encrypt routing information Authenticate routing information

EIGRP strukture podataka


Tabela suseda (neighbor table) Tabela topologije (topology table) Tabela rutiranja

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Tabela suseda
Sadri listu svih susednih rutera - slino adjacency tabeli kod OSPF-a Susedni ruteri periodino razmenjuju hello pakete U hello paketu svaki sused oglaava hold period vreme za koje je susedstvo aktivno bez dobijanja novog hello paketa
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Tabela topologije
Tabela koja sadri sva dobijena odredita Na osnovu tabele topologije DUAL algoritam odreuje najbolje rute i stavlja ih u tabelu rutiranja

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Tabela topologije
Polja u tabeli topologije - Feasible distance (FD) - Reported distance (RD) - Route Source - Interface information - Route status * Passive (P) * Active (A)
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

EIGRP koncept
Svaki EIGRP ruter sadri tabelu topologije za svaki konfigurisani mreni protokol. Sve nauene rute ka odreditu nalaze se u tabeli topologije.

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Pojam successor-a
Successor je nabolja ruta prema odreditu - Successor rute se stavljaju u tabelu rutiranja - moe biti do 4 Successor rute Feasible Successor (FS) je druga najbolja ruta - ako interfejs Successor rute padne i ako postoji FS on se odmah instalira u tabelu rutiranja - da bi ruta postala FS njen RD mora biti manji od FD Successor-a - ako interfejs Successor rute padne i ne postoji FS, ruter stavlja rutu u Active stanje i pita sve susedne rutere za to odredite

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Izbor feasible successor


Predstavlja rezervnu rutu u sluaju da successor ruta padne Reported Distance (RD) ka susednom ruteru mora da bude manja od Feasible Distance (FD) glavne rute, u suprotnom nee moi da postane FS Ako se ispune ovi uslovi i ako nema petlji, ruta moe postati FS Ruter e morati ponovo da sastavi topologiju cele oblasti dobijanjem informacija od suseda Ruter alje query pakete svim susedima zahtevajui informacije o svim dostupnim rutama kao i pridruenim metrikama Svi susedi moraju poslati reply Primljeni podaci se upisuju u tabelu topologije DUAL algoritam sada moe izraunati successor i novi fesible successor
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Prednosti EIGRP-a u odnosu na druge distance vector protokole


Brza konvergencija (DUAL algoritam) Efikasno korienje propusnog opsega Podrka za VLSM Podrka za IP, IPX i AppleTalk protokole preko PDM modula

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

EIGRP tehnologije
Uspostavljanje susedstva - RIP/IGRP alju i primaju ogalaavanja bez uspostavljanja susedstva - susedni ruteri meusobno razmenjuju hello poruke (default na svakih 5 sekundi) - putem susedstva, ruteri - primaju nove rute - identifikuju kada su drugi ruteri nedostupni - otkrivaju kada je ruter koji je bio nedostupan ponovo aktivan

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

EIGRP tehnologije
Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) - protokoli transportnog nivoa koji garantuje pouzdan prenos informacija izmeu suseda - EIGRP ne koristi TCP zato to mora biti nezavisan od konkretnog Layer 3 protokola - neki paketi se prenose nepouzdano (npr. hello) dok se same informacije o rutama prenose na pouzdan nain

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

EIGRP tehnologije
Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) - pun naziv je DUAL finite-state machine (FSM) - algoritam kalkulacije ruta - ulaz u algoritam su tabela suseda i topologije - izlaz su Successor i Feasible Successor rute - obezbeuje da je svaka ruta loop- free
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

EIGRP tehnologije
Protocol-dependent Modules (PDM) - EIGRP je napravljen da podri rutiranje bilo kog Layer3 protokola preko posebnih modula - trenutno postoje moduli za IP, IPX i AppleTalk - funkcije IP modula 1. slanje/prijem EIGRP paketa koji nose IP podatke 2. notifikacija DUAL maine o novim IP informacijama 3. ubacivanje ruta koje je izraunao DUAL u IP tabelu rutiranja 4. redistribucija ruta nauenih od drugih IP protokola za rutiranje

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Tipovi EIGRP paketa


Hello - uspostavljanje, re-uspostvljanje i odravanje veze izmeu suseda - alju se nepouzdano (bez potvrde prijema) na multicast adresu 224.0.0.10 (IP) - u sluaju izostanka hello paketa, susedstvo se uva hold period (po default-u 3x hello period) - ruteri mogu postati susedi iako nemaju isti hello i hold period (za razliku od OSPF-a)
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Tipovi EIGRP paketa


