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W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

Drilling Fluids

CCOONNTTEENNTTSS

 

Page

Objectives

3

Resumé

5

1.1

Introduction

6

General

6

The anatomy of a drilling fluid

7

Drilling fluid planning

7

Economics

8

1.2

Density and pressure gradients

10

Introduction

10

Units

10

Formation stress and pressure

10

Formation fracture gradient

12

Impact on drilling operations

13

Drilling fluid density

13

1.3

Rheology

15

Introduction

15

Terminology

15

Drilling fluid viscosity model

16

Rheological model

18

Model description

20

Conclusion

21

1.4

Hydraulics

23

Introduction

23

Optimisation theory

23

Optimising process

25

Routine monitoring

26

1.5

Borehole instability

27

Introduction

27

Hole erosion

27

Swelling shale

28

Spalling shale

28

Sloughing shale

29

Salt formations

30

1.6

Clay Chemistry

31

1.7

Inhibition

35

Inhibiting chemicals

35

Inhibiting polymers

36

Inhibitive systems

37

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Drilling Fluids

 

Page

1.8 Invert oil emulsion systems

41

Introduction

41

Theory

41

Engineering

41

Monitoring

43

1.9 Contaminants

44

Introduction

44

Chemical contaminants

45

Treatment

45

Treatment chemistry

47

1.10 Temperature

48

1.11 Drilled Solids

50

Introduction

50

Effect

50

Prevention

51

Monitoring and evaluation

53

1.12 Drilling problems

54

Bit balling

54

Torque and drag

54

Differentially stuck pipe

54

Lost circulation

55

Corrosion

57

1.13 Well Control

58

1.14 Cementing

60

1.15 Drill-in, completion and well intervention fluids

62

Introduction

62

Productivity impairment

62

Well bore fluid design

62

Well bore fluid preparation

65

Lost circulation

66

Appendix 1 : Terminology and symbols

68

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

Drilling Fluids

OOBBJJEECCTTIIVVEESS

After studying this Part, consulting other relevant documents and, if necessary, discussions with your mentor, you will be able to:

list the primary functions of a drilling fluid

describe the process of designing a drilling fluid

list the components that may be used in a drilling fluid

list the constraints on the choice of drilling fluid product

explain how the economic performance of a drilling fluid system is measured

name the characteristics of a product (other than price) which have an effect on its economic performance

name all the various units used for measuring the density of a drilling fluid and give the corresponding values for fresh water

name the various salts used in drilling fluids for increasing the density

give the maximum densities achievable with the above-mentioned salts

give the grain densities of the solids commonly found, or used, in drilling fluids

explain what are “viscosity”and “shear rate”

describe the different kinds of viscosity behaviour found in fluids

define (in simple terms) laminar and turbulent flow and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each

describe the rheological behaviour which is considered ideal for a drilling fluid, and explain why

calculate the values of rheological parameters from measurements made

explain the concept of “equivalent circulating density”

explain what factors determine the upper and lower limits of circulating rate in a drilling fluid system

explain the methods available to the drilling fluid engineer for controlling unstable shales

name the types of encapsulating polymer, and explain why they are used

list the common contaminants of water based drilling fluids, and give their possible sources

explain the effect of the above contaminants on the various components of a drilling fluid

explain how to treat drilling fluid which has been contaminated by calcium

list the maximum temperatures at which common drilling fluid products can be used

explain why drilled solids should be removed from a drilling fluid

describe how undesirable solids can be removed from drilling fluid

describe how the drilling fluid can be a factor in causing and/or curing common mechanical drilling problems

explain why small volumes (“pills” or “slugs”) of high density drilling fluid may be required, and give a typical composition

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

Drilling Fluids

explain why the drilling fluid may affect the success of a cement job

explain why the drilling fluid may have to be replaced before drilling into the objective hydrocarbon reservoir

list the primary causes of production impairment

explain the effect of temperature on brine systems

explain why bridging materials may be deliberately added to a drilling-in or work-over fluid, and name the three options

explain why oxygen corrosion is not normally a problem in completion fluids

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

Drilling Fluids

RREESSUUMMÉÉ

The purpose of this Part is to explain the logic behind selecting, preparing, running and modifying both drilling fluids and drilling-in, completion and well intervention fluids. The objective is to provide an awareness of the role of these fluids in well construction, so that the Well Engineer can convey a clear specification to the contractor and he in turn can provide, and maintain, a ‘fit-for-purpose’product.

