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PHRM - 28 Apr - 1 of 13

Personality traits

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - is the most widely used instrument in the world, used by companies like Apple, GM, Honda, Microsoft, Citigroup, Tata Motors, using a 100 question test to obtain measurs on 4 axes

a) Extroverted (E) vs Introverted (I) b) Sensing (S) vs Intuitive (N) ... sensing types are practical, prefer routine and order, focus on details. INtuitives depend on insight, sub-conscious, look at the big picture c) Thinking (T) vs Feeling (F) ... thinking - reason & logic, feeling relies on emotions and values d) Judging vs Perceiving ... judgment types want order, structure, control; perecieing types are flexible and spontaneous

Studies show INTJs are visionaries - have original minds, great drive, are sceptical, critical, indpendnet, determines, stubborn. ESTJs are great organisers, ENTP are innovators, verstalie, entrepreneurial, but may neglect routine tasks.

The Big 5 Personality model

Factors

1. Extraversion : High - gregarious, outgoing, assertive, high spirited, people oriented 2. Agreeableness : High - compassionate, good natured, co-operative, conflictavoiding, warm and trusting 3. Conscientious : High - Well organised, dependable, persistent, goal seeking, and with high standards.

4. Emotional stability : High - calm, confident, secure 5. Openness to experience :: High - creative, curios,, imaginative, wide interests, often artisitically sensitive.

-----PHRM - 28 Apr - 2/13

Bad bosses - people dont leave their company, they leave their boss - Florida Univ study 39% of staff/team members said their supervisors failed to keep their promises 37% said their bosses failed to give credit where due 31% claimed their bosses gave them the 'silent treatment' 27% claimed their boss made negative comments about them to other employees or managers 24% said their supervisor invaded their privacy 23% said their bosses blames others to cover up mistakes or minimize embarassment

So ... why did those bosses get promoted in the first place ? ... Peter Principle ? .. did they previously exhibit risk-taking, go for broke, flamboyant, hard driving results getting approach ?

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 3 of 13

Global management/leadership styles ...

Brazil - prefer participative decision making, empathetic, tolerant, flexibl, group engaging

France - prefer rational, bureaucratic, structured organization, rules bound, fair but firm leadership styles - not so bothered about humane or people orientation China - emphasises group harmony, consideration, unselfishness, politeness/face saving, collectivist - but also has high performance/results focus UK/Ireland/Spain - leaders have charisma, self-motivated, lead from front. Scandinavia (Sweden etc) - team spirit building, consensus building ... Germany - goal oriented, expertise respecting, systems, roles & control clarity, less people/relationship oriented India - authoritarian style, decisive, with high task orientation, and strong personal involvement by leader. Indian manager/leader long term orientation is about 20% higher than world average, has 30% lower than world average sore on undertainty avoidance (can live with ambiguity, fuzziness). Indian had highest scores on moralism and lowest on pragmatism. Scores on tolerance, empathy, communication were weaker to global average, (which suprised researchers because they expected higher in a multi-ethnic, multi-community, multi-lingual, diverse society like India). In personal goals, pleasure ranks low, amassing personal wealth high. Overall, Indian managers/leaders are like 4 dragon managers (S'pore, HK, S. Korea, Taiwan), but are more individualist than them.

Sources : IMA, AMA, Prof Hofstead ---

PHRM - 28 Apr - 4 of 13

Do we really need leaders ? ... are there substitutes

Defining characteristics - Relationship oriented Leadership (ROL) - Task oriented Leadership (TOL)

Individual level i) Experience/training :: ROL - no effect, TOL - substitutes ii) Professionalisation :: ROL - Substitutes, TOL - substitutes iii) Indifference to rewards :: ROL - Neutralises, TOL - neutralises

Job level i) Highly structured tasks :: ROL - no effect, Substitutes ii) Provides its own feedback :: ROL - No effect, TOL - substitutes iii) Intrinsically satisfying :: ROL - Substitues, TOL - no effect

Organization level i) Explicit formalized goals :: ROL - no effect, TOL - substitutes ii) Rigid rules & procedures :: ROL - no effect on, TOL - Substittutes iii) Cohesive work groups :: ROL - substitutes, TOL - Substitutes

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 5 of 13

Power tactics by influence direction - sequenced roughly by effectiveness Upward influence - rational persuasion Downward influence - rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, pressure, consultation *, ingratiation, exchange, legitimacy Lateral influence - rational persuasion, consultation, ingratiation, exchange, legitimacy, personal appeals, coalitions

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 6 of 13

Impression Management (IM) techniques

Conformity Excuses Apologies Self Promotion Flattery Favours Association

Assess which techniques work best in different situations ... a) job interview, b) peer group, c) after a mistake --

PHRM - 28 Apr - 7 of 13

Forces/triggers of Change

Nature of workforce Technology Economic shocks Competition Social trends World poltics

Are there others ?

