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Contents
:. Intioduction
z. Activism, extiemism oi teiioiism
. 1le situation now ,
. Cuiient activities p
. Iutuie expectations ::
6. 1le iole ol tle AIVu :
,. Conclusions :
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"uuc aaj - jca acu`t kucuuhcu aua ! acu`t kucu


uhcu - thc amcs u||| crapt. ! sha|| uarmmjsc|j cu that
||ocrat|u rc as |t acstrcjs thc actcut|cu ccutrcs oc|u oa||t
jcr pccp|c u|thcat papcrs. A ||ocrat|u rc jcr thc cccs cj
thc |mm|rat|cu scrr|cc! A ||ocrat|u r|oocu cj amcs
sprcaa|u tc thc scats aua oa||a|us cj crcrumcut, rcach|u
ua||s aua c|csca accrs, c\p|ca|u octuccu |ccks aua h|ucs.
8a|kcucuac aua 8catr|\, A|oajrak aua n|rsch 8a|||u,
||aac|kccp aua 8cs - |ct thcma|| scc u|th sccrchca jaccs
uhat trac ||ocrat|cu |ccks ||kc... Lct thc amcs scrrc thc
rcs|staucc, uct tjrauuj.
1lese woids, wiien Ly a well-known activist in
Vay zoop, piovide a good impiession ol wlat some
campaigneis iegaid as legitimate loims ol iesist-
ance against cuiient uutcl immigiation and asylum
policy. And tley aie woids wlicl, in a way, would
piove as piopletic as tley aie piovocative, given tle
events ol z August zoop. Un tlat date a Fie was set
in tle on-site oces ol tle consoitium Luilding tle
new detention centie at koeidam Aiipoit.
Upposition to Luiopean immigiation and asylum
policy, and to tle uutcl appioacl in paiticulai, las
long Leen a ma|oi tleme amongst le-wing
activists in tle Xetleilands. In tle late :p8os and
eaily :ppos, tle gioup kevolutionaiy Anti-kacist
Action (kevolutionaiie Anti kacistiscle Actie, kaka)
conducted a campaign ol violence in tle loim ol
aison and LomL aacks, most notaLly LomLing tle
lome ol tle State Secietaiy loi }ustice, Aad kosto.
Lspecially aei tle end ol apaitleid in Soutl Aliica,
kaka slied its locus to tlis moie domestic issue.
Ioi tle gioup itsell, tle move was a logical one, in
its view, aei all, immigiants in tle Xetleilands
also sueied a loim ol apaitleid wlat it called
"institutional oi state iacism". 1le Fnal kaka aack,
taigeting tle Vinistiy ol Social Aaiis, took place
on : }uly :pp. Xot long aeiwaids, iiven Ly inteinal
conict, tle gioup ceased to exist. 1le ame ol
iesistance to uutcl immigiation and asylum policy
was suLsequently taken up Ly otlei, moie peacelul
activists, altlougl tley lacked any ieal loim ol
oiganisation.
In tle past lew yeais, lowevei, some stiuctuie las
ietuined to tle movement. Voieovei, tle activists
involved lave Lecome moie and moie iadical. 1lis
las Leen ieected in an incieasing numLei ol aison
aacks and so-called "lome visits", as well as tle
"naming and slaming" ol policymakeis and
ocials Ly puLlisling tleii names, addiesses and
otlei details. Unce populai among extieme-le
anti-impeiialists and anti-militaiists, tlese metlods
lave in iecent yeais Leen ieFned Ly animal iiglts
extiemists. And |ust as in tlat stiuggle, tle
opposition to immigiation and asylum policy las
Lecome claiacteiised Ly a close-knit comLination
ol legal and illegal activities. Xonetleless, loi tle
most pait tle two campaigns iemain sepaiate.
1leie aie only a lew known cases ol "dual" activism,
wleie one peison is involved in Lotl movements.