It is not a recipe book of formulations and remedies for all occasions (these don’t exist), or a theoretical dissertation on the physico-chemical properties of drilling fluids (these already exist).

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

1.1.1

TTOOPPIICC 11 11

GENERAL

IINNTTRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN

Drilling Fluids

Man has been excavating the ground to recover the earth’s resources since before recorded history. The drilling industry has long been a part of this occupation. It has come a long way since the Chinese and Egyptians first started using boring machines. Today our industry is capable of

• drilling to over 20 km depths

• drilling 10m diameter shafts

• drilling 8 km horizontally at 3 km depth, and turning at right angles.

• extracting geothermal energy at 400°C

• drilling in 5 km water depths

• drilling square holes

Truly remarkable feats. One of the controlling factors in this development has been the corresponding strides made in drilling fluid technology. Today we can formulate fluids to:

• withstand over 200°C

• transport pipeline debris over 192 km

• carry 5kg pieces of metal vertically from depths over 1,000m

• transport gold ore vertically from 4,000m

but regrettably there is often a large discrepancy between what we can have and what we often use.

The name ‘Mud Doctor’has been used for many years as a humorous title for the drilling fluids engineer. Although quite funny, it is not that far from the truth for the drilling fluid can be viewed as the life blood of the drilling operation. It cleanses the system, delivers energy and carries “antibodies” to combat system problems. Without it drilling cannot operate at peak performance.

The drilling fluid engineer’s role is to ensure that the drilling operation remains fit and healthy. To do this effectively he must be knowledgeable of the anatomy of the body (formation and well) and diagnose for genetic defects (downhole problems) and the blood disorders (contaminants). He must then specify remedial treatments to ensure the correct physico-chemical balance is maintained to maximise performance.

However, in some respects, the name has also developed somewhat from “Witch Doctor”. The mud industry has historically been secretive about how to plan and run a drilling fluid. Expressions such as ‘experience’, ‘in-house expertise’and ‘trade secrets’have often been bandied about to limit the spread of knowledge. Sometimes it can almost appear to be “Black Magic”, with the old Mud Doctor throwing in a secret ingredient or two and getting dramatic effects. This secrecy has often blinded the drilling fluids industry to the needs of their customers – if the latter don’t know how it is done they may not want to challenge what is recommended for fear of appearing ignorant.

One reason given for this restriction of information has been the protection of R&D and training investment. “No company can afford to give away its technical and commercial advantage”. Equally we cannot afford to have inefficient and expensive drilling fluids; that compromises our technical and commercial advantage. The ultimate goal, for all, is the well being of our operations. The responsibility for resolving any potential conflict lies with both sides. Understanding and properly using drilling fluids does produce successful wells, ignorance can, and often does, have the opposite effect.

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Drilling Fluids

1.1.2 THE ANATOMY OF A DRILLING FLUID

What is the difference between Mud and a Drilling Fluid? Mud is a mixture of dirt and water whereas a Drilling Fluid can be:

a Tool to

Maximise Results and

Minimise Costs

What are the Functions of a Drilling Fluid? Classically these have been listed as being to:

• deliver sufficient energy to the bit to assist drilling.

• clean the drilling face of newly made cuttings.

• cool, clean and lubricate the bit.

• drive any downhole motor or turbine.

• transport the cuttings out of the hole.

• suspend the cuttings during periods without circulation.

• stabilise the sides of the borehole.

• maintain an impermeable barrier on the borehole wall opposite porous and permeable formations

• provide hydrostatic head to avoid the influx of formation fluids into the borehole.

• release the carried cuttings before recirculating into the hole.

• to transmit data to surface .

This list of functions does not however accurately portray the true role of the fluid in the drilling operation nor does it indicate the potential impact upon the business. Like a doctor, or scientist, the fluids engineer needs all of the facts and must evaluate the whole picture before formulating an effective solution.

Putting the key functions from above into context against where in the system they are required, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.1, a clearer picture starts to emerge, not only of what the fluid is supposed to do, but where, how and under what conditions.