Give examples for each

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 8 of 13

Resistance to change - sources

Individual level a) Habit b) Security c) Economic factors d) Fear of the unknown e) Selective information processing

Organizational level

a) Structural inertia b) Limited focus of change c) Group inertia d) Threat to expertise e) Threat to established power relationships f) Threat to established resource allocations

Develop a case study

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 9 of 13

How change agents overcome resistance

a) Education and communication b) Participation c) Building support and commitment d) Implementing changes fairly e) Manipulation and cooptation f) Selecting people who accept change g) Coercion

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 10 of 13

Managing change

1. Lewis 3 step model :: Unfreezing -> movement -> Refreezing ... Restrainign forces, Driving forces,

2. Kotter 8 step plan :: i) Establish urgency and why -> ii) Form coalitions with enough power to lead change -> iii) Create new vision and strategy for same -> iv) communicate vision through organization -> v) Empower others to remove barriers to change, problem solving, vi) Plan, create, reward short term wins/milestones in change, -> vii) Consolidate improvements, re-assess changes, make adjustements, re-program, viii) Reinforce the changes

3. Action research :: Diagnosis -> analysis -> feedback -> action

4. OD (Organizational development) model :: matrix which emphasises human values .. elements are -> respect for people, trust & support, power equalization, confrontation, participation - methods are survey feedback, process consolidation, team building, intergroup development, appeciative inquiry

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 11 of 13

Differences between work groups and teams ...

Goal :: group - share infomation, team - collective performance Synergy :: group - neutral, team - positive Accountability :: group - individual, team - individual and mutual Skills :: group - random & varies, team - complementary

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 12 of 13

Types of teams ::

a) Problem solving teams => 5-12 members, from same department, who meet 1/2 times a week b) Self-managed work teams => 10-15 members, who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors

c) Cross-functional teams => members from about same hierachical level, but different work ares, who meet/work to a mission/goal d) Virtual teams

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PHRM - 28 Apr - 13 of 13

Feedback/Quiz

1. How do you rate yourself on MBTI scale ?

2. Hiw many of the 'Bad boss' characteristics have you encountered in your work life ? How many are you guilty of ?

3. Which nation's predominant managment style do you admire most, and why ?

4. What kind of work teams have you been involved with ?

5. In the Belbin team model, which are the roles you identify with, and would like to play ?

As on 8-May, quiz submitted by - Adhiti/Export, Asmita/Power, Tanmayshee, Manik Roy, Soumik-C, Anirban-C, Kaushik Sengupta, Sanjay - C, Bidhan, Kaushik-B

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HRM - 5-May ... 1-10

Developing the case ...

{From 29-Apr} What case study should we develop, to practice the theory of these HRM sessions ? should be a) in synch with class members project experience, b) include learnings from 1st half of sem material (communication, conflict, negotiation, motivation, leadership, stress), c) should have continuity, coherence and accessible to those absent from class Change Management, Project Management and Teamwork Team Dynamics and Cultural Diversity Effective Team Building Developing Effective Project Teams Inspiring High Team Performance From Self Managed Work Teams to Self Managed Project Teams Manpower Planning and acquisition; assignment of human resources to project activity

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{Received from course participants - Bidhan, Asmita, All} Dear Sir,

Please note below the case study for our class :

Case Study : M/s ABC is a Consultancy firm doing business in Consultancy of a thermal Power Project (6X660 MW TPP). M/s XYZ is the owner of the project.Estimated time required for design of the entire termal Power project is 24 months.The project was hold for 6 months due to non acceptance of Environmental Clearance and availability of Coal. Now, Environmental Clearance certificate is received from

Central Pollution Control Board and availability of coal is confirmed by Coal India Limited for another 35-40 years. After receiving of Environmental Clearance certificate and confirmation of Coal supply M/s XYZ is interested to complete the design of the entire TPP within 12 months. To complete the design within 12 month M/s ABC is planning to employ some changes in Design Procedure and Appoval procedure. How will you motivate your team members to complete the design within time ? How the change in design procedure can be applied in the project?

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Thanks Bidhan/All for working on and developing a case study, to accompany class-work, and project, over May-June - I highly appreciate your thought and effort.

May I suggest an adaptation of the case model.