8y liglliglting tlese activities, tle AIVu lopes to
lostei awaieness wleie it is needed. In otlei woids,
tle seivice's aim is to make tlose at iisk ol aack
conscious ol tle potential tlieat against tlem.
:. lntroouct|on

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1le landscape ol iadical activism is constantly


evolving, a lact wlicl las in iecent yeais led to a
clange in tle teims used to desciiLe it. 1le moie oi
less violent activism ol tle past is now deFned Ly
many countiies, including tle Xetleilands, as
"extiemism". Some nations, sucl as tle united
States, even use tle woid "teiioiism" to desciiLe
ceitain loims ol enviionmental, animal iiglts and
otlei activism. Un tle otlei land it is stiiking tlat
in tle united kingdom, wlicl was tle Liitlplace ol
tle modein loim ol iadical diiect action against
animal sueiing and las iesponded Ly imposing
leavy |udicial penalties upon tlose involved, tle
teim "domestic extiemism" is still pieleiied.
In tle Xetleilands, tle AIVu now uses tle teim
"extiemism" iatlei tlan "violent activism". 1lis is
done in oidei to distinguisl cleaily Letween tlose
individuals and oiganisations opeiating witlin tle
law and tlose, wlicl go Leyond it. In tle case ol
opposition to immigiation and asylum policy, a
numLei ol degiees ol activity can Le oLseived.
8Zk`m`jd
A geneial teim loi tle plenomenon wleieLy
individuals oi gioups seek to impiove tle iiglts ol
immigiants and asylum seekeis, including tlose
wlose claims lave lailed, tliougl extiapailiamen-
taiy activities, Lut in so doing iemain witlin tle
law.
<oki\d`jd
1le plenomenon wleieLy, in tleii stiuggle loi
paiticulai iiglts, individuals oi gioups deliLeiately
oveistep tle Lounds ol tle law to commit illegal,
sometimes violent, acts.
K\iifi`jd
Ideologically motivated violence oi otlei destiuc-
tive acts wletlei actual, planned oi tlieatened
against peisons, piopeity oi tle laLiic ol society,
commied witl tle aim ol Liinging aLout social
clange, causing seiious puLlic disquiet oi inu-
encing tle political decision-making piocess.
Le-wing extiemists aie piepaied to commit ciimes
in puisuit ol tleii aims. And in some cases tlose
oences can Le seiious. uamage to piopeity is a
liequent occuiience, and on occasion giave
peisonal tlieats lave Leen made. 1leie aie no
indications, lowevei, tlat tle ultimate puipose is
to liiglten tle puLlic oi to disiupt society to sucl
an extent tlat tlese activities loice clange oi
inuence political decision-making.
z. /ct|v|sm, extrem|smor terror|sm?

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. 1he s|tuat|on now
1le cuiient landscape ol active opposition to uutcl
immigiation and asylum policy can Le desciiLed as
comLining ielatively modeiate civil disoLedience
witl moie iadical expiessions ol dissatislaction.
And, altlougl dicult to quantily, tlis movement
appeais to en|oy a ceitain level ol suppoit among
sections ol tle widei puLlic. 1le campaign Vau nartc
aracu (Paidon liom tle Eeait), loi example, Liings
togetlei seveial lundied local and iegional puLlic
initiatives, political gioups and action commiees.
At some puLlic demonstiations, sucl as Llockades,
a coie gioup ol a lew dozen activist-extiemists can
count upon tle Lacking ol a mucl laigei numLei ol
suppoiteis, wlo aie moie modeiate Lut still
piepaied to commit acts ol civil disoLedience. Un
seveial occasions, sucl as wlen aempts weie
made to occupy a piison Laige, dozens ol people
lave Leen moLilised witlin a veiy sloit time.
Altlougl tleie is an inteinational dimension, in
geneial tle iesistance to cuiient policy is a domestic
aaii. 1le campaigneis lave identiFed numeious
taigets, details ol wlicl tley lave especially in tle
past yeai Leen disseminating widely online and
tliougl otlei clannels. As well as Leing a means ol
communication, tle inteinet is also used to gatlei
inloimation aLout potential taigets.
