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1.4K visualizzazioni9 paginethis are the notes for marketing research - a subject for TYBMS, mumbai university.

Mar 14, 2009

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this are the notes for marketing research - a subject for TYBMS, mumbai university.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

1.4K visualizzazioni

this are the notes for marketing research - a subject for TYBMS, mumbai university.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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LESSON 2:

STEPS IN RESEARCH PROCESS

conquered the areas where research is used as a tool for decision- Descriptive research is more rigid than exploratory research and

making. Also we know that all business operates in the world of seeks to describe users of a product, determine the proportion of

uncertainty. Research methodology minimizes the degree of the population that uses a product, or predict future demand for

uncertainty involved in management decisions. Research lays the a product or describes the happening of a certain phenomenon.

structure for decision-making

As opposed to exploratory research, if you are doing descriptive

research you should define questions, people surveyed, and the

method of analysis prior to beginning data collection.

In other words, the who, what, where, when, why, and how aspects

of the research should be defined. Such preparation allows you

the opportunity to make any required changes before the costly

process of data collection has begun.

There are two basic types of descriptive research:

Let us recapitulate what we have studied in the last lecture. We saw

Longitudinal Studies

that research plays a dominant role in the field of

Longitudinal studies are time series analyses that make repeated

• Marketing measurements of the same individuals, thus allowing you to

• Production monitor behaviour such as brand switching. However, longitudinal

• Banking studies are not necessarily representative since many people may

refuse to participate because of the commitment required.

• Materials

Cross-sectional Studies

• Human Resource Development

Cross-sectional studies sample the population to make

• Government

measurements at a specific point in time. A special type of cross-

You can classify Research in one of three categories: sectional analysis is a cohort analysis, which tracks an aggregate of

1. Exploratory research individuals who experience the same event within the same time

2. Descriptive research interval over time. You can use Cohort analyses for long-

forecasting of product demand.

3. Causal research

These classifications are made according to your objective of the Causal Research

research. In some cases the research will fall into one of these Casual Research seeks to find cause and affect relationships between

categories, but in other cases different phases of the same research variables. It accomplishes this goal through laboratory and field

project will fall into different categories. experiments.

Research process involves important steps-

Now we will discuss these categories in detail:

• Problem definition

Exploratory Research • Research proposal

Exploratory research has the goal of formulating problems more

precisely, clarifying concepts, gathering explanations, gaining • Research Design

insight, eliminating impractical ideas, and forming hypotheses. • Data Collection

Exploratory research can be performed using a literature search, • Data Analysis & interpretation

surveying certain people about their experiences, focus groups, • Report writing

and case studies.

• Interpretation of Research

When you will be surveying people, exploratory research studies

would not try to acquire a representative sample, but rather, seek Refer diagram below to understand each steps clearly

to interview those who are knowledgeable and who might be able The Research Process

to provide you the insight concerning the relationship among

variables.

Case studies can include contrasting situations or benchmarking

against an organization known for its excellence. Exploratory

research may develop hypotheses, but it does not seek to test

them. Exploratory research is characterized by its flexibility.

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Let us assume that the alternative choices are clearly

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

specified: either II or I be employed.We have identified

the alternative choices but not completely specified

the problem.

The complete problem is concerned with the criterion

that will determine the superiority of the two

methods.

The criterion could be:

• Cost

• Efficiency of materials

• Availability of resources, etc.

There are three aspects of research problem

a. The specification of units to be studied

b. The identification of the particular units within

the scope of study

c. The specification of the kind of information to

be sought.

free and without error?

A complete answer to this question defines the initial

research problem. It can be redefined later if some

difficulty arises.

Research Proposal

Research proposal are necessary for all business

research, it may be the internal proposal or it may be

the external proposal. But research proposal is not

required in case of research studies for P. hd., or paper

presentation as concerned.

A proposal is known as a work plan, prospectus,

outline, statement of intent, or draft plan. The

proposal tells us what, why, how, where, and to whom

it will be done.

The proposal of research is:

Problem Definition 1. To present the management question to be

First of all one should be clear as what exactly the problem is. researched and its importance

If you are working in a company, the problem is assign by the top 2. To discuss the research efforts of others who

management; usually you get broad ideas regarding the problem. have worked on related management questions.