Because of a new international climate change treaty, environmental and poltical compulsions, the brief of the project has been changed, from 6x660 MW TPP to, a) 3x660 TPP, b) other 1,980 MW to come from renewables/alternative (chose 2 from geo-thermal, wind, micro-hydel, solar, hydrogen). Reasonable assumptions can be made for technology and equipment sourcing, transmission, civil work etc - pooled to minimize disruption, minimize delay. Specialists of coal-powered technology (e.g. furnace, turbine, coal handling) will be retrain and absorb themselves in new teams for the purpose. Obviously, our purpose is not the engineering accuracy but organization of team dynamics, and getting the best out of human resources, so allowances and assumptions will be liberal on technical side.

Please revert.

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PHRM - 5-May - 2-10

Creating teams ... effectiveness comes from ...

1. Context 1.1 Adequate resources 1.2 leadership & structure 1.3 climate of trust 1.4 Evaluation and reward systems

2. Composition 2,1, Abilities of members 2.2 Personality 2.3 Allocating roles 2.4 Diversity 2.5 Size 2.6 Member flexibility 2.7 Member preferences

3. Work design 3.1 Autonomy 3.2 Skill variety 2.3 Task identity 2.4 Task significance

4. Process 4.1 Common purpose 4.2 Specific goals

4.3 Team efficacy 4.4 Conflict levels 4.5 Social loafing

Outline all the above for the case ... what, how, when, who ... show the organization your plan, indicating performance measures, timeline, resources required

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PHRM - 5-May - 3-10

Team roles - Belbin model ... with role contribution, and allowable weaknesses

1. Plant : +ve creative, innovative problem solver, -ve ignores details, poor communciator 2. Resource investigator :: +ve energetic, explores opportunities, develops contacts, -ve over-optimistic, loses interest fast 3. Co-ordinator :: +ve mature, confident, clarifies goals, fosters decisions making, -ve manipulative power seeker, work shirker 4. Shaper :: +ve challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure, drive and courage, -ve provocative, hurts feelings 5. Monitor/evaluater :: strategic, sees and evaluates al options, good judgement, -ve lacks drive, uninsipiring, over-critical 6. Team worker :: +ve co-operative, diplomatic, listens, builds, -ve indecisive, easily influenced 7. Implementer :: +ve disciplines, reliable, efficient, practical, -ve inflexible, conservative, unimaginative 8. Completer :: conscientious, quality control, anxious about delivery on time, -ve anxious worrier, nitpicker, too tight 9. Specialist :: focused, dedicated, self-starting, provides critical skills -ve narrow, overlooks 'big picture'

How many teams will you need for the case ? ... who will play what (interchangeably) in the case ?

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PHRM - 5 May - 4/10

Why Be Part Of A Team? ... Youve been asked to participate on a team to accomplish some task. Immediately your decision-making process begins.

* What is the purpose of the team? * Is it a topic that interests me? * Who will be on the team with me? * What kind of authority will we have? * Is it important to management? * What is the reward for participating? * What is the risk (perceived as punishment) for not participating? * How long will it run? * Will I be better off as a result of my participation?

A team whose members are aligned with its purpose, feel a challenge in their task, have a strong sense of camaraderie, feel responsibility for the outcome, and experience growth as a team and in their personal lives, will tend to sustain motivation over the long haul. (PCCRG)

How will your plan and leadership assure this to prospective team members, in the case ?

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PHRM - 5 May - 5/10

Team start-up checklist ... - a clear and common understanding of the team's charter, - ground rules and operating procedures, - defined roles, - identification and understanding of the team's interests, - a vision of the desired outcome, - a mission statement, and - a draft work plan.

By the completion of this stage, each team member should correctly and confidently be able to answer the following questions:

- What is the project's purpose? - What problem or "gap" is the team addressing? - What impact will closing this gap have on customers? - What other reasons exist for addressing this gap? - How will the team know if things are better? - What is the team's plan for this project?

Is your team checked out on the above, for the case ? ... quiz

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PHRM - 5 May - 6/10

Brainstorming - The Process

1. Write the topic to be brainstormed at the top of a flip chart page. 2. Start with one team member and, in turn and in order, have all team members contribute an idea. 3. Each person can only give one (1) idea per turn. 4. Write down ALL ideas on the flip chart page and, when full, hang each page in order on a good blank wall. 5. If a team member has no idea when his or her turn comes, have them say "PASS," and continue onto the next person. 6. There is no discussion of ideas beyond that required to accurately capture it on the page. 7. When everyone passes in succession, the brainstorming is complete.

Using Appreciative Inquiry approach ... in pairs or 4s ... steps are: 1) Discover the best of what is 2) Envision what might be 3) Dialogue what should be 4) Innovate what will be.

Have you used the above methods in your team ? ... What problems did you face, and how did you overcome them, in the case ?

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PHRM 5 May - 7/10

How teams are measured by the organization, and what they can do with it ...