Acknowledgements - potvrda prijema paketa kod pouzdanog prenosa - alju se nepouzdano (bez potvrde prijema) kao unicast Update - paketi koji nose informacije o rutiranju - alju se pri uspostavljanju susedstva (unicast) ili pri promeni topologije (multicast) - alju se pouzdano (sa potvrdom prijema)
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Tipovi EIGRP paketa


Query - upit susedima za rutu ako ne postoji FS - alju se pouzdano (sa potvrdom prijema) kao unicast ili multicast Reply - odgovor na Query paket - alju se pouzdano (sa potvrdom prijema) kao unicast
Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

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Default Hello intervali i Hold period za EIGRP

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Uspostavljanje susedstva

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

EIGRP

EIGRP will automatically summarize routes at classful boundaries

Osnovna EIGRP konfiguracija


EIGRP proces se startuje komandom router eigrp <AS-number> - svi ruteri u AS moraju biti konfigurisani sa istim brojem AS Mree koje pripadaju autonomnom sistemu se konfiguriu komandom network <network-number> - mree na koje je ruter direktno prikljuen
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Osnovna EIGRP konfiguracija


Propusni opseg na serijskim interfejsima se postavlja komandom bandwidth <kilobits> - vrlo bitno jer EIGRP odreuje metriku prema propusnom opsegu - ukoliko se ne stavi eksplicitno koristi se default vrednost od 1,544Mbps (T1) Ispis poruka za svaku promenu statusa suseda se konfigurie komandom eigrp log-neighbor-changes u interface konfiguracionom modu
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Autonomous System (AS)


This is a collection of networks under the control of a single authority (reference RFC 1930) AS Numbers are assigned by IANA Entities needing AS numbers: ISP Internet Backbone prodiers Institutions connecting to other institutions using AS numbers

Basic EIGRP Configuration


EIGRP autonomous system number actually functions as a process ID Process ID represents an instance of the routing protocol running on a router
Router(config)#router eigrp autonomoussystem

Basic EIGRP Configuration


The router eigrp command The global command that enables eigrp is
router eigrp autonomous-system -All routers in the EIGRP routing domain must use the same process ID number (autonomous-

system number)

Basic EIGRP Configuration


The Network Command Functions of the network command

Enables interfaces to transmit & receive EIGRP updates Includes network or subnet in EIGRP updates Router(config-router)#network networkaddress

Example

Basic EIGRP Configuration


The network Command with a Wildcard Mask This option is used when you want to configure EIGRP to advertise specific subnets
Router(config-router)#network network-address [wildcard-mask]

Verifying EIGRP
EIGRP routers must establish adjacencies with their neighbors before any updates can be sent or received
show ip eigrp neighbors

EIGRP
The show ip protocols command is also used to verify that EIGRP is enabled

Basic EIGRP Configuration


Examining the Routing Table
The show ip route command is also used to verify EIGRP EIGRP routes are denoted in a routing table by the letter D By default , EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at major network boundary

Null0 Summary Route


Null0 is not a physical interface In the routing table summary routes are sourced from Null0
Reason: routes are used for advertisement purposes

EIGRP will automatically include a null0 summary route as child route when 2 conditions are met
1. At least one subnet is learned via EIGRP 2. Automatic summarization is enabled

Basic EIGRP Configuration


R3s routing table shows that the 172.16.0.0/16 network is automatically summarized by R1 & R3

EIGRP Metric Calculation


EIGRP Composite Metric & the K Values EIGRP uses the following values in its composite metric Bandwidth, delay, reliability, and load The composite metric used by EIGRP
formula used has values K1
K1 & K3 =1 all other K values = 0

K5

EIGRP Metric Calculation


Use the show ip protocols command to verify the K values

Automatska sumarizacija ruta


EIGRP automatski oglaava sumarizacionu rutu cele klase na granici sa drugom klasom - podmree jedne klase razdvojene drugom klasom nepoeljna situacija Iskljuuje se komandom no autosummary u router konfiguracionom modu
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

EIGRP automatska sumarizacija zasnovana na klasi

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

The Null0 Summary Route


By default, EIGRP uses the Null0 interface to discard any packets that match the parent route but do not match any of the child routes EIGRP automatically includes a null0 summary route as a child route whenever both of the following conditions exist

One or subnets exists that was learned via EIGRP Automatic summarization is enabled