Then with the broad concept from the top management you

define the specific problem statement. 3. To suggest the data necessary for solving the

management question and how the data will be

Or if you are doing some research project then you have to identify gathered, treated, and interpreted.

your problem statement of your own. Remember your problem

statement should be specific. We will discuss the research proposal in detail in lesson

3.

Let us suppose that we want to know which of the two methods

can be employed Research Design

The researcher should be clear with the alternative choices he Once the researcher has decided the ‘Research Design’,

has.Should other Methods be also considered? the next job is of data collection. For data to be

useful, our observations need to be organized so

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that we can get some patterns and come to logical conclusions. Questionnaire

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Statistical investigation requires systematic collection of data, so The questionnaire is an important tool for gathering primary data.

that all relevant groups are represented in the data. Poorly constructed questions can result in large errors and invalidate

the research data, so significant effort should be put into the

To determine the potential market for a new product, for example,

Questionnaire

the researcher might study 500 consumers in a certain geographical

area. It must be ascertained that the group contains people Secondary Data

representing variables such as income level, race, education and When an investigator uses the data, which has already been collected

neighborhood. The quality of data will greatly affect the by others, such data is called secondary data. This data is primary

conclusions and hence, utmost importance must be given to this data for the agency that collects it and becomes secondary data for

process and every possible precaution should be taken to ensure someone else who uses this data for his own purposes. The

accuracy, while gathering and collecting data. secondary data can be obtained from journals, reports, government

Depending upon the sources utilized, whether the data has come publications, publication of professional and research organization

from actual observations or from records that are kept for normal and so on. For example, if a researcher desires to analyze the

purposes, statistical data can be classified into two categories, weather conditions of different regions, he can get the required

primary and secondary. information or data from the records of the meteorology

department.

Primary Data

There are several criteria that you should use to evaluate secondary

Primary data is one, which is collected by the investigator himself

data.

for the purpose of a specific inquiry or study. Such data is original

in character and is generated by surveys conducted by individuals • Whether the data is useful in the research study.

or research institutions. • How current the data is and whether it applies to time period

Some common types of primary data are: of interest.

• Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics • Errors and accuracy - whether the data is dependable and can

be verified.

• Psychological and lifestyle characteristics

• Presence of bias in the data.

• Attitudes and opinions

• Specifications and methodologies used, including data

• Awareness and knowledge:for example, brand awareness

collection method, response rate, quality and analysis of the

• Intentions:for example, purchase intentions. While useful, data, sample size and sampling technique, and questionnaire

intentions are not a reliable indication of actual future design.

behavior.

• Objective of the original data collection.

• Motivation:a person’s motives are more stable than his/her

• Nature of the data, including definition of variables, units

behavior, so motive is a better predictor of future behavior

of measure, categories used, and relationships examined.

than is past behavior.

Data Collection Procedure for Primary

Behaviour

Data

Primary data can be obtained by:

Planning the Study

Communication

Since the quality of results gained from statistical data depends

Involves questioning respondents either verbally or in writing.

upon the quality of information collected, it is important that a

This method is versatile, since you need only to ask for the

sound investigative process be established to ensure that the data

information; however, the response may not be accurate.

is highly representative and unbiased. This requires a high degree

Communication usually is quicker and cheaper than observation.

of skill and also certain precautionary measures may have to be

Observation taken.

Involves the recording of actions and is performed by either a

Modes of Data Collection

person or some mechanical or electronic device. Observation is

Following are widely used methods for collection of primary data:

less versatile than communication since some attributes of a person

may not be readily observable, such as attitudes, awareness, • Observation

knowledge, intentions, and motivation. Observation also might • Experimentation

take longer since observers may have to wait for appropriate events • Questionnaire

to occur, though observation using scanner data might be quicker

• Interviewing

and more cost effective. Observation typically is more accurate

than communication. • Case Study Method

Have an interviewer bias that mail-in questionnaires do not have. Observing the process at work collects information. The following

For example, in a personal interview the respondent’s perception are a few examples.

of the interviewer may affect the responses i. Service Stations:Pose as a customer, go to a service station

and observe

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ii. To evaluate the effectiveness of display of the Dunlop • Finally, the data is tabulated to count the number of samples

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

cushions in a departmental store, an observer notes: falling into various categories.

• How many pass by? Simple tabulations count the occurrences of each variable

• How many stopped to look at the display? independently of the other variables.

