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1.

INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT Robot becomes widely used in industrial due to their characteristics. Robot able to work

in 24 hours continuously without feeling tired unlike human that confine to certain time. The cost to setup the robot nowadays becomes more affordable and their long term prospect is bright judging from their capacity to perform. But in reality, there is no robot where able to function perfectly and still making error. A better controller needed here, to allow the robot performs efficiently and make less error. So, this project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle that follows a specific path. This project uses a microcontroller of 8051 family for its operation. A pair of photo sensors comprising IR transmitter and photo diode is interfaced to the controller to detect the specified path for its movement. Line follower robot is a useful robot that is used in ware houses, industries, and stores, where it follows a dedicated path. This proposed system of a line following robot fulfills the desired functionality and demonstrates the working of it. It uses a pair of photo sensors, comprising of one IR transmitter and a photo diode in each. It guides the robot to follow a specified path by giving appropriate signal to the microcontroller. Two DC motors are used interfaced to the microcontroller through a motor driver IC. Input signals given to the microcontroller from the sensors and then the controller takes the appropriate action according to the program written in it and drives motors as desired.

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OBJECTIVE The objectives of this project are: 1. Scalability must be a primary concern in the design 2. To make the device automatically tracking the particular path. 3. To design prototype of the robot that can follow the line. 4. To develop a robot that moves through a dark line on light back ground.

3.0

RESEARCH OF THE PROJECT

First of all, some research about the robot available today and how it work is been study. All this information is important for the next step that will be taken to precede this project. Three methods are used in doing a research about this project. It is:-

i. Gain information for related book

Books are the first source to refer to do some research. Books can give an accurate output and the right information when looking at the title. It is not difficult to find a correct title needed. Some of books are equipped with features, graphs and tables that help collaborates about the topic. But books also have it weakness. First, it is difficult to understand some of it sentence or word from book because book is written by someone with a different level of knowledge and background education. The terminology is always advance and sophisticated. It is difficult to fully understand what the authors try to explains, plus with static feature, it is hard to understand everything. Second is difficulty to read with the numbers and long equations, everything in books seems hard to understand. So to depend on books alone is not enough. Other sources should be used.

ii. Search from internet

Nowadays, world without boundary is very synonym with millennium era. Internet made everything in this world seem very small. Information and data can be transfer so fast. Just a click, any information can be obtained. Anything can be found in internet as long as it knows how to find it. Just to do is searching. Information about robotics technology also can be found easily in internet. In internet, there some of websites are come out with a video or animation to help explaining the related topic. With this features, its help to understand more compare to books. But internet also has it fuzzy side. Some of information in internet is untrue information. It is cannot be used as reference. So, it must be carefully when getting the information to ensure that information is true.

iii. Discuss with expertise

Discussion with expertise about the topic is the best way to gain information about the robot. It can be done early before refer to other source but it always the best ways if meeting with expertise after refer to other source. With this step, an expertise would explain what topic that need more understand and which topics are not related with the project. Expertise also can help to overcome the problem of understanding books and compromise any information from internet. In university, expertise is a lecturer, teaching engineer, tutor and technician that expert related with the project field for examples to understand of robotic system.

4.0

SCOPE OF PROJECT The scopes of work are listed as below:1. PIC 16F877A microcontroller is selected as a controller of robot. 2. Obstacle detecting sensors to avoid physical obstacles and continue on the line. 3. Robot design and construction. 4. Software development and System demonstration.

