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2012.05.

24
Static andDynamic Moduli
ROSE
RockPhysics andGeomechanics
Course2012
2012.05.24
What do we mean with "static" and "dynamic" moduli?
Elastic wave velocities
2
e e
P
e
S
G
V
G
V

+
=
=
Dynamic moduli
2
2 2
2
e s
e p s
G V
V V


=
=
Stress and strain measured
in a rock mechanical test
z
z
E
o
c
A
=
A
Static moduli
3
E
stat
= E
dyn
E
stat
< E
dyn
In general:
Note: is not a constant ratio it changes with stress! :
stat dyn
E E
2012.05.24
In saturated rocks,
- Static deformation is often drained
- Dynamic moduli are always undrained
Occasionally used definition:
"Static modulus = drained modulus"
"Dynamic modulus" = undrained modulus"
5
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Static
modulus
Alternative definition, also used:
"Static modulus" = slope of stress-strain curve measured during unloading
6
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Static
modulus
Static modulus
Our definition:
"Static modulus" = slope of stress-strain curve
7
Standard triaxial set-up + acoustics
Stress
Strain
Acoustic wave velocities
Laboratory tests:
Enables simultaneous measurements of
- static moduli (slope of stress-strain curve)
- dynamic moduli (density x velocity
2
)
Measurements:
Static and dynamic moduli of soft rocks are different.
The difference changes
along the stress path.
Potential causes for the difference
between static and dynamic moduli:
- Strain rate dispersion
- Length of stress path
- Stress history
- Rock volume involved
- Drainage conditions
- Anisotropy
9
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Static modulus
First: consider the static modulus measured during initial loading
10
We introduce a parameter P, defined as:
P is a measure of the inelastic part of the
deformation caused by a compressive
hydrostatic stress increment.
Dryrock
,
3
v v e
P
c c
o
A A
=
A
, v e
e
K
o
c
A
A
Ac
v
- total volumetric strain
Hydrostatic test
- elastic strain

K = Static bulk modulus


K
e
= Dynamic bulk modulus
K
K
PK
e
e
=
+ 1 3
Fjr (1999):
11
Observations
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Hydrastatic stress [MPa]
1
/
P

[
G
P
a
-
1
]
Hydrostatic test
g
P
T
c
o
=
+
PFC
3D
-simulation
Li & Fjr, 2008
13
We introduce a parameter F, defined as:
F is a measure of the inelastic part of the
deformation caused by a shear stress
increment.
Dryrock
, , z z e z p
z
F
c c c
c
A A A
=
A
, z e
e
E
o
c
A
A
, z p z z
P c o A = A
Ac
z
- total axial strain
Uniaxial loading test
- elastic
strain

E = Static Youngs modulus


E
e
= Dynamic Youngs modulus
( )
1
1
e
z e
E
E F
P E
=
+
Fjr (1999):
14
Observations
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.
Shear strain
F
*
*
z r
F F S o o = + +
z r o
z r
F A
S
c c c
o o

=
+ +
Uniaxial loading test
15
Discussion: the F - parameter
Since E (1- F)
when F =1 then E = 0
peak stress
( )
1
1
e
z e
E
E F
P E
=
+
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Peak
stress
Axial
Radial
Note:
F = 1 rock strength
16
We have a set of equations
These represent a constitutive model
for the rock
We may use it to predict rock behavior,
and thereby derive mechanical properties
for the rock
g
P
T
c
o
=
+
( )
1
1
e
z e
E
E F
P E
=
+
K
K
PK
e
e
=
+ 1 3
z r o
z r
F A
S
c c c
o o

=
+ +
17
Porosity,
Density, Sonic, .
. . .
Constitutive model
Application for logging purposes
Simulates rock mechanical
test on fictitious core
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
-5 0 5 10 15
Strai n (mStrai n)
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Strength
Provides
calibration
for the model
Provides
strength
and stiffness
18
0
50
100
150
200
0 25 50 75 100 125
Strength (MPa) @ 2MPa
D
e
p
t
h

(
m

-

f
r
o
m

a

r
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

p
o
i
n
t
)
Courtesy
of Statoil
Prediction from logs
Core measurements
an example:
Static and dynamic moduli of soft rocks are different.
The difference changes
along the stress path.
Potential causes for the difference
between static and dynamic moduli:
- Strain rate dispersion
- Length of stress path
- Stress history
- Rock volume involved
- Drainage conditions
- Anisotropy
20
Potential causes for the difference
between static and dynamic moduli:
- Strain rate
- Length of stress path
- Stress history
- Rock volume involved
- Drainage conditions
- Anisotropy
1. Stress path:
Static modulus = slope of
stress-strain curve:
Dynamic modulus given by
axial P-wave velocity:
z
z
H
o
c
A
=
A
2
e P
H V =
Uniaxial strain (K
0
)
21
Potential causes for the difference
between static and dynamic moduli:
- Strain rate
- Length of stress path
- Stress history
- Rock volume involved
- Drainage conditions
- Anisotropy
2. Saturation:
Static modulus: usually drained
Dynamic modulus: undrained
Irrelevant for dry rocks
22
Potential causes for the difference
between static and dynamic moduli:
- Strain rate
- Length of stress path
- Stress history
- Rock volume involved
- Drainage conditions
- Anisotropy
3. Loading direction:
Friction controlled shear sliding
of closed cracks
- the only non-elastic process
active during unloading
23
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0
Axial stress change [MPa]
1
/
H