• How many decide to buy? Cross tabulations, also known as contingency tables or cross tabs,

treats two or more variables simultaneously. However, since the

iii. Super Market What is the best location in the shelf? Hidden

variables are in a two-dimensional table, cross tabbing more than

cameras are used.

two variables is difficult to visualize since more than two

iv. Concealed tape recorder with the investigator helps to dimensions would be required. Cross tabulation can be performed

determine typical sales arguments and find out sales for nominal and ordinal variables. Cross tabulation is the most

enthusiasm shown by various salesmen. By this method, commonly utilized data analysis method in marketing research.

response bias is eliminated. Many studies take the analysis no further than cross tabulation.

The method can be used to study sales techniques, customer This technique divides the sample into sub-groups to show how

movements, customer response, etc. However, the customer’s/ the dependent variable varies from one subgroup to another. A

consumer’s state of mind, their buying motives, their images are third variable can be introduced to uncover a relationship that

not revealed. Their income and education is also not known. It initially was not evident.

also takes time for the investigator to wait for particular sections

to take place.

Experimental Method:

Many of the important decisions facing the marketing executives

cannot be settled by secondary research, observation or by surveying

the opinions of customers or experts.

Experimental method may be used in the following situations.

i. What is the best method for training salesmen?

ii. What is the best remuneration plan for salesmen?

iii. What is the best shelf arrangement for displaying a product?

iv. What is the effectiveness of a point-of-purchase display?

v. What package design should be used?

Conjoint Analysis

vi. Which copy is the most effective? The Conjoint Analysis is a powerful technique for determining

vii.What media are the most effective? consumer preferences for product attributes.

viii.Which version of a product would consumers like best? Hypothesis Testing

In a marketing experiment, the experimental units may be A basic fact about testing hypotheses is that a hypothesis may be

consumers, stores, sales territories, etc.\Factors or marketing rejected but that the hypothesis never can be unconditionally

variables under the control of the researcher which can be studied accepted until all possible evidence is evaluated.

are price, packaging, display, sales incentive plan, flavor, color shape, In the case of sampled data, the information set cannot be

Competitor’s actions, weather changes, in cooperative dealers, etc. complete. So if a test using such data does not reject a hypothesis,

are environmental factors. the conclusion is not necessarily that the hypothesis should be

accepted.

To study the effect of the marketing variables in the presence of

The null hypothesis in an experiment is the hypothesis that the

environmental factors, a sufficiently large sample should be used.

independent variable has no effect on the dependent variable. The

Or sometimes a control group is set up. A Control group is a

null hypothesis is expressed as H0. This hypothesis is assumed to

group equivalent to the experimental group and differing only in

be true unless proven otherwise. The alternative to the null

not receiving any treatment. hypothesis is the hypothesis that the independent variable does

The result/ response of a marketing experiment will be in the have an effect on the dependent variable. This hypothesis is known

form of sales, attitudes or behaviour. as the alternative, research, or experimental hypothesis and is

expressed as H1. This alternative hypothesis states that the

Data Analysis-Preliminary Steps

relationship observed between the variables cannot be explained

• Before the analysis can be performed, raw data must be by chance alone.

transformed into the right format.

There are two types of errors in evaluating hypotheses:

• Then, it must be edited so that errors can be corrected or

• Type I error: occurs when one rejects the null hypothesis and

omitted.

accepts the alternative, when in fact the null hypothesis is

• The data must then be coded; this procedure converts the true.

edited raw data into numbers or symbols. A codebook is

• Type II error: occurs when one accepts the null hypothesis

created to document how the data was coded.

when in fact the null hypothesis is false.

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Because their names are not very descriptive, these types of errors of freedom (df). For chi-square applied to cross-tabulated data,

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

sometimes are confused. Some people jokingly define a Type III the number of degrees of freedom is equal to

error to occur when one confuses Type I and Type II. To illustrate

(number of columns - 1) (number of rows - 1)

the difference, it is useful to consider a trial by jury in which the

null hypothesis is that the defendant is innocent. If the jury convicts This is equal to the number of categories minus one. The

a truly innocent defendant, a Type I error has occurred. If, on the conventional critical level of 0.05 normally is used. If the calculated

other hand, the jury declares a truly guilty defendant to be innocent, output value from the function is greater than the chi-square look-

a Type II error has occurred. up table value, the null hypothesis is rejected.