By analysing the functions of the drilling fluid in the context of the operation we can build up a better understanding of the way it must perform, and under what influencing conditions. Thus we are able to prescribe the optimum specification for the job to be done, monitor the performance and carry out remedial treatments to rectify any short fallings.

1.1.3 DRILLING FLUID PLANNING

All of a drilling fluid’s functions are important, however the specific goals of a particular drilling operation will place

different emphasis on them; for example, drilling through a water sensitive shale will place more emphasis on the borehole stability aspect than would drilling through a competent

Figure 6.1.1 : Functions of a drilling fluid

Figure 6.1.1 : Functions of a drilling fluid

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

Drilling Fluids

limestone. The key to efficient drilling fluid design, and well planning, is using a logical, structured approach to programming. Such an approach encompasses:

• specifying and ranking the goals and expectations of the operation.

• recognising the system requirements to achieve the goals.

• identifying the drilling fluid functions within the system requirements.

• matching the drilling fluid properties with the functions.

• profiling the performance under the varying condition for optimum additive selection.

Throughout it is essential that the planning engineer liaise with all interested parties involved with the well.

Firstly a ranked set of objectives has to be defined and agreed. For example: Is it an exploration well? Then petrophysical logging may be important to monitor progress against prognosis. Thus a near gauge hole with minimum fluid invasion would be a key requirement. What type of logs are required? Some are sensitive to salt, others are sensitive to oil.

Secondly, the specific fluid properties required to achieve the goals should be listed in a planning table. Each property should then be examined specifically as to the requirements throughout the circulating system. Having defined this model of optimum performance, components can then be selected. Where variance from the ideal occurs the design should be re-examined, with respect to the prioritised objectives, to gauge the impact that less than maximum performance may have.

As well as satisfying the operational objectives materials chosen must meet a number of “common requirements”such as HSE, compatibility with the make-up water and compatibility with other additives.

Once the potential components have been identified, on a performance basis, then, and only then, should the economics be reviewed. The costs examined should be on an overall well basis. A balance must be always be sought between combating foreseeable problems and overkilling all possible eventualities.

1.1.4

ECONOMICS

One of the major, and perhaps the most influential, planning and operating parameters is ‘cost’. “Cost control”and “expense reduction”have developed as everyday catch phrases within our industry, and rightly so. We have finite resources of funds with which to find, develop and produce hydrocarbons.

Our goal is to reduce the cost of the whole operation. We must be careful not to just focus on the price on individual products or elements. We can all calculate that saving 20% on a US$1,000 item is not equal to a consequential loss of 1% on a US$40,000 operation due to using a sub-optimal drilling fluid. The key objective is to minimise the cost of well construction and maximise productivity.

For example, compare a reasonably quality bentonite based drilling fluid, costing approximately US$50/m 3 , versus a more expensive polymer based fluid, costing around $88/m 3 . Initially it would appear that the bentonite based fluid offer significant savings over the polymer fluid.

However, consider the implications when drilling through the reservoir section of a well to be completed barefoot. If the damaging nature of the bentonite filter cake, which is chemically inert, reduces the production from an estimated 1,000 m 3 per day to 900 m 3 . A remedial stimulation treatment to remove the damage could cost upward of $50,000. It is easy to see that it would not take too long to lose any advantage gained from the cheaper drilling fluid. This is not to say that more expensive is better. The essential factor is getting a fit-for-purpose product.

Drilling fluid planning must consider the overall effect and economics on the operation, particularly the cost per barrel of production; this is the ultimate goal. Cutting corners in one

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Drilling Fluids

area may not necessarily result in a cost saving in the overall project. Maximising the results is as important as, if not more so than, reducing the cost. The result from a properly structured planning process will be the optimum fluid for achieving the specified goals with the minimum overall operational cost, and thus give:

Maximum Return on Investment

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

Drilling Fluids

TTOOPPIICC 11 22

DDEENNSSIITTYY && PPRREESSSSUURREE GGRRAADDIIEENNTTSS

1.2.1 INTRODUCTION

The process of laying down the various formations and the subsequent actions on the ground by movements within the earth’s crust create abnormal conditions in the rocks through which the operation will drill. These create specific problems that the drilling fluid must overcome.