-

1
/
H
e

[
1
/
G
P
a
]
S
H
[1/GPa]
1 1
H
e
S
H H
=
Observation:
Non-elastic compliance
increases linearly with decreasing stress
1 1
H
e
S
H H
=
Static
modulus
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Static
modulus
Consider the slope of the
stress-strain curve during
unloading
Fjr et al. (2011):
Observation:
24
Non-elastic compliance
increases linearly with decreasing stress
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0
Axial stress change [MPa]
1
/
H

-

1
/
H
e

[
1
/
G
P
a
]
S
H
[1/GPa]
1 1
H
e
S
H H
=
1 1
H
e
S
H H
=
Assumption:
Linear extrapolation towards the
beginningof the unloadingpath
provides estimate of behavior for
vanishing length of stress path
25
Potential causes for the difference
between static and dynamic moduli:
- Strain rate
- Length of stress path
- Stress history
- Rock volume involved
- Drainage conditions
- Anisotropy
4. Loading direction:
Linear extrapolation towards the
beginningof the unloadingpath
provides estimate of behavior for
vanishing length of stress path
26
Strain rate
4f c c = A

Average strain rate for


dynamic measurements:
7
10 c

A = strain amplitude
= frequency
5
5 10 Hz f =
1 1
10 s c

~

For "static" deformations


6 1
10 s c

~

1 Hz f ~ Corresponds to an acoustic wave with


If strain rate is the only cause for the difference
between the static and dynamic moduli, then
static modulus dynamic modulus at ~ 1 Hz
27
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
20 30 40 50 60
N
o
n

e
l
a
s
t
i
c

c
o
m
p
l
i
a
n
c
e

[
G
P
a

1
]
Axialstress[MPa]
Castlegate sandstone
Dry, clay free presumably no significant dispersion
Uncertainties: , 1%, 1%
Ph
b V A A = A =
No measurable dispersion
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
P
a
]
Time[s]
K0 stress path
Unloadingsequences
( )
0
1 1
H z z
e
S a b
H H
o o = = +
28
Berea sandstone
Dry, 8% clay possibly some dispersion

0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
10 30 50 70
N
o
n

e
l
a
s
t
i
c

c
o
m
p
l
i
a
n
c
e

[
G
P
a

1
]
Axialstress[MPa]
( )
0
1 1
H z z
e
S a b
H H
o o = = +
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 20 40 60 80
V
p
h
-
V
p
l
[
m
/
s
]
Axialstress[MPa]
Uncertainties: , 1%, 1%
Ph
b V A A = A =
Significant, measurable dispersion,
decreasing with increasing stress
Fjr et al. (2012):
29
Mancos shale
Saturated, with 13% illite/smectite, 5% kaolinite, etc.
probably significant dispersion

0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
20 30 40 50 60
N
o
n

e
l
a
s
t
i
c

c
o
m
p
l
i
a
n
c
e

[
G
P
a

1
]
Axialstress[MPa]
Uncertainties: , 1%, 1%
Ph
b V A A = A =
Significant dispersion,
far beyond the resolution limit
for the method
Other applications
We measure,
- the axial P-wave velocity
- the axial S-wave velocity
- the axial stress
- the radial stress
We want
Thomsens o
We have , we need
33
e
Pz
C
V

=
44
e
Szr
C
V

=
z
o
r
o
13
13
33
r
z
C
r
C
o
o
A
= =
A
2
,
44
44
33 ,
e
S zr e
e
P z
V
C
r
C V
| |
=
|
|
\ .
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
13 44 33 44
33 33 44
2
e e e e
e e
C C C C
C C C
o
+
=

( ) ( )
( )
2 2
13 44 44
44
1
2 1
e e e
e
r r r
r
o
+
=

44 13
&
e
r r
13
e
r
13
13
33
r
z
C
r
C
o
o
A
=
A
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0
N
o
n
-
e
l
a
s
t
i
c

c
o
m
p
l
i
a
n
c
e

[
1
/
G
P
a
]
Stress change [MPa]
We have seen that the non-elastic compliance
vanish at the turning point on the stress path,
(the approach is linear during unloading)
- which means:
static modulus dynamic modulus
at the turning point
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0
r
13
Stress change [MPa]
Therefore
We assume that
static r
13
dynamic r
13
at the turning point
13
e
r
S
H
[1/GPa]
13
r
-0.12
-0.1
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0 10 20 30 40 50
T
h
o
m
s
e
n
'
s

o
Shear stress [MPa]
Example (dry Castlegate sandstone):
2012.05.24
References:
Fjr, E., Holt, R.M., Horsrud, P., Raaen, A.M. and Risnes, R. (2008) "Petroleum Related
Rock Mechanics. 2
nd
Edition". Elsevier, Amsterdam
Fjr, E. (1999) "Static and dynamic moduli of weak sandstones". In Proceedings of the
37
th
U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, eds Amadei et al., 675-681
Li, L. and Fjr, E. (2008) "Investigation of the stress-dependence of static and dynamic
moduli of sandstones using a discrete element method". 42
nd
US Rock Mechanics
Symposium and 2
nd
U.S.-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, ARMA 08-191
Fjr, E. (2009) "Static and dynamic moduli of a weak sandstone". Geophysics, 74,
WA103-WA112
Fjr, E., Holt, R.M., Nes, O.M. and Stenebrten, J .F. (2011) "The transition from elastic
to non-elastic behavior". 45
rd
US Rock Mechanics Symposium, ARMA 11-389
Fjr, E., Stroisz, A.M. and Holt, R.M. (2012) "Combining static and dynamic
measurements for evaluation of elastic dispersion". 46
rd
US Rock Mechanics
Symposium, ARMA 11-537