1. How are we doing? (an examination of the info/data) 2. What have we learned? (what does the info/data/feedback indicate about our strengths and weaknesses) 3. What should we do next? (setting improvement goals) 4. What resources will we need to achieve our new goals? (what help, training, equipment, etc.)

Outline the hard (engineering/corporate) and soft (people skills) parameters for above, as relevant for the case.

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PHRM 5-May, 8 of 10

Supporting teams ... helping them become accountable ... the coroporate role

Strategies for ensuring influence:

* Allow employees to participate in the shaping of the organization's mission and vision. * Teach teams to use performance feedback as the basis for meeting and problem solving sessions. * Encourage teams to analyze work practices for improvement. * Allow teams to act on their improvement ideas. * Give teams choice of vendors. * Give teams budget authority. * Ensure that team members regularly give feedback to one another. * Empower teams to select new members. * Empower teams to remove non-performers.

Strategies for ensuring consequences:

* Ensure that tems get direct and regular feedback from customers. * Let teams carry over savings in their budgets. * Abolish internal monopolies. * Tie rewards and compensation to team output. * Allow teams to share in the financial success of the organization.

As hypothetical external consultant to the company in the case, make specific recommendations

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PHRM - 5 May - 9/10

Team/group dynamics - theory from anthropology-psychology

1. Kurt Lewin (Berlin, Frankfurt, Stanfard, MIT) => described change as a threestage process. The first stage he called "unfreezing". It involved overcoming inertia and dismantling the existing "mind set". It must be part of surviving. Defense mechanisms have to be bypassed. In the second stage the change occurs. This is typically a period of confusion and transition. We are aware that the old ways are being challenged but we do not have a clear picture as to what we are replacing them with yet. The third and final stage he called "freezing". The new mindset is crystallizing and one's comfort level is returning to previous levels. .... His Force field analysis provides a framework for looking at the factors (forces) that influence a situation, originally social situations. It looks at forces that are either driving movement toward a goal (helping forces) or blocking movement toward a goal (hindering forces). ... Lewin, then a professor at MIT, first coined the term action research in about 1944, and it appears in his 1946 paper Action Research and Minority Problems. In that paper, he described action research as a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action that uses a

spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action. ... Leadership climates Lewin often characterized organizational management styles and cultures in terms of leadership climates defined by (1) authoritarian, (2) democratic and (3) laissezfaire work environments. He is often mixed up with McGregor with his work environments, but McGregor adapted them directly to leadership-theory. Authoritarian environments are characterized where the leader determines policy with techniques and steps for work tasks dictated by the leader in the division of labor. The leader is not necessarily hostile but is aloof from participation in work and commonly offers personal praise and criticism for the work done. Democratic climates are characterized where policy is determined through collective processes with decisions assisted by the leader. Before accomplishing tasks, perspectives are gained from group discussion and technical advice from a leader. Members are given choices and collectively decide the division of labor. Praise and criticism in such an environment are objective, fact minded and given by a group member without necessarily having participated extensively in the actual work. Laissez-faire Environments give freedom to the group for policy determination without any participation from the leader. The leader remains uninvolved in work decisions unless asked, does not participate in the division of labor, and very infrequently gives praise..... Lewin suggested that neither nature (inborn tendencies) nor nurture (how experiences in life shape individuals) alone can account for individuals' behavior and personalities, but rather that both nature and nurture interact to shape each person. This idea was presented in the form of Lewin's Equation for behavior B=(P,E).

2. Wilfred Bion (Oxford, British Army, Tavistock Institute) gues that in every group, two groups are actually present: the work group, and the basic assumption group. The work group is that aspect of group functioning which has to do with the primary task of the group - what the group has formed to accomplish; will 'keep the group anchored to a sophisticated and rational level of behaviour'.The basic assumption group describes the tacit underlying assumptions on which the behaviour of the group is based. Bion specifically identified three basic assumptions: dependency, fight-flight, pairing.

When a group adopts any one of these basic assumptions, it interferes with the task the group is attempting to accomplish. Bion believed that interpretation by the therapist of this aspect of group dynamics would result in insight regarding effective group work. In dependency, the essential aim of the group is to attain