Uncontrolled production of formation fluids and gases can be a safety risk, hazardous to the environment and a loss of revenue for the Company and the asset holder. The drilling fluid is the first line of defence against such occurrences. The second defence mechanism is containment within the well.

The optimum density of the drilling fluid is a balance between exerting enough downhole force to overbalance the pressure within the formation whilst not compromising the integrity of the wellbore.

1.2.2 UNITS

Specific Gravity (S.G.) is the dimensionless ratio of a material’s density to that of a standard solution of fresh water at sea level.

Table 6.1.1 : Units of pressure, "fluid gradient" and density

 

Oilfield SI

Value for

Other Oilfield

Value for

fresh water

Units

fresh water

Pressure

kPa

 

psi

 

Gradient

kPa/m

9.81

psi/ft

0.433

     

S.G.

1

Density

Kg/m 3

1000

p.p.g

8.33

lbs/cu.ft.

62.4

1.2.3 FORMATION STRESS & PRESSURE

SEDIMENTARY ROCK FORMATION

Generally, in oilfield drilling the formations penetrated have been built up by the deposition of sediments. As this process continues the underlying material is subjected to increasing force. Interstitial water is gradually squeezed out and the minerals are compacted into sedimentary rocks.

STRESSES

The stresses acting on the rock in the subsurface can be resolved into three orthogonal components. These are called the principal stresses (s n ).

Normally both the vertical and horizontal principal stresses will increase with depth. The two are related by the fact that the rock is laterally constrained by the neighbouring rock. However regional tectonics may cause other effects. If the stresses are of different magnitude then the convention is: s 1 > s 2 > s 3 .

Figure 6.1.2 : Principal Rock Stresses

Figure 6.1.2 : Principal Rock Stresses

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Drilling Fluids

The vertical, or overburden, stress is generally expressed as a gradient; S/z. This can be derived by integrating the formation density log.

As a rule of thumb: Overburden Gradient ˜ 22·6 kPa/m (1 psi/ft)

Each principal stress is composed of two elements: the stress exerted on the rock (s f ) and that exerted on the pore fluids (p f ).

NORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE.

The initial sediments are laid down with about 60 - 70%v water. This material is gradually buried deeper and deeper under the slow process of deposition.

At a burial depth of approximately 1000 m (±3,000 ft) grain to grain contact occurs for the majority of the minerals and the material is regarded as a rock. At this stage it contains about 26 - 30%v water. In the mudstone/claystone /shale formations the water is held as layers between the clay platelets by forces other than purely physical confinement (bound water).

As the pressure increases from more overlying sediments, and the temperature rises with burial, more water is stripped from between the layers of clay particles. At around 2,000m (±7,000 ft) sufficient energy has built up in the system to have fully dislodged one layer of bound water from the clay structure. Further layers are removed by approximately 5,000 m (±16,500 ft), 10,000 m (±33,000 ft) and 20,000 m (±65,000 ft).

Mixing with generated hydrocarbons, the released water slowly migrates through the very low permeability environment of the clays until it finds a more permeable formation, such as a sand. The excess fluid bleeds through this zone back towards the surface. With geological time the pressure in the shale is relieved back to the equivalent of a column of water to that depth. The pressure in the pore spaces is therefore equal to the hydrostatic column of the water. The remainder of the overburden stress is supported by the rock matrix. This is termed a ‘normally’ pressured formation.

The water escaping from the compacting clay formations leaves behind some of the originally dissolved salts. With increasing depth the pore water has an increasing salinity resulting in a higher fluid density. Thus the pressure exerted increases with depth. This can be determined by integrating the resistivity log.

As a rule of thumb: A ‘normal’pressure gradient of 10·5 kPa/m (0·465 psi/ft) can be used to depths down to 3,000m.

ABNORMAL PRESSURE

If at any time the shale, or the permeable formation, is isolated then the excess pore fluid cannot bleed off. Then the increasing overburden will be born by the incompressible pore fluid. Thus it will be overpressured by the added mass of the formations from the depth where it was isolated to its current depth.

Rapid deposition, or regional tectonic movement, can create additional stress on the rock. This can accelerate the release of bound water beyond the bleed off rate of the low permeability shale.

An uplifted, isolated, formation will retain the original internal pressure. Leaks along a fault, or through a bad cement job, can connect a lower, higher pressured formation with a higher zone. These formations will have a higher than normal pressure gradient.

