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LTE RF Planning Tutorial

RF Planning is the process of selecting of frequencies to the proper site, Antennae Height and assigning of parameters for various Cells. The RF planner is planning to provide good Coverage and Capacity for all the Places. Coverage means the Signal Strength for Voice/data session. Capacity means the capability of the cell to sustain a number of subscribers. The LTE RF planning consist four Steps: 1) RF Link Budget ; The RF Link Budget preparation is the first Step in RF planning process, Nothing but just calculation of coverage Area, calculation of sites required for the location or Area .Requirement of sites may be vary from location to Location .Example(Rural, Urban, Suburban, etc). Consider all the factors and Produce the outputs at this stage; Estimated Number of Sites. 2) RF Propagation Modeling ; The RF Propagation Modeling is the second Step in RF planning process, by using the Planning tools we can find about that Area. In propagation model we need to plan the characteristics of antenna, the terrain. At end of this step outputs produced at this stage:

Number of Sites Required and Height of Antennae. Directions of Antenna Directions and Tilts of Antenna Fixing Neighbor Cell for each site Selecting of Parameters for Site (Handover and Cell Reselection) Planning of Frequency for site

Figure : Sites Coverage by Signal Strength

3) Fine Tuning and Optimization ; The Fine Tuning and Optimization is the third Step in RF planning process. In this stage, collecting drive Test datas and Log Files By using the software run the log files andfind the coverage, throughput, handover and Faults for each site. If we find any small changes means fine tuning of parameter settings (e.g. antenna orientation, down tilting, frequency plan).. At end of this step outputs produced at this stage: About all Site details and Locations, Frequency Planning. Optimized Antenna Directions and Tilts of Antenna. Fixing Neighbor Cell for each site

4) Continuous Optimization ; The Continuous Optimization in the final Step of the RF planning. In this Process, we need to continuous optimization for site according to environment or additional service requirements(additional coverage or capacity). In this Step, always monitoring the sites and providing solutions for problems by using Drive Tester, changing Frequency , Parameter Changes.

For more information about LTE Planning, LTE Optimization , UMTS Optimization and Planning , GSM Optimization and Planning , LTE Technology,LTE Advanced ,UMTS, HSPA+, HSPA ,HSDPA , HSUPA , EVDO , EDGE ,GSM ,GPRS , LTE Protocols, GSM Protocols ,UMTS Protocols, 3G & 4G protocols & layers ,GSM Signalling , UMTS , HSDPA ,LTE , WiMax , RF Survey , RF Drive Test , HSDPA Optimization , LOS Survey , SDH , PDH , SONET Technology , 5G , LTE , 3G , UMTS , 2G , 1G Technologies,Telecom Billing ; click URL ;

Optimization in 3G Network
Optimization throughout Life Cycle

Figure : Shows Optimization life cycle Network Optimization Phases in network

Figure : Network Optimization Phases

RF Optimization Target To optimize coverage To reduce the pilot pollution To reduce cell dominance To reduce neighbor cell list To resolve RF-related drop calls RF Parameters Optimization Engineering parameters adjustment To adjust antenna down tilt To adjust antenna azimuth To adjust antenna location To adjust antenna height To replace antenna To replace site To add new cell Radio part parameters adjustment To optimize neighbor cell list Pilot Pollution Minimization Pilot pollution definition: SHO candidates (A) Active set size If A>B, pilot pollution exists

Figure : Pilot Pollution Minimization Pilot Pollution: Example

Figure : Pilot Pollution RF-related Drop Calls Problems; Due to Poor coverage problem ,Due to High Interference,because of Pillot Pollution. Apperance; Poor RSCP & Ec/Io ,Poor Ec/Io ,UE max Tx power ,many SHO events. Parameter Optimization Target ; To reduce call drop calls, To improve the network quality

Optimization/Tuning of UMTS(3G) network Some Difference are will come ,While doing optimization and Tuning process in network . During Tuning process in network ; Site is not on Air ,so there is No traffic in network. Tuning of Network is according to our drive test data Every thing is done before the Site on Air ,It is about Pre-launch activities During Optimization Optimization is the Process done after Site On Air,when the customer start to use the network. Optimization is the Process to monitor network performance. Tuning Process Flow