security through, and have its members protected by, one individual. The basic assumption in this group culture seems to be that an external object exists whose function it is to provide security for the immature individual.The group members behave passively, and act as though the leader, by contrast, is omnipotent and omniscient. For example, the leader may pose a question only to be greeted with docile silence, as though he or she had not spoken at all. The leader may be idealized into a kind of god who can take care of his or her children, and some especially ambitious leaders may be susceptible to this role. Resentment at being dependent may eventually lead the group members to "take down" the leader, and then search for a new leader to repeat the process. In the basic assumption of fight-flight, the group behaves as though it has met to preserve itself at all costs, and that this can only be done by running away from someone or fighting someone or something. In fight, the group may be characterized by aggressiveness and hostility; in flight, the group may chit-chat, tell stories, arrive late or any other activities that serve to avoid addressing the task at hand. The leader for this sort of group is one who can mobilize the group for attack, or lead it in flight. The final basic assumption group, pairing, exists on the assumption that the group has met for the purpose of creation of creating family Two people, regardless the sex of either, carry out the work of the group through their continued interaction. The remaining group members listen eagerly and attentively with a sense of relief and hopeful anticipation. ... Bion created a theory of thinking based on changing beta elements (unmetabolized psyche/soma/affective experience) into alpha elements (thoughts that can be thought by the thinker). Beta elements were seen as cognate to the underpinnings of the "basic assumptions" identified in his work with groups: "the fundamental anxieties that underlie the basic assumption group resistances elements whose qualities remain unsaturated, meaning we cannot know the full extent or scope of their meaning, so they are intended as tools for thought rather than real things to be accepted at face value. Thoughts exist prior to their realization. Thinking, the capacity to think the thoughts which already exist, develops through another mind providing -function. To learn from experience alpha-function must operate on the awareness of the emotional experience; alpha elements are produced from the impressions of the experience; these are thus made storable and available for dream thoughts and for unconscious waking thinking... If there are only beta-elements, which cannot be made unconscious, there can be no repression, suppression, or learning. Alpha functions works upon undigested facts, impressions, and sensations, that cannot be mentalized - beta-elements. -function digests -elements, making them available for thought

3. Bruce Tuckman (1965) proposed the four-stage model called Tuckman's Stages for a group. Tuckman's model states that the ideal group decision-making process should occur in four stages:

* Forming (pretending to get on or get along with others) * Storming (letting down the politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up) * Norming (getting used to each other and developing trust and productivity) * Performing (working in a group to a common goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis) Tuckman later added a fifth stage for the dissolution of a group called adjourning. (Adjourning may also be referred to as mourning, i.e. mourning the adjournment of the group).

4. Richard Hackman (Harvard)) developed a synthetic, research-based model for designing and managing work groups. Hackman suggested that groups are successful when they satisfy internal and external clients, develop capabilities to perform in the future, and when members find meaning and satisfaction in the group. Hackman proposed five conditions that increase the chance that groups will be successful. These include: * a). Being a real team: which results from having a shared task, clear boundaries which clarify who is inside or outside of the group, and stability in group membership. * b). Compelling direction: which results from a clear, challenging, and consequential goal. * c). Enabling structure: which results from having tasks which have variety, a group size that is not too large, talented group members who have at least moderate social skill, and strong norms that specify appropriate behavior. * d). Supportive context: that occurs in groups nested in larger groups (e.g. companies). In companies, supportive contexts involves a) reward systems that reward performance and cooperation (e.g. group based rewards linked to group performance), b) an educational system that develops member skills, c) an information and materials system that provides the needed information and raw materials (e.g. computers). * e). Expert coaching: which occurs on the rare occasions when group members feels they need help with task or interpersonal issues. Hackman emphasizes that many team leaders are overbearing and undermine group effectiveness.

Freud => As the substrate of a lot of individual/group behaviour is psychology, to briefly outline Freud, the founder, though controversial, and most practitioners now have moved on ... Id, ego and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche; - according to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the ego is the organized, realistic part; and the super-ego plays the critical and moralizing role. ... Even though the model is structural and makes reference to an apparatus, the id, ego and super-ego are functions of the mind rather than parts of the brain and do not correspond one-to-one with actual somatic structures of the kind dealt with by neuroscience. A popular version of Freud is I'm Ok, You're Ok - Transactional analyis, which re-lablerls id - child, ego - adult, super ego - parent. The id is the unorganized part of the personality structure which contains the basic drives. The id contains the libido, which is the primary source of instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality. The id acts according to the "pleasure principle", seeking to avoid pain or displeasure aroused by increases in instinctual tension. The mind of a newborn child is regarded as completely "id-ridden", in the sense that it is a mass of instinctive drives and impulses, and needs immediate satisfaction, - "knows no judgements of value: no good and evil, no morality...Instinctual cathexes seeking discharge that, in our view, is all there is in the id" - Freud. The ego acts according to the reality principle; i.e. it seeks to please the ids drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bringing grief - the ego "attempts to mediate between id and reality, it is often obliged to cloak the Ucs. [Unconscious] commands of the id with its own Pcs. [Preconscious] rationalizations, to conceal the id's conflicts with reality, to profess...to be taking notice of reality even when the id has remained rigid and unyielding. The ego comprises the organized part of the personality structure that includes defensive, perceptual, intellectualcognitive, and executive functions. Conscious awareness resides in the ego, although not all of the operations of the ego are conscious. ... uperior strength of the horse; with this difference, that the rider tries to do so with his own strength, while the ego uses borrowed forces.". Still worse, "it serves three severe masters...the external world, the super-ego and the id." To overcome this the ego employs defense mechanisms. Denial, displacement, intellectualisation, fantasy, compensation, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation were the defense mechanisms. The super-ego aims for perfection. It comprises that organised part of the personality structure, mainly but not entirely unconscious, that includes the individual's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the psychic agency (commonly called "conscience"). The super-ego also takes on the influence of those who have stepped into the place of parents educators, teachers, people chosen as ideal models." The super-ego works in contradiction to the id. The super-ego strives to act in a socially appropriate manner, whereas the id just wants instant self-gratification. The super-ego controls our sense of right and wrong and guilt. It helps us fit into society by getting us to act in socially acceptable ways. The super-ego's demands often oppose the ids, so the ego sometimes has a hard time in reconciling the two.