Any one of the above phenomena raises the pressure of the fluid in the pore spaces higher than normal. This is termed an ‘abnormally’pressured formation. Multiple overpressure situations are sometimes termed ‘supernormally’pressured formations.

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Drilling Fluids

SUBNORMAL PRESSURE

The opposite effect can occur when two faults drop a centre block, graben faulting. A normally pressured zone is suddenly (in geological terms) at a depth greater than its equivalent column

of water pressure.

A reservoir, produced for some time, may be depleted to below the normal hydrostatic pressure

gradient.

1.2.4 FORMATION FRACTURE GRADIENT

Subsurface formations have a limited capacity to withstand an imposed wellbore pressure before they fail. Below 1,000 m failure will usually be a fracture in the vertical plane perpendicular to the least principal stress.

Normally the formations become more resistant to failure the more compacted (buried) they are, thus the weakest rock exposed in the wellbore during drilling is usually at the last casing seat.

MINIMUM FRACTURE INITIATION PRESSURE

The minimum pressure at which a formation will breakdown or fracture is denoted by the expression: P i = P f + s 3 + T

Where:

P i =

P f

s 3 =

T = Tensile rock strength (= 0 for uncemented formations).

‘Fracture’, ‘formation breakdown’or ‘leak-off’pressure

= ‘Formation’or ‘pore’pressure.

Minimum rock stress

TECTONICALLY STRESSED AREAS

Different horizontal stresses must be taken into account when calculating the fracture gradient.

Figure 6.1.3 : Fracture gradient v. deviation

Figure 6.1.3 : Fracture gradient v. deviation

DEVIATED WELLS

Well deviation means that the overburden stress is no longer parallel to the well. Therefore it must be included

in the calculation. The software package STABOR

gives estimates of the fracture gradient as a function of tectonic stresses and wellbore deviation.

OFFSHORE APPLICATIONS

In onshore applications all stresses are effective from

the surface. When drilling offshore the overburden and fracture gradients are only effective below the sea floor, see Figures 6.1.4a & 4b. In deep water operations this can have a significant impact on maximum fluid gradients and casing setting

Figure 6.1.4a : Pressure-depth plot – onshore Figure 6.1.4b : Pressure-depth plot – offshore
Figure 6.1.4a : Pressure-depth plot – onshore
Figure 6.1.4b : Pressure-depth plot – offshore

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Drilling Fluids

depths.

ABNORMALLY PRESSURED FORMATIONS

The strength of the rock is proportional to the rock matrix stress. Abnormally pressured pore fluids are supporting more of the principal stress and the rock matrix stress is lower. Therefore the gap between the formation pressure and the fracture gradient will be lower.

FLUID LEAK OFF TEST

A direct measurement of P i is sometimes carried out by pressurising the formation until it fails. This is known as a ‘leak-off’or ‘micro-frac’test. In drilling operations the result is often expressed as the Equivalent Maximum Mud Gradient:

EMMG = Current Mud Gradient + P i /D f

1.2.5 IMPACT ON DRILLING OPERATIONS

Pore fluids in an isolated porous formation within a shale will also be over pressured. However, unlike the shale, the contents will be mobile and can bled into a lower pressure region very quickly; resulting in a kick.

The overpressured shale will want to relieve the pressure into the hole if the drilling fluid pressure gradient is lower. However the extremely low permeability of the shale will not let the pore fluid flow easily so the force exerts itself on the rock in the vicinity of the borehole. If the shale is plastic (generally high water content, 10% to 30%; rapid burial cause) it will deform and squeeze into the borehole (swelling shale). If the shale is firm and brittle (generally low water content - < 7%; sealed venting of pressure cause) it will spall off in pieces (sloughing shale).

Drilling into a subnormally pressured formation with a higher drilling fluid pressure gradient can result in higher rates of leak-off. This can lead to differential sticking of the pipe and reservoir impairment. If the overbalance is higher than the strength of the formation then it will fracture resulting in loss of circulation.

1.2.6 DRILLING FLUID DENSITY

For well control of subsurface pressures the drilling fluid pressure gradient must be equal to or greater than that of the pore fluid. However it must not be so high as to exceed the fracture gradient of the weakest zone.