Figure : Tuning Process Flow Tuning Process Flowchart

Figure : Tuning Process Flowchart

Tools For Tuning/Optimization & Data Post Processing TEMS Investigation for WCDMA (Software) TEMS Scanner (Software + HW) External GPS

User Equipment (UE) TEMS DeskCat for post processing MCOM3g/Mapinfo MS Access/Excel based tools

Figure : Optimization/Tuning of UMTS(3G) network Drive Test Routes

Figure : Drive Test Routes PILOT TUNING The basic measurements of scanner are CPICH_RSCP (received signal code power) CPICH_Ec/No (received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band) RSSI (received signal strength indicator) use of scanner in network ? we can find feedercable problem we can find Coverage problem Find Interference problems (overshooting cell, pilot pollution) Find the Missing neighbours

COVERAGE VERIFICATION Primary Common Pilot Channel Verify P-CPICH detection to minimize coverage holes P-CPICH RSCP P-CPICH Ec/No

Figure : Level of Signal CPICH_RSCP (received signal code power) Best Server Signal Strength Yellow means good(No problem in network) Blue make problems in feature Grey is bad

Figure : Best Server Signal Strength Pilot Ec/No Measurements Green means good(No problem in network) Blue make problems in feature Orange is bad

Figure : Pilot Ec/No Measurements INTERFERNECE By correlating low Ec/No with high RSCP, areas with high interference can be detected

Figure : INTERFERENCE INTERFERENCE (RSCP > -90 dBm AND Ec/No < -9 dB)

Figure : INTERFERENCE (RSCP > -90 dBm AND Ec/No < -9 dB) Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) PILOT POLLUTION

Figure: Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) PILOT POLLUTION

OVERSHOOTING Change Proposal: Site-D, Sector-1, Antenna Down-tilt 8 Degrees

Figure : Overshooting in Site Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) PILOT POLLUTION High CPICH reception levels from many Cells, (more than MAX_ACTIVE_SET) P-CPICH RSCP P-CPICH Ec/No

Figure : Pilot Pollution

Figure : Pilot Pollution Rectification Figure : PILOT POLLUTION Change Proposals

Figure : PILOT POLLUTION Change Proposals Pilot Pollution

Figure : Shows Pilot Pollution (Initial and After Tunning ) UE TUNING Voice /Video/PS calls Long calls short calls Identify problem areas Blocked calls Dropped calls Delay/Throughput Short Calls Analysis make a call and maintain it for some time duration (for 15-60 s) Call set-up failure and drops of short calls mainly due to: user Equipement Failure Because of Parameters Setting Due to Coverage Problem Due toInterference Long Calls Analysis Make a call and maintain the Call upto drop ( because by this we can check the Retainability performace of network) Drops during long call can be used to identify: we can identify the Missing Neighbor Relation Coverage Problem user Equipement Problems Network Characteristics Because of Parameters Setting

KPI Parameters for 3G are following: 1) RRC attempt 2.RRC Failure rate 3.RRC drop rate. 4.RAB CS voice failure rate 5.RAB CS voice drop rate 6.RAB DATA failure rate 7.RAB Data drop rate 8.HSDPA Failure rate 9.HSDPA drop rate 10.SHO failure 11.ISHO failure rate 12.IFHO failure rate 13.EDCH estab failure rate 14.EDCH abnormal release rate. Various Types of Commands we are using in KPI maintaining 1) RRC Drop RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_IU RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_RADIO RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_BTS RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_IUR RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_I_CHK RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_CIPH RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_RNC RRC_CONN_ACT_FAIL_UE RRC_CONN_ACT_REL_UNSPEC_CN RRC_CONN_ACT_COMP 2)RAB Voice Drop Rate RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_IU RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RADIO RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_BTS RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_IUR RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RNC RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_UE RAB_ACT_REL_CS_V_UNSPE_ER_CN