5.0 METHODOLOGY Line Follower Robot is based on hardware and software configuration.

5.1

Materials

Resistor Quantity 1 1 3 6 3 References R1 R2 Value 220 10 k 4.7 k 330 10 k (Trimmer)

Capacitor 2 2 2 C1 , C2 C3 , C4 C5 , C6 0.3 F 30 pF 100 F (25 V)

Integrated Circuit 1 1 1 1 Diode 1 1 3 Sensor 3 3 Miscellaneous 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 J1 X1 J5 SW1 SW-SPST Push Button Crystal 20 MHz 10 ways Straight Box Header Straight Turn 40 pin Terminal Block 2 pin IC Socket 14 pin IC Socket 16 pin IC Socket 40 pin ZIF Socket 40 pin 10mm PCB Stand DC Plug/jack (2.1mm) DC Adapter 12V 1A USB IC SP PIC Programmer Infrared Transmitter Infrared Receiver D1 LED1 IN4007 (Diode) LED- Green LED UI U2 7805 (Voltage Regulator) PIC16F877A L293D (Motor Driver) LM324 (Comparator)

5.2 Hardware Development

Figure 1: Block diagram

Figure 2: Infrared Circuit

Figure 3: Motor Circuit

Figure 4: Power Supply and main PIC

1. PIC microcontrollers (PIC16F877A) PIC microcontrollers (Programmable Interface Controllers) are electronic circuits that can be programmed to carry out a vast range of tasks. It can be programmed to be timers or to control a production line and much more. It also has calculation function, memory and controlled by program. Each pin on it has specific function. PIC Microcontrollers are relatively cheap and can be bought as pre-built circuits or as kits that can be assembled by the user. This PIC microcontroller also can be programmed and erased up to 10,000 times. Many programming language are supported by this PIC such as C language, High-Tech C and Pic Basic.

2. IR receiver and IR transmitter Transmitter and receiver are commonly used in engineering projects for remote control of objects. In particularly, in Robotic system uses transmitter and receiver. An infrared emitter is an LED made from gallium arsenide, which emits near-infrared energy at about 880nm. The infrared phototransistor acts as a transistor with the base voltage determined by the amount of light hitting the transistor.Hence it acts as a variable current source. Greater amount of IR light cause greater currents to flow through the collector-emitter leads.

3. Op-Amplifier (LM324) If the rays received by the IR- LED receiver are above a particular threshold then an amplified signal is generated by the amplifier (LM324). Note that the sensors cannot directly send a signal to the microcontroller as the signal voltage generated by them is too low and even when sensors are on white surface signal generated by them will interpreted low by the microcontroller.

4. 3H-Bridge (L293D) The microcontroller sends a signal to the H-bride that acts as a switch. If the signal received by the H-bridge is high it will rotate the motor or else it wont do so. Note that microcontroller only sends a signal to a switch which gives the voltage required by the motor to rotate. Here we are using L293D which can be used to control two motors.

5.2.1

Software Development

Figure5: Flowchart Software

1. MPLAB MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free, integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC and dsPIC microcontrollers. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows, is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging.

MPLAB IDE also serves as a single, unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. Moving between tools is a snap, and upgrading from the free software simulator to hardware debug and programming tools is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tool.

2. Proteus Software

Proteus is software for microprocessor simulation, schematic capture, and printed circuit board (PCB) design. It is developed by Labcenter Electronics. Proteus 7.0 is a Virtual System Modelling (VSM) that combines circuit simulation, animated components and microprocessor models to co-simulate the complete microcontroller based designs. This is the perfect tool for engineers to test their microcontroller designs before constructing a physical prototype in real time. This program allows users to interact with the design using on-screen indicators and/or LED and LCD displays and, if attached to the PC, switches and buttons.

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EXPECTED RESULTS

1) The robot follows a line as demonstrated. 2) It effectively overcomes problems such as barren land syndrome and line breaks. 3) The hardware and software works as designed.

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Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Elements

Briefing on topic of the project

GANTT CHART

Forming a group members

Proposal

Computer sketching and designing

the circuit using

software

Testing the functionality of the circuits

Designing the hardware prototype

Collecting data and testing the hardware prototype

Project report

Presentation and submit the full report

8.0

REFERENCES

1. Plermjaniinchuay, Line Follower Robot: http://chaokhun.kmitl.ac.th/~kswichit/LFrobot/LFrobot.htm

2. MUKUND22R, Automated Line Following Robot: http://letsmakerobots.com/node/31206