WEIGHTING MATERIALS

Salts & Brines

The liquid phase of the drilling fluid will have a specific density or gravity. The common base fluids are water and oil (SG ~0.8). The density of water can be increased with salts.

Brine densities are reduced at higher temperatures, due to thermal expansion, but are increased at higher pressures following compression. For both effects corrections have to be applied during the design and operation of a brine – see Table 6.1.3.

Temperature correction :

r

where d= Dr/DT correction (kg/m 3 /°C)

Pressure correction :

r

Table 6.1.2 : SG of saturated brine for common salt systems

Salt

S.G

Salt

S.G

Salt

S.G

KCl

1.16

NaCl

1.19

CaCl 2

1.39

NaBr

1.50

CaBr 2

1.72

ZnBr 2

2.31

Na-

1.4

K-

1.5

Cs-

2.6

Formate

Formate

Formate

K 2 CO 3

1.5

       
 

13

2 = r 1 -

d(DT)

2 =

r 1 +

l(DP)

WEDLP Edition 10 : S6P1 – Drilling fluids February 2001

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

where l = Dr/DP correction (kg/m 3 /100kPa)

Drilling Fluids

Table 6.1.3 : Temperature and pressure corrections for common brines

Brine

Maximum Density kg/m 3

d

l

kg/m 3 / o C

kg/m 3 /100kPa

NaCl

1,190

0.24

0.0331

CaCl 2

1,390

0.54

0.0296

NaBr

1,500

0.71

0.0365

CaBr 2

1,720

0.71

0.0383

ZnBr 2 /CaBr 2 /CaCl 2

1,920

0.78

0.0383

ZnBr 2 /CaBr 2

2,310

1.04

0.0540

Solids

Insoluble material may be suspended in the drilling fluid to raise its bulk density to increase the effective hydrostatic pressure.

Table 6.1.4 : Grain SG for common weighting materials

Material

S.G

Material

S.G

Material

S.G

Sand

2.6

Clay

2.4

Limestone

2.7

Barite

4.2

Hematite

5.0

Galena

6.5

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Drilling Fluids

TTOOPPIICC 11 33

RRHHEEOOLLOOGGYY

1.3.1 INTRODUCTION

One of the most influential properties of the drilling fluid is its viscosity. Understanding the role

of viscosity in drilling, and other operations, and being able to match viscosity requirements to

the conditions prevalent for that requirement is a key factor in optimising the efficiency of the fluid.

1.3.2 TERMINOLOGY

Rheology

The science of the deformation and flow of matter. Common usage - the analysis of a fluid’s viscosity behaviour under variable shear rate conditions.

Shearing Stress

A stress that acts tangentially to a face.

Shear Stress (t)

Shear force per unit area of action. [Newtons per square meter or Pascals]

Shear Strain (g)

Shear displacement divided by the thickness of the fluid element. [dimensionless]

Shear Rate (dg/dt - but usually written as g)

Time rate of change of the shear strain (or shear strain rate). [sec -1 . “reciprocal seconds”]

This is the condition which changes most throughout the circulation system. Fluid, in laminar flow, moves as parallel layers and has a profile of changing velocity with distance from the walls. The Shear Rate is an average representation of the movement relationship of the layers

of fluid in a cross section of the flow path.

Viscosity (m)

A fluid’s internal resistance to flow (the shear stress at the shear rate). [Newton seconds per

square meter, or Poise]

Newtonian Fluids

The shear stress of the fluid is constantly proportional to the shear rate (t =m g).

Non-Newtonian Fluids

The shear stress of the fluid is not constantly proportional to the shear rate. There are a number

of different models and the key ones are discussed later in this Topic.

Pseudoplastic Fluids

Non-Newtonian fluid where the viscosity varies inversely to the shear rate; it is thinner at higher shear rates (“Shear Thinning”).

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Thixotropic Fluids

Time dependent viscosity. Such fluids exhibit a hysteresis (difference) between the shear stress/shear rate plot when applying and removing energy to the fluid. The degree of shift is often related to a realignment of particles with attractive tendencies.