3)RAB Data Failure Rate RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_INTER_AC RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_INTER_RNC RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_INTER_ANCH RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_INTER_FROZBS RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_BACKG_AC RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_BACKG_RNC RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_BACKG_ANCH RAB_STP_FAIL_PS_BACKG_FROZBS RAB_ACC_FAIL_PS_INTER_MS RAB_ACC_FAIL_PS_INTER_RNC RAB_ACC_FAIL_PS_BACKG_MS RAB_ACC_FAIL_PS_BACKG_RNC RAB_STP_ATT_PS_INTER RAB_STP_ATT_PS_BACKG 4)KPI and Counter. RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_AC RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_BTS RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_TRANS RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RNC RAB_STP_FAIL_CS_VOICE_FROZBS RAB_ACC_FAIL_CS_VOICE_MS RAB_ACC_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RNC RAB_STP_ATT_CS_VOICE 5)KPI and Counters are: RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_HC RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_AC RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_BTS RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_TRANS RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNC RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_FROZBS RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RADIO RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_MS RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RNC

3G KPI

Case 1: Drop due to missing neighbor Problem: Detected Nighbor (DN) Mobiloe Station sends a Report ,which it measured in site ,that contains event 1A means adding a new RL (cell) to Active Set The reported cell should be present in current neighbor cell list,If it not available means and then reported Ec/No is better than the best serving cell Ec/No in AS by some dBs (set by a RNC parameter) In any movement,new cell can not be added to Aativr Set,if we addd means ,call will be released

Figure : Drop -due -to -missing- neighbor

Case 2: Drop due to Poor Coverage (low RSCP) Problem: Poor DL coverage When Mobie Station have a low RSCP value ( < -107 dBm).At the time Ec/No values,call Drop will happen,Mobilw Staion will likely lift up up the transmitted power and reach its maxpower. The DL BLER will probably increase and SIR target cannot maintain anymore, finally the call drops.

Figure : Drop -due- to -Poor -Coverage

Case 3:Due to Poor DL Coverage If Mobile Station enters into a RSCP level (< 105 dBm ) means ,it have low coverage area at the time (.The packet connection is carried on a 64/64 DCH Channel as consequence of the low coverage conditions. The UE is Lift up the Mobile Station power to the maximum,it reach to Idle Mode and the Application and RLC throughputs go to zero. At this point the RAS application will start the Session Timeout timer, if the throughput is not resumed the Session Error event is triggered with cause session timeout.

Figure : Session -Error - due -to- Poor Coverage

UMTS KPI overview -3G

3G KPIs Specific; Different KPIs contains different formula for 2G and 3G Ex;Formula for RRC Connection Successful Rate is mention below RRC Connection Successful Rate=RRC connection Success services/RRC connection attempt services * 100 3G KPIs : Measurable Drive Test Initial Step is doing Drive Test in Network before site is on Air .Find the overall network performance, By that report ,Finding the Solution of Problems. While Doing Drive Test,our User Equipment can used for Multiple test . Driver test route is based on cluster of the Area , In one Cluster , it consists of around 20 sites normally. 3G KPIs : Stationary test Field Test ->stationary Test System performance -Equipment ability,Transmission, Radio Network performance of the Site ; Radio Network Planning ,Radio Network Condition System KPI measurement is done in Stationany mode; To Find the Throughput KPI of the network ,Delay KPI of the network ,Quality KPI of the network . Stationary test is done in fixed condition (without Movement), and its done mainly in inside the building . Radio Network KPI is used to test- Call drop rate & Handover successful rate. 3G KPIs : Measurable Statistic test

Figure : 3G KPIs Measurable - Statistic test KPI test platform

Figure : KPI test platform 3G KPIs: Relevant

Figure : 3G KPIs Relevant

3G KPIs Architecture

Figure : 3G KPIs Architecture 3G KPIs: Time-bound

Figure : 3G KPIs Time-bound Recommend test methodology

Figure : Recommend test methodology

Figure Shows the WCDMA VOICE DRIVE IN TEMS Software

Step 1 : It shows,Main windows to open for WCDMA VOICE DRIVE IN TEMS Software

Figure : windows for WCDMA Voice Drive

step 2 : It shows,Main Parameters windows to open for WCDMA VOICE DRIVE IN TEMS Software