Hypothesis testing involves the following steps: Anova

• Formulate the null and alternative hypotheses. Another test of significance is the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

• Choose the appropriate test.

test. The primary purpose of ANOVA is to test for differences

between multiple means. Whereas the t-test can be used to

• Choose a level of significance (alpha) - determine the

compare two means, ANOVA is needed to compare three or more

rejection region.

means. If multiple t-tests were applied, the probability of a TYPE

• Gather the data and calculate the test statistic. I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) increases as the number of

• Determine the probability of the observed value of the test comparisons increases

statistic under the null hypothesis given the sampling One-way ANOVA examines whether multiple means differ. The

distribution that applies to the chosen test. test is called an F-test. ANOVA calculates the ratio of the variation

• Compare the value of the test statistic to the rejection between groups to the variation within groups (the F ratio). While

threshold. ANOVA was designed for comparing several means, it also can be

• Based on the comparison, reject or do not reject the null used to compare two means. Two-way ANOVA allows for a second

hypothesis. independent variable and addresses interaction.

• Make the marketing research conclusion. To run a one-way Anova, use the following steps:

In order to analyze whether research results are statistically • Identify the independent and dependent variables.

significant or simply by chance, a test of statistical significance can • Describe the variation by breaking it into three parts - the

be run total variation, the portion that is within groups, and the

portion that is between groups (or among groups for more

Tests of Statistical Significance

than two groups).

The chi-square goodness-of-fit test is used to determine whether

a set of proportions have specified numerical values. It often is The total variation (SStotal) is the sum of the squares of the

used to analyze bivariate cross-tabulated data. differences between each value and the grand mean of all the values

Some examples of situations that are well suited for this test are: in all the groups. The in-group variation (SSwithin) is the sum of

the squares of the differences in each element’s value and the group

• A manufacturer of packaged products test markets a new

mean. The variation between group means (SSbetween) is the total

product and wants to know if sales of the new product will

variation minus the in-group variation (SStotal - SSwithin).

be in the same relative proportion of package sizes as sales

of existing products. 1. Measure the difference between each group’s mean and the

grand mean.

• A company’s sales revenue comes from Product A (50%),

Product B (30%), and Product C (20%). The firm wants to 2. Perform a significance test on the differences.

know whether recent fluctuations in these proportions are 3. Interpret the results.

random or whether they represent a real shift in sales. This F-test assumes that the group variances are approximately

Defining k categories and observing the number of cases falling equal and that the observations are independent. It also assumes

into each category perform the chi-square test. Knowing the normally distributed data; however, since this is a test on means

expected number of cases falling in each category, one can define the Central Limit Theorem holds as long as the sample size is not

chi-squared as: too small

i observations and can be used with categorical variables. Note that

Where regression can perform a similar analysis to that of ANOVA.

Oi = the number of observed cases in category i,” Discriminant Analysis

E i = the number of expected cases in category i, Analysis of the difference in means between groups provides

k = the number of categories, information about individual variables, it is not useful for

determine their individual impacts when the variables are used in

the summation runs from i = 1 to i = k.

combination. Since some variables will not be independent from

Before calculating the chi-square value, one needs to determine the

one another, one needs a test that can consider them

expected frequency for each cell. This is done by dividing the

simultaneously in order to take into account their interrelationship.

number of samples by the number of cells in the table.

One such test is to construct a linear combination, essentially a

To use the output of the chi-square function, one uses a chi-

weighted sum of the variables. To determine which variables

square table. To do so, one needs to know the number of degrees

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discriminate between two or more naturally occurring groups, eigen value is greater than one are used. Other criteria for

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

discriminant analysis is used. Discriminant analysis can determine determining the number of factors include the Scree plot criteria

which variables are the best predictors of group membership. It and the percentage of variance criteria.

determines which groups differ with respect to the mean of a To facilitate interpretation, the axis can be rotated. Rotation of the

variable, and then uses that variable to predict new cases of group axis is equivalent to forming linear combinations of the factors. A

membership. Essentially, the discriminant function problem is a commonly used rotation strategy is the varimax rotation. Varimax

one-way ANOVA problem in that one can determine whether attempts to force the column entries to be either close to zero or

multiple groups are significantly different from one another with one.

respect to the mean of a particular variable. A discriminant analysis

consists of the following steps: Cluster Analysis

Market segmentation usually is based not on one factor but on

1. Formulate the problem.

multiple factors. Initially, each variable represents its own cluster.