Which social scientist and theory above seems most insightful, useful, appropriate to you - in general life, in relevance of PHRM and the case ?

--PHRM 5May 10/10

Golden rules in team building

Build ... Belonging Pride Collaboration

Shun ... Blaming Shaming

How have you and your team faring in the above , in the case ?

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PHRM 5May Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity - United Nations http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/diversity.htm No big deal, or an important and practical issue, often neglected ? - your views (50 words), with special focus on the managerial take-outs of Articles 6,7,9 ---

{Received from course participants - Bidhan, Asmita, All on 2-May} Dear Sir,

Please note below the case study for our class :

Case Study : M/s ABC is a Consultancy firm doing business in Consultancy of a thermal Power Project (6X660 MW TPP). M/s XYZ is the owner of the project.Estimated time required for design of the entire termal Power project is 24 months.The project was hold for 6 months due to non acceptance of Environmental Clearance and availability of Coal. Now, Environmental Clearance certificate is received from Central Pollution Control Board and availability of coal is confirmed by Coal India Limited for another 35-40 years. After receiving of Environmental Clearance certificate and confirmation of Coal supply M/s XYZ is interested to complete the design of the entire TPP within 12 months. To complete the design within 12 month M/s ABC is planning to employ some changes in Design Procedure and Appoval procedure. How will you motivate your team members to complete the design within time ? How the change in design procedure can be applied in the project? --Thanks Bidhan/All for working on and developing a case study, to accompany class-work, and project, over May-June - I highly appreciate your thought and effort.

May I suggest an adaptation of the case model.

Because of a new international climate change treaty, environmental and poltical compulsions, the brief of the project has been changed, from 6x660 MW TPP to, a) 3x660 TPP, b) other 1,980 MW to come from renewables/alternative (chose 2 from geo-thermal, wind, micro-hydel, solar, hydrogen). Reasonable assumptions can be made for technology and equipment sourcing, transmission, civil work etc - pooled to minimize disruption, minimize delay. Specialists of coal-powered technology (e.g. furnace, turbine, coal handling) will be retrain and absorb themselves in new teams for the purpose. Obviously, our purpose is not the

engineering accuracy but organization of team dynamics, and getting the best out of human resources, so allowances and assumptions will be liberal on technical side. Please revert.

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PHRM - 12May - 1 of 7

After class-faculty consultation, the case stands ...

1. Power project for ABC consultants, for client XYZ (public sector 35% equity, private investors 15%, international consortium 50%), 2 X 1980 MW power projects, one through convenctional coal-fired thermal power plant, the other by non-conventional power generation. Two SMPTs (self managed project teams), coal/conventional team C-SMPT, and non-conventional NC-SMPT, comprising entire class.. Reasonable assumptions about authority, resources, information, accountability can be made - teams will be adequately empowered. Challenging problem situations will be simulated - will include schedule delays, technology change/mismatch, client pressure, manpower, priority changes, organizational power politics, conflicts/motivational issues, cost. 2. Teams will self-select their tasks/responsibilties/roles, work progress formats, conflct/stress resolution, motivation, leadership, communication. Entire class will be part of both teams, but individuals will have different roles/functions etc in either team. The C-SMPT will be at end two of project life cycle phases i.e. execution-termination, and the NC-SMPT will be at intial project life-cycle phases i.e. conceptual-planning 3. Relevant theory content related to SMTPs will be presented as class teaching, text-book, notes, e-interaction, and be used by the two SMPTs in evolving the case. Team leaders/facilitators will e-summarize proceedings and circulate to all. Prior preparation is required and quizzes will be taken. ---