1le vaiious types ol activism and tle composition
ol tle gioups involved aie desciiLed in moie detail
Lelow.
*%( 8Zk`m`jkj
Vau nartc aracu was long tle most modeiate
exponent ol iesistance to immigiation and asylum
policy. Upeiating as an umLiella oiganisation,
tlose it iepiesents include many peacelul campaign
gioups as well as a numLei ol initiatives dedicated
to pioviding suppoit loi lailed asylum seekeis wlo
lave exlausted all legal means to stay in tle
Xetleilands.
Among tlese aie tle Amsteidam Solidaiity
Commiee loi kelugees Amstcraams c||aar|tc|ts
kcm|tcc V|achtc||ucu, AkV) and Paiticipating
kelugees In Vulticultuial Luiope, PkIVL, wlicl is
Lased in 1le Eague. 8otl ol tlese oiganisations
lave loi decades lelped ielugees wlo aie in
diculties.
Un tle weLsite www.veitiokkengeziclten.net
a|stcrtca jaccs), events like tle zoo Scliplol Fie, aie
desciiLed and inteipieted. uutcl gioups active in
tle inteinational aiena (see .z) aie also geneially
claiacteiised Ly a modeiate appioacl. Ceitainly
wlen tlose involved in local and iegional initiatives
aie included in tle count, tle total numLei ol
activists on immigiation and asylum issues in tle
Xetleilands iuns into tle tlousands.
*%) 8Zk`m`jk$\oki\d`jkj
Ioi some yeais now, unlawlul iesistance to
immigiation and asylum policy las Leen dominated
Ly two gioups Lased in tle city and piovince ol
utieclt: tle Stop uepoitations woiking uioup
(wcrkrccp tcp ucpcrtat|cs) and tle utieclt Anaiclist
Anti-uepoitation uioup (Auarch|st|schc Aut|-acpcrtat|c
6rccp utrccht, AA6u). 8otl aie pioLaLly involved in a
comLination ol legal and illegal activities, and Lotl
seem to lave a vaiying memLeislip, including
seveial peisons wlo can Le claiacteiised as
"piolessional activists".
In tleii puLlic manilestations, tlese two gioups test
tle Loundaiies ol tle law. 1actics used to diaw
aention to tle situation ol ielugees include
pickets, Llockades and aempted occupations, sucl
as tlat ol tle council clamLei in Soest in UctoLei
zoo8. Un occasions, tlougl, tley also iesoit to
diiect oi indiiect intimidation. Ioi example, Lotl
lave pioduced puLlications containing tle names
and addiesses ol peisons tley considei iesponsiLle
loi implementing cuiient goveinment immigiation ,
and asylum policy.
:
See section .: loi moie
details on tlese activities. 1lis categoiy compiises
a coie gioup ol a lew dozen "iegulai" activists,
plus seveial dozen sympatliseis wlo tuin up in
vaiying loice to take pait in paiticulai actions.
*%* <oki\d`jkj
As in tle animal iiglts movement, tle AIVu
oLseives a close-knit comLination ol legal and
illegal activities witlin tle opposition to
immigiation and asylum policy. kesponsiLility loi
unlawlul acts, wlicl iange liom dauLing slogans
to ciiminal damage and aempted aison, is
geneially claimed using one-o covei names like
"uienzen weg" (8cracrs Auaj), "ueen 8loed aan
Vi|n Eanden" (\c 8|cca cu |j nauas), "kelugees
Iiee", "Vigianten welkom" (||rauts wc|ccmc),
"ueen wapens ueen Cellen" (\c wcapcus, \c 6c||s),
"Xacltsclade" uamac at u|ht), "ueLioken
ula(n)s" (8rckcu 6|ass/8rckcu p|cuacar) and, most
iecently, "Anaiclist Iiie". 1le acts commied
undei tlese names aie tle woik ol extiemists.