Figure

arameters windows for WCDMA Voice Drive

Step 3 : It shows ,Which Paramaters we want to check while doing WCDMA VOICE DRIVE IN TEMS Software

Figure : Parameters for WCDMA WCDMA Voice Drive Analysis of Various Parameters 1)Analysis of RSCP (Received Signal Code Power ) in Voice Drive

Figure : Shows RSCP in Voice Drive

2)Analysis of SC (Scrambling Code) in Voice Drive

Figure : shows scrambling code Legend of Scrambling Code for Voice

Figure : Shows legend of Scrambling Code

3)Analysis of EC/NO in Voice Drive

Figure : Shows the EC/No WCDMA Data Drive Analysis of Various Parameters 1)Analysis of SC (Scrambling Code) in Data Drive

Figure : Shows Scrambling code for Data Drive

Legend of Scrambling Code for Data Drive

Figure : Shows Legend of Scrambling Code

Figure : Shows Legend of Scrambling Code

3) Analysis of HSDPA Throughput Report in Data Drive

Figure : shows HSDPA Throughput Report 4)Analysis of HSUPA Throughput Report in Data Drive

Figure : Shows HSUPA ThroughPut

GSM Post Processing steps using MapInfo


Post Processing Steps by using mapinfo Software for various operators like 1)Aircel 2)Airtel 3)vodafone 4)BSNL 5)Uninor Step by Step Procedure For Post Processing ; Step 1 : Opening and Export of Log files

Figure : Opening and Export Log Files

Step 2 : Select the Log Files

Figure; Select the Logfiles Step 3 : After Run the Files

Figure : After Run the Log Files

Step 4 : Click Map and Select Layer Control

Figure : Click Map and Select the Layer Control Step 5 : Click Layer control and Click the Display

Figure : Click Layer control and Click the Display

Step 6 : Select Style override and click symbol box

Figure : Select Style override and click symbol box Step 7 : Select the Change Font, Symbol Color, and size in this format

Figure : Select the Change Font, Symbol Color, and size in this format

Step 8 : See the route ,we done the Drive Test

Figure : See the route ,we done the Drive Test Step 9 : Click Map In tool Bar and Select Create Thematic Map

Figure : Shows tool Bar

Step 9 : Select Type Range,etcClick Point RangesClick Next

Figure : Shows to Select Type Range,etcClick Point RangesClick Next Step 10 : Select RxLEVFdB, etc

Figure : Select RxLEVFdB

Step 12 : Select Ranges

Figure : Select Ranges Step 13 : Change Method CustomSet the correct ranges here Then click Recalc

Figure : Shows to Change Method CustomSet the correct ranges here Then click Recal

Step 14 : Next Click Styles

Figure : Next Click Styles Step 15 : Click on that styles buttons

Figure : Shows to Click on that styles buttons

Step 16 : Change that color and size

Figure : Change that color and size Step 17 : Next Select Legend

Figure : Next Select Legend

Step 18 :In Range Labels selectMark show the range means it will display..Unmark means it wont show that range