2. Determine the discriminant function coefficients that result The challenge is to find a way to combine variables so that relatively

in the highest ratio of between-group variation to within- homogenous clusters can be formed. Such clusters should be

group variation. internally homogenous and externally heterogeneous. Cluster

3. Test the significance of the discriminant function. analysis is one way to accomplish this goal. Rather than being a

4. Interpret the results. statistical test, it is more of a collection of algorithms for grouping

objects, or in the case of marketing research, grouping people.

5. Determine the validity of the analysis.

Cluster analysis is useful in the exploratory phase of research when

Discriminant analysis analyzes the dependency relationship, whereas there are no a-priori hypotheses.

factor analysis and cluster analysis address the interdependency

among variables. Cluster Analysis Steps

Formulate the problem, collecting data and choosing the variables

Factor Analysis to analyze.

Factor analysis is a very popular technique to analyze

Choose a distance measure. The most common is the Euclidean

interdependence. Factor analysis studies the entire set of

distance. Other possibilities include the squared Euclidean distance,

interrelationships without defining variables to be dependent or

city-block (Manhattan) distance, Chebychev distance, power

independent. Factor analysis combines variables to create a smaller

distance, and percent disagreement.

set of factors.

Choose a clustering procedure (linkage, nodal, or factor

Mathematically, a factor is a linear combination of variables. A

procedures).

factor is not directly observable; it is inferred from the variables.

The technique identifies underlying structure among the variables, Determine the number of clusters. They should be well separated

reducing the number of variables to a more manageable set. Factor and ideally they should be distinct enough to give them descriptive

analysis groups variables according to their correlation names such as professionals, buffs, etc.

The factor loading can be defined as the correlations between the Profile the clusters.

factors and their underlying variables. Assess the Validity of the Clustering

A factor-loading matrix is a key output of the factor analysis. An The format of the marketing research report varies with the needs

example matrix is shown below. of the organization.

The report often contains the following sections:

Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Authorization letter for the research

Variable 1 • Table of Contents

Variable 2

• List of illustrations

Variable 3

• Executive summary

Column's Sum of Squares:

• Research objectives

Each cell in the matrix represents correlation between the variable • Results

and the factor associated with that cell. The square of this correlation • Limitations

represents the proportion of the variation in the variable explained

• Conclusions and recommendations

by the factor. The sum of the squares of the factor loadings in

each column is called an eigen value. An eigen value represents the • Appendices containing copies of the questionnaires, etc

amount of variance in the original variables that is associated with Data is then processed in order to summarise the results

that factor. The communality is the amount of the variable variance It seeks to determine how units covered in the research project

explained by common factors respond to the items under investigation.

A rule of thumb for deciding on the number of factors is that It could be

each included factor must explain at least as much variance as does

• Univariate

an average variable. In other words, only factors for which the

• Bivariate

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• Multivariate • Formulating an objective or theoretical framework,

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

• Research questions, and hypotheses and identifying the

information needed.

This process is guided by

• Discussion with management and industry experts,

• Analysis of secondary data,

• Qualitative research, and

• Pragmatic considerations

A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the

marketing research project. It details the procedures necessary for

obtaining the required information, and its purpose is to design a

study that will test the hypotheses of interest, determine possible

It is the “so what”? of research. answers to the research questions, and provide the information

Research is wasted if it is not used in decision making or influencing needed for decision making.

actions. Not only the results should be interpreted into action Conducting exploratory research precisely defines the variables,

recommendations but the recommendations must also be and designing appropriate scales to measure them are also a part

communicated in an understandable manner. Results should be of the research design

presented in as simple manner as possible. The issue of how the data should be obtained from the

Basic Requirement respondents (for example, by conducting a survey or an

experiment) must be addressed. It is also necessary to design a

1. Researcher must understand the proper interpretation of

questionnaire and a sampling plan to select respondents for the

research results and the assumptions embodied in them.

study.