Voieovei, it is quite plausiLle tlat memLeis ol
tle gioups named in tle pievious section aie
iesponsiLle loi tlese clandestine ciimes against
piopeity, in all likelilood, extiemist activities aie
diiected Ly peisons witlin tlose gioups.
Identilying tle actual peipetiatois is dicult,
tlougl: tle actions aie piepaied in gieat seciecy
and caiiied out at niglt Ly a landlul ol people
opeiating in tiglt cells witl an evei-clanging
stiuctuie.
:
5Ub XY gW\UbXdUU` (ln the l|||ory, September zoo8), 5Ub XY
gW\UbXdUU` & (/pr|| zooq), Ghcd 87%* (lebruary zooq).
8
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Since tle opposition to uutcl immigiation and
asylum policy las Legun to take on moie iadical
loims, tle locus ol tle extiemists las slaipened.
As in tle animal iiglts movement, long lists ol
potential taigets lave appeaied. In addition, an
intensiFcation ol inteinational contacts las Leen
oLseived.
+%( KXi^\kj
kouglly speaking, tle taigets selected aie tlose
consideied iesponsiLle loi loimulating and
implementing immigiation and asylum policy, in
Lotl tle puLlic and tle piivate sectois. As is
appaient liom tle iange ol categoiies desciiLed
Lelow, lowevei, tle deFnition ol iesponsiLility loi
implementation is veiy wide-ianging and includes
"secondaiy" and even "teitiaiy" taigets. A numLei
ol tlose named in vaiious puLlications lave alieady
lad to enduie acts ol vandalism, ciiminal damage,
aison aempts and in one case an actual Fie. A
diiectoi ol a Fim ol aiclitects las actually Leen tle
suL|ect ol a so-called "lome visit". 1le activists
categoiise tleii taigets as lollows.
,.:.: 6crcrumcut aua thc jaa|c|arj
Xamed Vinistiy ol }ustice taigets include tle
Immigiation Policy uepaitment and its Vonitoiing,
kepatiiation and Xatuialisation unit. 1leie is also a
paiticulai inteiest in piemises ol tle Immigiation
and Xatuialisation Seivice (IXu), tle kepatiiation
and uepaituie Seivice (u18V), tle Inteinational
Uiganisation loi Vigiation (IUV), tle Xational
Agency ol Coiiectional Institutions (u}I) and tle
koyal militaiy constaLulaiy kcu|uk||jkc marcchaasscc,
k|ar).
,.:.z ucs|ucrs aua oa||acrs
1lis gioup includes named Luilding contiactois and
suLcontiactois, as well as Fnancial institutions
involved in constiuction oi ienovation woik at tle
Scliplol uetention and uepoitation Centie, piison
Laiges in koeidam, uoidieclt and Zaanstad, tle
detention centies in Zeist and Alplen aan den ki|n
and tle Zestienloven uepoitation Centie.
,.:. app||crs aua scrr|cc prcr|acrs
1lis categoiy compiises a wlole iange ol individ-
uals and Lusinesses: piinteis, plotogiapleis,
documentation manageis, |ouinalists, communica-
tion consultants and supplieis ol eveiytling liom
plotocopieis to oce supplies, plastic Lags and
toilet papei. 1le aiiline kLV is also named as
paiticipating in loiced depoitations. Utlei
potential taigets listed include tle developeis ol tle
IXu weLsite, a suppliei ol Cliistmas Loxes, a
television iental Fim and companies supplying
piivate secuiity guaids and even medical seivices.
1wo puLlisled Looklets, Aau ac schauapaa| - z ("In
tle Pilloiy z") and especially tcp u6:, identily eveiy
company and oiganisation in any way known to Le
associated witl tle constiuction ol tle new
detention centie at koeidam Aiipoit. tcp u6:
also locuses upon tle iole ol tle Inteinal Assistance
1eam !utcruc 8|jstauastcam, !81), a contiol and
iestiaint unit wlicl, tle autlois claim, Loasts ol its
loicelul tactics and can Le extiemely violent towaids
detainees, allegedly using Lalaclavas to pievent
iecognition. As mentioned, tcp u6: explicitly
names Fims paiticipating in tle consoitium
estaLlisling tle centie.