More EIGRP Configurations


The Null0 Summary Route

Disabling Automatic Summarization


The auto-summary command permits EIGRP to automatically summarize at major network boundaries The no auto-summary command is used to disable automatic summarization
This causes all EIGRP neighbors to send updates that will not be automatically summarized this will cause changes to appear in both -routing tables -topology tables

Manuelna sumarizacija ruta


Ukoliko se eli sumarna ruta koja nije na granici klase, ona se moe manuelno podesiti Sumarna ruta se konfigurie komandom ip summary-address eigrp <ASnumber> <ip-address> <mask> [<administrative-distance>] u interface konfiguracionom modu U tabeli e se pojaviti sumarna ruta koja pokazuje na Null0 interfejs i koja se efektivno nee koristiti
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Manual Summarization
Manual summarization can include supernets
Reason: EIGRP is a classless routing protocol & include subnet mask in update

Command used to configure manual summarization


Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp as-number network-address subnet-mask

Configuring a summary route

Manuelna sumarizacija kod EIGRP-a

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Tabela suseda

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Polja u tabeli suseda


Neighbor address - adresa suseda Smooth Round-Trip Timer (SRTT) - proseno RTT vreme izmeu suseda; koristi se za odreivanje intervala za retransmisiju Queue count (Q Cnt) - broj paketa koji ekaju u redu za slanje Sequence Number (Seq No) - broj sekvence poslednjeg paketa koji je dobijen od suseda Retransmission Timeout (RTO) je vreme koje pokazuje koliko se eka bez prijema potvrede da bi se paket pouzdano poslao
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Kreiranje ruta

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Izbor rute
Ako link padne, DUAL trai alternativne puteve, ili feasible successor, u tabeli topologije Ako nema feasible successor, ruta se stavlja u Active stanje, ili se oznai kao beskorisna Query paketi se alju susednim ruterima i trai se podatak o topologiji. DUAL koristi tu informaciju da ponovo izrauna successor i feasible successor ka odreditu.
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DUAL Concepts
The Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) is used to prevent looping

DUAL Concepts
Successor
The best least cost route to a destination found in the routing table

Feasible distance
The lowest calculated metric along a path to a destination network

Feasible Successors
Feasible Successor
This is a loop free backup route to same destination as successor route

Reported distance (RD)


Reported distance (RD)
The metric that a router reports to a neighbor about its own cost to that network

Feasibility Condition (FC)


Met when a neighbors RD is less than the local routers FD to the same destination network

EIGRP Topology table


Viewed using the command show ip eigrp topology Contents of topology table include: all successor routes all feasible successor routes

DUAL Concepts
EIGRP Topology Table dissected

DUAL Concepts
Topology Table: No Feasible Successor
A feasible successor may not be present because the feasibility condition may not be met -In other words, the reported distance of the neighbor is greater than or equal to the current feasible distance

DUAL Concepts
Finite Sate Machine (FSM)

An abstract machine that defines a set of possible states something can go through, what event causes those states and what events result form those states FSMs are used to describe how a device, computer program, or routing algorithm will react to a set of input events

DUAL Concepts
DUAL FSM

Selects a best loopfree path to a destination Selects alternate routes by using information in EIGRP tables

DUAL Concepts
Finite State Machines (FSM) To examine output from EIGRPs finite state machine us the debug eigrp fsm command

Provera EIGRP-a
show ip eigrp topology alllinks prikaz svih ruta, ne samo feasible successor-a show ip eigrp traffic [asnumber] prikaz poslatih i primljenih EIGRP paketa; mogue je zadati broj AS

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Provera EIGRP-a
show ip eigrp neighbors [type number] [details] prikaz EIGRP tabele suseda; type i number se koriste za definisanje interfejsa show ip eigrp interfsces [type number] [as-number] [details] prikaz informacija o svakom interfejsu; opcije slue za zadavanje odreenog interfejsa
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Provera EIGRP-a
show ip eigrp topology [asnumber | [ip-address] mask]] prikaz svih feasible successor-a; mogunost zadavanja ip adrese odreene mree show ip eigrp topology [active | pending| zero-successors] prikaz svih rutera koji su aktivni, koji alju ili nsu bez successor-a u zavisnosti od traene opcije
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EIGRP debug komande


debug eigrp fsm prikaz feasible successor u cilju provere da li su update-ovi instalirani ili obrisani debug eigrp packet prikaz prijema i slanja EIGRP paketa (hello, update, request, query, reply); prikaz sequence i acknowledgement brojeva