2. Researcher should understand the kinds of questions

More formally, formulating the research design involves the

research can handle and the type of structure required making

following steps:

a problem “researchable”

1. Definition of the information needed

3. Researcher must be capable of appraising the feasibility of

research proposals 2. Secondary data analysis

3. Qualitative research

Special Case

In management maximum research is done in the field of 4. Methods of collecting quantitative data (survey, observation,

marketing. and experimentation)

We conceptualize the marketing research process as consisting of 5. Measurement and scaling procedures

six steps. Each and every step in market research we will be doing 6. Questionnaire design

in detail. First let us discuss these briefly now. 7. Sampling process and sample size

Step 1: Problem Definition 8. Plan of data analysis

The first step in any marketing research project is to define the

Step 4: Fieldwork or Data Collection

problem. In defining the problem, the you should take into

Data collection involves a field force or staff that operates either in

account

the field, as in the case of personal interviewing (in-home, mall

• The purpose of the study, intercept, or computer-assisted personal interviewing), from an

• The relevant background information,the information office by telephone (telephone or computer-assisted telephone

needed, and interviewing), through mail (traditional mail and mail panel

• How it will be used in decision-making. surveys with pre-recruited households), or electronically (e-mail

or Internet).

Problem definition involves discussion with the

Proper selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of the field

decision makers,

force help minimize data-collection errors.

• Interviews with industry experts,

Step 5: Data Preparation and Analysis

• Analysis of secondary data, and

Data preparation includes the editing, coding, transcription and

• Perhaps, some qualitative research, such as focus groups. verification of data. Each questionnaire or observation form is

Once the problem of investigation has been precisely defined, the inspected or edited and, if necessary, corrected. Number or letter

research can be designed and conducted properly codes are assigned to represent each response to each question in

Step 2: Development of an Approach to the Problem the questionnaire. The data from the questionnaire are transcribed

Development of an approach to the problem includes or key punched onto magnetic tape or disks, or input directly into

16 11.556

the computer. The data are analyzed to derive information related

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

to the components of the marketing research problem and, thus,

provide input in to the management decision problem.

Activity 2

Step 6: Report Preparation and Presentation Explain the importance of interpretation of results?

The entire project should be documented in a written report that

addresses the specific research questions identified, describes the

approach, the research design, data collection, and data analysis

procedures adopted, and presents the results and the major

findings. The findings should be presented in a comprehensible

format so that management can readily use them in the decision

making process. In addition, an oral presentation should be Activity 3

made to management using tables, figures, and graphs to enhance Name and briefly discuss the five steps of research process?

clarity and impact

Errors in Research Process

There are 2 types of errors

a. Sampling error

b. Non sampling error

Sampling error is the difference between sample value and

corresponding population value.

Non sampling error are errors in the difference stages of research.as

Activity 4

a. Defective problem design Explain with the help of a suitable example the need for

b. Defective population definition introducing two types of environmental conditions in a research

c. Frame set problem?

d. Surrogate information error

e. Non response error

f. Measurement error

g. Experimental error

h. Poor questionnaire design

i. Interview bias

j. Data processing error

Clue

k. Data analysis errors The environmental conditions specified in the research problem

l. Interpretation errors are of two types:

References and Further Readings i. Those beyond firm’s control

1. Boyd, westfall, and stasch, “Marketing Research Text and ii. Those within the firm’s control

Cases”, All India Traveller Bookseller, New Delhi.

2. Brown, F.E. “Marketing Research, a structure for decision

making”, Addison – Wesley publishing company

3. Kothari, C.R. “Research Methodology-Methods and

Techniques”, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

4. Stockton and Clark, “Introduction to Business and

Economic Statistics”, D.B.Taraporevala Sons andCo. Private Activity 5

Limited, Bombay. A local supermarket has experienced a decline in unit _sales and

little change in rupee value sales. Profits have almost vanished.

5. Dunn Olive Jean and Virginia A Clarck, “Applied Statistics”

The chief executive in searching for ways to revitalize the operation

John Wiley and Sons.

was advised to increase the number of hours the market is open

6. Green Paul E and Donald S. Tull, “Research for Marketing for business. He comes to you for _advice in structuring a research

Decisions” Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi problem that will provide relevant information for decision-

Activity 1 making.

The definition of the problem comprise Define the problem, taking care to:

a. State the relevant question

b. Enumerate the alternative answers,

11.556 17

c. Clearly define the units of analysis and characteristics of

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

interest.

What are the relevant “ states of nature” which would lead to the

selection each alternative answer?

Activity 6

A shampoo manufacturing company wishes to test two types of

makes in order to determine which is the best one .

A. Propose and defend a precise definition of “best”

B. What is the set of hypothesis that should be tested?

C. What action would be associated with each hypothesis?

Activity 7

Define and state the research problem for the following case:

“Why is the productivity in Japan so much higher than in India”?

Think about problem in a broader sense and narrow down the

research problem.

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