. Current act|v|t|es
q
+%) @ek\ieXk`feXc`jXk`fe
1leie las Leen lile oi no inteinational collaLo-
iation Ly opponents ol immigiation and asylum
policy ovei tle past Feen yeais, and ceitainly not
at tle extiemist end ol tle spectium. Eowevei,
ceitain individuals aie to some extent involved in
inteinational initiatives sucl as tle campaign
against Iiontex.
z
1leie las Leen a paiticulai locus
upon tlis agency witlin tle Amsteidam-Lased
oiganisation "All Included". Utlei individuals aie
associated witl "XoLoidei Xetwoik", wlicl
campaigns on migiation-ielated issues at tle
inteinational level. Seveial uutcl activists
paiticipate in so-called Xo 8oidei Camps. Uveiall,
tleie is a degiee ol inteinational solidaiity
Letween immigiation and asylum activists: wlen
any countiy takes measuies tley do not like, its
diplomatic missions aLioad aie likely to Lecome
tle taiget ol giati wiiteis and small-scale acts ol
vandalism. 1le leei claiming iesponsiLility loi
tle Fie at koeidam Aiipoit in August zoop
included an aack on Luiopean policy. And
activist media aLioad covei actions in tle
Xetleilands.
z
lrontex |s the Luropean un|on agency estab||sheo to
co oro|nate operat|ona| co||aborat|on between member
states |n the e|o of Luropean externa| boroer secur|ty. /s
we|| as ass|st|ng |n the management of the Lu's externa|
front|ers, lrontex a|so supports states |n organ|s|ng jo|nt
return operat|ons.
:o
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. luture expectat|ons
uiven tle composition ol tle piincipal gioups
named in tlis iepoit, it can ieasonaLly Le assumed
tlat tleii activities will continue loi tle loieseeaLle
lutuie. Alieady, a numLei ol individuals lave
eectively made a caieei out ol opposing cuiient
immigiation and asylum policy. witl tle uutcl
goveinment planning to Luild up its depoitation
piogiamme ovei tle next lew yeais, liteially as well
as Fguiatively, moie actions diiected speciFcally
against tlat aspect can Le expected. It seems likely
tlat companies and institutions named in tle
vaiious activist puLlications will Le suL|ected to
noise piotests, Llockades, aempts at occupation
and even demonstiations taigeting peisonnel in
tleii lome enviionment. Lxtiemist Lelavioui ol
tle laei kind, in paiticulai, constitute a seiious
and tlieatening loim ol intimidation.
1le AIVu Lelieves tlat an inciease in illegal and
intimidatoiy activities can Le expected. As in tle
campaigns conducted Ly animal iiglts extiemists,
tleie will pioLaLly Le even moie actions taigeting
individuals. Eowevei, it slould also Le pointed out
tlat tleie aie no indications ol any intention to
diiect plysical violence against people. Veanwlile,
tle inteinational aspect meiits closei monitoiing.
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6. 1he ro|e of the /lvL
1le AIVu investigates people and oiganisations
wlicl, Ly viitue ol tleii aims oi metlods, give iise
to a ieasonaLle suspicion tlat tley pose a seiious
dangei to tle demociatic legal oidei.