PHRM - 12May - 2 of 7

Bruce Tuckman's 5 stage team building ... with parameters psychology/subconscious basis (PS), management/leadership (ML), task behaviour/outcome (BO), theme (T) ... textbook page 40, 71,73 1. Forming - PS -pretending to get on or get along with others - ML - organizing, goals, vision; BO - orientation, commitment, T - awareness 2. Storming - PS - letting down the politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up; ML - analysis, conflict mgt., patience - BO resistance, purpose; T - conflict, control 3. Norming - PS - getting used to each other and developing trust and productivity - ML - feedback, affirming, humour, entrepreneurship BO communication, involvement, T - cooperation 4. Performing - PS - working in a group to a common goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis - ML - decision making, mentor; BO - Problem solving, achievement, T - Productivity 5. Adjourning - PS - mourning - ML - evaluating, reviewing, celebrating; BO closure, recognition; T - moving on ---

PHRM - 12May - 3 of 7

Project team - NOT a committee ... some Dos ... refer page 67 of textbook a) Set goals, targets and dates, for key sub-processes b) Have members commit their functions, unconditionally c) Appraise and evaluate d) Promote project as string of career moves upwards e) Hang-out together f) Social element - clebrations, comisserations g) External stakeholder interaction h) self-contained systems i) Democracy j) Management support

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PHRM - 12May - 4 of 7

Cultural attitudes - page 92-97 of textbook a) Power distance - extent of dependency expectations b) Individualism <--> Collectivism e.g. USA <--> Japan, football <--> tennis c) Masculinity <--> feminity e.g. assertive/tough <--> equal, caring d) Uncertainty avoidance - Hi/Lo e) Time - punctuality - flexibilty, long - short f) Life quantity vs quality ... material/competitive <--> inner happiness/cooperative g) Control seeking h) Harmoney seeking i) Fatalistic, constraints j) Task vs relationship orientation k) Communication :: direct - indirect, expressive - instrumental, formal- informal --PHRM - 12May - 5 of 7

Rational decision making model ... page 177-178, 181 of textbook 1. Problem identification 2. Problem solution generation 3. Ideas to action 4. Solution - action - planning 5. Solution - evaluation - planning (constuctive post-mortem) 6. Evaluation of outcome & process ---

PHRM - 12May - 6 of 7

Suggested reading from textbook ... Goal setting/clarification/role allocation, assembling/selecting tem - page 124-125 Assembling/selecting team - page 127, 129, 131-133 Adding human resoruces and increase in communication/interfaces - page 185 Information sources - page 210 Use/misuse of praise - page 212, 218 Tradition vs SMPT ... page 236-251 ---

PHRM - 12 May - Feedback/Quiz - 7/7

1. Design and update a project log of the SMPT you are in, in 3-4 work progress formats ... they must include, and indicate with a dummy fill-in, the following ...

a) All the tasks, their interdependent linkages/pre-reqs (Ishikawa), resources deployed, key problems/solutions, estimated dates/costs - to enable an at-aglance view of your SMPT b) Tags, analytics for ... i) Project life cycle phase, norming/performing/forming/storming/adjourning, specific goals/objectives ii) Task & responsibility matrix - your assessment of performance of each member, including self iii) Change/stress - baseline, client, externality, internals iv) Gaps - information, resources, barriers, boundary management, skills v) Other parameters you deem important

2. Almost all team management, leadership, motivation, conflict, stress management techniques are overlayed on some theory of human subconscious, and Freud seems to be the starting point. Agree / Disagree / Neutral Briefly describe Freud's id (child), ego (adult), parent (super-ego), in relation to a)

why companies worldwide, are moving away from traditional managment modes to more open, democratic, team-oriented modes, b) potential conflict within teams, and how to prevent or reduce them (60-70 words)

3. Who is a team leader and achiever you admire, and his/her team, in sports or public affairs (e.g. Indira Gandhi, Sir Alex Ferguson - Man Utd) ?. From what you have studied so far in PHRM, estimate/analyze how he/she would have led or managed their teams ? What would have been constraints, limitations, your role model would have faced and overcome ?

4. Which articles of the UN Charter on diversity (PHRM 5May 13/13 Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity - United Nations, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/diversity.htm ) do you consider most relevant and important at a) society/interneationa level, b) project managment level

5. Each team leader/co-ordinator/shaper will present how they have planned their team on effectiveness map as in PHRM session - 5-May - 2 of10 ... i.e. in summary # Context - Adequate resources, leadership & structure, climate of trust, evaluation and reward systems # Composition - Abilities of members, Personality, Allocating roles, Diversity, Size, Member flexibility, Member preferences # Work design - Autonomy, Skill variety, Task identity, Task significance, Feedback # Process - Common purpose, Specific goals, Team efficacy, Conflict levels, Social loafing Team leader/co-ordinator will be required to present SMPT charter/mission, goals at macro and molecular levels, tasks and relationships at engineering, and people level, team matrix (using MBTI, Belbin model, JCM and other concepts above), anticipated challenges of motivation, conflict negotiation through the relevant team project life, including non-measureables e.g. team bonding