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Neki razlozi za neispravno funkcionisanje EIGRP protokola


Layer 1 ili Layer 2 problem Neusklaeni AS brojevi EIGRP procesa na ruterima Zaguen link ili link neaktivan Izlazni interfejs neaktivan Oglaeni interfejs nije aktivan Automatska sumarizacija kod razdvojenih podmrea (discontiguous subnets)
Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

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Troubleshooting
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

Analizirati pad mree, jasno definisati problem. Izolovati mogue uzroke pada mree. Razmotriti nastale probleme na osnovu injenica o stanju mree. Sastaviti plan akcije shodno problemu. Primeniti plan akcije, korak po korak, i videti da li se problem reava. Analizirati rezultate bez obzira na to da li je problem reen. Ako jeste, proces je gotov. Ako problem nije reen, kreirati novi plan akcije zasnovan na drugoj grupi moguih problema. Vratiti se na korak 4, menjati jednu po jednu promenljivu, i tako sve dok se problem ne rei. Kada se jednom pojavi problem, obavezno ga reiti do kraja.
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Troubleshooting EIGRP
show ip eigrp neighbors prikaz useda za koje je ruter saznao preko EIGRP-a i poslednje resetovanje suseda show ip eigrp topology prikaz tabele topologije, aktivnih i pasivnih ruta, broj successor-a i feasible distance show ip route eigrp poslednji upisi u tabelu rutiranja (EIGRP) show ip protocols parametri i stanje aktivnih routing procesa, broj autonomnog sistema, redistribuciju, informacije o susedima i o rastojanju
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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

Troubleshooting EIGRP
show ip eigrp neighbors prikazuje broj EIGRP paketa koji su poslati i primljeni, statistiku hello poruka, update-ova, queryja, reply-ja i potvrda eigrp log-neighbor-changes prikaz kada su susedi resetovani i zato debug eigrp fsm prikaz primljenih i poslatih paketa sa interfejsa

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Protokoli i ureaji za rutiranje

More EIGRP Configurations


EIGRP Default Routes quad zero static default route
Can be used with any currently supported routing protocol Is usually configured on a router that is connected a network outside the EIGRP domain

EIGRP & the Quad zero static default route

Requires the use of the redistribute static command to disseminate default route in EIGRP updates

Fine-Tuning EIGRP
EIGRP bandwidth utilization By default, EIGRP uses only up to 50% of interface bandwidth for EIGRP information The command to change the percentage of bandwidth used by EIGRP is
Router(config-if)#ip bandwidth-percent eigrp asnumber percent

More EIGRP Configurations


Configuring Hello Intervals and Hold Times Hello intervals and hold times are configurable on a per-interface basis
Router(config-if)#ip hello-interval eigrp as-number seconds

Changing the hello interval also requires changing the hold time to a value greater than or equal to the hello interval
Router(config-if)#ip hold-time eigrp as-number seconds

Summary
EIGRP terms and characteristics

EIGPR uses RTP to transmit & receive EIGRP packets EIGRP has 5 packet type:
Hello packets Update packets Acknowledgement packets Query packets Reply packets

Supports VLSM & CIDR

Summary
EIGRP terms and characteristics

EIGRP uses a hello protocol Purpose of hello protocol is to discover & establish adjacencies EIGRP routing updates Aperiodic Partial and bounded Fast convergence

Summary
EIGRP commands

The following commands are used for EIGRP configuration RtrA(config)#router eigrp [autonomoussystem #] RtrA(config-router)#network network-number The following commands can be used to verify EIGRP Show ip protocols Show ip eigrp neighbors Show ip route

Summary
EIGRP metrics include

Bandwidth (default) Delay (default) Reliability Load

Summary
DUAL

Purpose of DUAL To prevent routing loops Successor Primary route to a destination Feasible successor Backup route to a destination Feasible distance Lowest calculated metric to a destination Reported distance The distance towards a destination as advertised by an upstream neighbor

Summary
Choosing the best route

After router has received all updates from directly connected neighbors, it can calculate its DUAL 1st metric is calculated for each route 2nd route with lowest metric is designated successor & is placed in routing table 3rd feasible successor is found Criteria for feasible successor: it must have lower reported distance to the destination than the installed routes feasible distance Feasible routes are maintained in topology table

Summary
Automatic summarization

On by default Summarizes routes on classful boundary Summarization can be disabled using the following command RtrA(config-if)#no auto-summary