It is in tlis
context tlat tle seivice monitois tle activities ol
iadical opponents ol uutcl immigiation and
asylum policy. witl tle emeigence ol tle AAuu and
Stop uepoitations, coupled witl tle associated
iadicalisation appaient liom tle inciease in
noctuinal aacks on piopeity, it las intensiFed its
woik in tlis aiea.
using tle new insiglts gained liom tlis investiga-
tion, tle AIVu enaLles otleis to iespond as
necessaiy. wleie possiLle, tle seivice will
endeavoui to wain companies and institutions in
advance ol any planned actions against tlem.
wleie tley lave alieady Leen taigeted, tle AIVu
can assist tlem in mitigating lutuie iisks and
tlieats. In addition, tle AIVu keeps goveinment
and piivate oiganisations aLieast ol tiends and
developments. 8y slaiing knowledge and inloima-
tion, tle seivice lelps sucl Lodies as tle u}I, tle
IXu, tle koyal militaiy constaLulaiy and local
autloiities to do tleii |oLs eectively. wlen actual
oi potential ciiminal activities aie detected, sucl as
acts ol violence against peisons oi piopeity, tle
AIVu notiFes tle Xational PuLlic Piosecutoi so tlat
tle appiopiiate |udicial measuies can Le taken.
In collaLoiation witl tle Vinistiy ol }ustice and tle
Vinistiy ol tle Inteiioi's Polaiisation and
kadicalisation Pio|ect, tle AIVu is aLout to emLaik
upon a piogiamme to iaise awaieness among Fims
and institutions. 1lis puLlication is tle Fist step in
tlat piocess. uetails ol speciFc developments will
also Le piovided to ielevant paities, sucl as
goveinment agencies, local autloiities and
companies. 1lis slould enaLle tlem to take

/rt|c|e 6, lnte|||gence ano Secur|ty Serv|ces /ct zooz.


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appiopiiate piecautions. Anyone can iepoit
inloimation aLout actions to tle AIVu.
:
A
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kadical iesistance to goveinment immigiation and
asylum policy las Leen Lack on tle activist agenda
loi some yeais now. Actions lave alieady Leen
planned and caiiied out, most ol tlem oiiginating
in utieclt. Incieasingly, tle activists iesponsiLle
lave Leen inspiied Ly metlods similai to tlose
employed Ly animal iiglts extiemists: puLlic
demonstiations aie comLined witl acts ol
vandalism, caiiied out undei tle covei ol daikness
and taigeting tle peisonal domains ol tlose in
some way involved in implementing tle policy, Le
tley local oi national politicians, civil seivants oi
Lusiness people. At least some ol tlese activities,
wlicl include dauLing slogans and damaging
piopeity, aie caiiied out Ly campaigneis wlo also
opeiate openly. 1lis iadical opposition to immigia-
tion and asylum policy tlus involves a comLination
ol activism and extiemism.
8y "naming and slaming" tlose peiceived to Le
iesponsiLle loi tlat policy, sympatliseis aie
inspiied to act and tleii taigets aie easy to Fnd. At
Fist, tlis was done using a sloit-lived weLsite
listing tle names and addiesses ol individuals and
oiganisations. Latei, a numLei ol piinted puLlica-
tions appeaied containing similai inloimation.
1lese coveied not only "key playeis" Vinistiy ol
}ustice depaitments, aiclitects, Luilding contiac-
tois and tle likes Lut also included details ol
sometimes veiy indiiect taigets, sucl as suLcontiac-
tois, supplieis ol goods and peisonnel, piinteis and
plotogiapleis.
1le AIVu Lelieves tlat an inciease in illegal and
intimidatoiy activities can Le expected. 1leie will
pioLaLly Le even moie actions taigeting individ-
uals. Eowevei, tleie aie no indications ol any
intention to diiect plysical violence against people.
Altlougl animal iiglts extiemism and opposition
to immigiation and asylum policy loi tle most pait
iemain sepaiate movements, tleie aie a lew known
cases ol "dual" activism wleie one peison is
involved in Lotl.
1le AIVu and tle ielevant goveinment ministiies
will togetlei seek to assist institutions and
companies aected Ly tlis loim ol activism, in
paiticulai Ly iaising awaieness. witl tle lelp ol
inloimation on low to deal witl activists and also
wlat secuiity piecautions to take, tley slould Le
aLle to inciease tleii own iesilience to aack.
,. Conc|us|ons
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