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Addtional material :

A.. Key obstacles to change - source Prosci's 2012 edition of Best Practices in Change Management - from 650 project leaders and change management practitioners representing organizations from 62 countries, 1. Ineffective change management sponsorship from senior leaders - a no 1 cause in previous studies from 2008 on Participants cited ineffective change sponsorship as their primary obstacle. Common problems included: * Inactive or invisible sponsors * Poor alignment between organizational direction and the objectives of the change * Lack of sponsor commitment to change management * Sponsors with competing priorities or changes in sponsorship * Sponsors at the wrong level (not high enough in the organization) * Little or no access to the primary sponsor * Failure to build a coalition of sponsors

2. Insufficient change management resourcing Participants cited a general lack of resources and funding available to conduct the necessary planning and implementation of change management. Specifically, participants struggled with: * Insufficient resources to support change management required for the project * Part-time resources; working in the margin * Inadequate change management skills and knowledge to lead change management activities effectively * Adding change management resources to the project team too late in the project life cycle

3. Resistance to change from employees Employee resistance moved from the second greatest obstacle in 2009 to the third greatest obstacle in 2011. Reasons for employee resistance included:

* A lack of understanding why the change was needed and the whats in it for me? (WIIFM) * Employees are close to retirement and are unwilling to change * Employees are unwilling to learn new systems or tools (satisfied with the current state) * A loss of control or fear of loss of control * Change saturation; employees were overwhelmed by the amount of change occurring in the organization * A unwillingness to change due to poorly handled changes in the past

4. Middle-management resistance * A fear of job loss or loss of control * Were not supportive of the change itself * A lack of understanding of the need for change management * A lack of knowledge or skills to manage change effectively * Insufficient time to complete change management activities; managers were task focused and unable to commit the necessary time to focus on the people side of the change

5. Poor communication Participants cited a number of reasons that their communications were not effective including: * Inconsistent messages * Communications did not address the need or reason for the change * Difficulty reaching employees because of geographical separation * Long gaps of time between communications; poor communication timeliness

Additional obstacles cited by participants included:

Lack of buy-in for change management - Study respondents noted challenges getting senior executives and project teams to buy in to the need for change management and realize the financial benefits of change management. Without full support or understanding around the necessity for change management, change management was often either brought on to a project too late, under tasked only with communications and training activities, or not utilized on the project at all. Some respondents reported a struggle to get their organizations to realize the benefits of incorporating change management. * Disconnect between project management and change management - Study respondents noted conflicting priorities and misalignment between project management and change management teams as a large obstacle to success. Respondents reported that a lack of consensus on how to integrate the two practices became a large challenge throughout the life of projects and often resulted in change management playing second fiddle to project management. Specifically, study participants cited difficulty involving and getting assistance from project managers.

Greatest contributors to success from Prosci's 2012 edition of Best Practices in Change Management 1. Active and visible executive sponsorship * Visibility and accessibility throughout the entire project * Engagement of leaders and managers early and throughout the duration of a project * Alignment of priorities among organization leaders; projects realized better success when objectives were clearly defined and were aligned with the overall strategy and vision of the organization * Direct communication with employees and the project team (including change managers) throughout the duration of the project to build and maintain support for the change 2. Frequent and open communication about the change 3. Structured change management approach 4. Dedicated resources and funding for change management 5. Employee engagement and participation * Providing two-way communications for employees to solicit feedback

* Creating awareness among the end-users and front-line employees about why the change was occurring and establishing the whats in it for me (WIIFM) messages * Increasing involvement of employees in the decision making process by soliciting and gathering input 6. Engagement with and support from middle management

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Change mangement in public sector - steps/processes - lessons from UK http://www.sprint.gov.uk/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=22&Itemid=8

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Team mangement theory http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=401439

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25 Brainstorming devices http://personalexcellence.co/blog/25-brainstorming-techniques/ Brainstorming outline http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstorming --Project manager's blogspot http://pmtoolsthatwork.com/project-managers-how-to-stop-making-the-same-oldmistakes/

--SMPTs - a vie from IT world http://www.techrepublic.com/article/self-managed-teams-can-result-in-increasedproductivity/5056984 -SMTs - a view from USA in 1990s - from Fortune magazine http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/1990/05/07/73498/inde x.htm

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Bruce Tuckman's team teahory evolution ...

http://www.d.umn.edu/~kheltzer/sw8441_fall07/Tuckman%27s%20Forming, %20Norming,%20Storming.pdf

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