Figure : Set the values step 19 : Select Ok

Figure : Select Ok

Step 20 : See the level of signal

Figure : Shows level of signal Step 21 : Click Show/Hide Legend in Main Tool bar

Figure : Click Show/Hide Legend in Main Tool bar

Step 22 : click the legend and show the values

Figure : Legend for Showing Values Step 23: Shows RX Level Full

Figure : Shows RX Level Full

Step 23 ; See the Rx Level -Aircel

Figure : Shows Rx Level -Aircel Step 24 : See the Rx Level Sub -Aircel

Figure : Shows Rx Level Sub -Aircel

Step 25 : See the Rx Quality Full -Aircel

Figure : Shows Rx Quality Full -Aircel Step 26 : See the Rx Quality Sub -Aircel

Figure : Shows Rx Quality Sub Aircel

Step 27 : See the AIRCEL SQI

Figure : Sehows AIRCEL SQI Step 28 : see the UNINOR Rx LEVEL FULL

Figure : shows UNINOR Rx LEVEL FULL

S Step 29 : See the UNINOR Rx LEVEL SUB

Figure : Shows UNINOR Rx LEVEL SUB

Step 30 : see the UNINOR Rx Level SUB

Figure : Shows UNINOR Rx QUALITY FULL

Step 31 : see the UNINOR by Rx QUALITY FULL

Figure : shows UNINOR by Rx QUALITY Full Step 32 ; see the UNINOR RX Quality SUB

Figure : shows UNINOR RX Quality Sub

Step 33 ; see the UNINOR RX Quality SUB

Figure : Shows UNINOR SQI


Step 33 ; see the AIRTEL Rx LEVEL

Figure : Shows AIRTEL Rx LEVEL

Step 34 : see the AIRTEL Rx LEVEL SUB

Figure : Shows AIRTEL Rx LEVEL SUB

Step 35 : See the AIRTEL Rx QUALITY FULL

Figure : Shows AIRTEL Rx QUALITY FULL

Step 36 : See the AIRTEL Rx QUALITY SUB

Figure : Shows AIRTEL Rx QUALITY SUB

Step 37 : see the AIRTEL SQI

Figure : shows AIRTEL SQI

Step 38 : see the VODAFONE Rx LEVEL FULL

Figure : shows VODAFONE Rx LEVEL FULL

Step 39 : see the VODAFONE Rx LEVEL SUB

Figure : shows VODAFONE Rx LEVEL SUB

Step 40 : see the VODAFONE Rx QUALITY FULL

Figure : shows VODAFONE Rx QUALITY FULL

Step 41 : see the VODAFONE Rx QUALITY SUB

Figure : see the VODAFONE Rx QUALITY SUB

Step 42 : See the VODAFONE SQI

Figure : Shows VODAFONE SQI

Step 43 : see the BSNL Rx LEVEL FULL

Figure : Shows BSNL Rx LEVEL FULL

Step 44 : see the BSNL Rx LEVEL SUB

Figure : shows BSNL Rx LEVEL SUB

Step 45 : see the BSNL Rx QUALITY FULL

Figure :Shows BSNL Rx QUALITY FULL

Step 46 : see the BSNL Rx QUALITY SUB

Figure : Shows BSNL Rx QUALITY SUB

Step 47 : see the BSNL SQI

Figure : Shows BSNL SQI

RF Optimization
Imperatives for Optimization; 1) RF optimization stands a main factor for all network. 2) Finding faults in the network and correct the Faults before they affect network performance. 3) Finding Solution for the Problem before it affecting the network performance. 4) optimization makes less use of the spectrum. Optimization Overview; what is optimization? Optimization is the fine tuning of the cell Plan to real environment. Objective; To achieve 100% compliance to 1) The Design criteria in regards to Coverage, Capacity and Quality. 2) The Standard defined by Local Government authority. Need for optimization in network; Network Problem that may need of some changes in network 1) for increase the network quality, coverage, capacity. 2) Maximizing the use of existing infrastructure. 3) Introduction of new services like VAS Network Life cycle;

Figure : Network Lifecycle

Types of RF Optimization; 1) Pre Launch Optimization. 2) Continuous Optimization. 3) Swap Management. Optimisation Process Single site verification

Figure : Single site verification Optimisation Process Drive Test Based

Figure : Drive Test Based

Cluster Analysis

Figure : Cluster Anlysis

For more information about RF Optimization and Planning for GSM , UMTS , HSDPA ,LTE , WiMax , LTE ADVANCED,RF Survey , RF Drive Test , HSDPA , HSUPA, EVDO GSM Signalling ,2G & 3G &4G protocols & layers , LOS Survey , SDH , PDH , SONET Technology , 5G , LTE , 3G , UMTS , 2G , 1G Technologies ; click URL ;