Gel Strength

Thixotropic fluids often exhibit an increase of viscosity with time when at rest. In drilling fluid terminology this is referred to as the Gel Strength. [Newtons per square meter or Pascals]

Drilling Fluids

Figure 6.1.5 : Viscosity-time relationship for a thixotropic fluid

Figure 6.1.5 : Viscosity-time relationship for a thixotropic fluid

Rheopectic Fluids

Time dependant fluids exhibiting the opposite phenomenon to thixotropic fluids. Often high solids content slurries have rheopectic behaviour.

Yield Stress

The Shear Stress required to overcome internal inertial forces.

Turbulent Flow

Chaotic flow characterised by intense mixing caused by eddies.

Laminar Flow

Smooth flow that is devoid of disturbances such as eddies, characterised by parallel layer movement.

Reynolds Number (N Re )

The ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces. [dimensionless]. Commonly used to determine the velocity at which a fluid’s flow regime changes from laminar to turbulent.

1.3.3 DRILLING FLUID VISCOSITY MODEL

An analysis of the various viscosity requirements on the drilling fluid, throughout the circulating system, against the influencing conditions will give us a model of the ideal drilling fluid rheology.

VISCOSITY REQUIREMENTS FOR DRILLING

Inside the drill string the fluid is purely commuting to the bit. No constructive (or destructive) work is being done. At the high velocities required in the drill string, overcoming the fluid’s internal resistance to flow consumes a large proportion of the input pump energy. If the viscosity in this region can be kept to a minimum then this energy can be conserved and better used to assist drilling. The normal flow rate range in the drill string corresponds to a shear rate range of approximately 200 to 2,000 sec -1 .

At the bit the fluid is passing through small nozzles to generate higher velocities to impact onto the rock to assist drilling. The functions of the fluid at this point are to cool the bit, clean the bit, and remove the cuttings. The first two are a direct function of the velocity of the fluid, which can be maximised as a consequence of minimising energy losses in the drill string.

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Drilling Fluids

The third function is also influenced by the consistency of the fluid. If we imagine the action of a roller cone bit; it is making very fine microfractures in the rock. When these join up a cutting is generated. However the density of the fluid is normally maintained above that of the formation pressure (well control). This differential pressure holds the cutting in place. If the drilling fluid can permeate into the fractures it will equalise the pressures around the cutting and lubricate the surfaces to facilitate easier removal. With the high jet velocity created by the bit nozzle, the fluid exerts additional hydraulic force to assist in removing the cuttings. If the consistency of the drilling fluid is thick like that of honey it will not penetrate. If it is thin like water then the resistance to flow into the fractures is significantly lower. Thus a very low viscosity is required at the drilling face. The shear rate range involved is from 5,000 to 100,000 sec -1 .

Once the fluid commences its upwards journey the shear rate environment is dramatically reduced and the viscosity requirements are radically different. The generated cuttings must be efficiently removed from the hole. Their vertical transportation is a function of the uphole velocity of the fluid and their downward fall within that fluid (Stokes Law).

If the diameter of the drilled hole is enlarged (“washed out”) , and the fluid’s resistance to cuttings slip remains the same, then the transport efficiency will reduce, as shown in Table

6.1.5.

Table 6.1.5 : Transport efficiency

Hole Size

Annular fluid

Cuttings slip

Net Cuttings

Transport

velocity

velocity

velocity

efficiency

311

mm (12. 1 /4")

30

9

21

70%

387

mm (15. 1 /4")

18

9

9

50%

533 mm (21")

9

9

0

0%

To ensure consistent cuttings transport the fluid must be able to increase its resistance to the slippage of the cuttings inversely proportional to the fluid velocity. The annulus shear rate in the range of 5 to 100 sec -1 .

If the pumps are stopped then the uphole fluid velocity is zero. But the cuttings can continue to slip. They can accumulate around the drill string and stick the pipe. Thus, when at rest, the fluid must build a very high resistance to the cuttings settling. It is normally accepted that the shear rate around a particle in a viscous fluid at rest corresponds to a range of 0·1 - 1 sec -1 .

When the pumps are restarted we do not want the fluid to have an excessively high resistance to commence movement. This would be manifested as a high pressure at the bottom of the hole. This could be sufficient to overcome the strength of the rock and cause loss of whole fluid. Thus we want a minimum of thixotropy.

The profile of the velocity of the various parallel layers influences the way in which the cuttings are transported. If the profile is parabolic as in Newtonian fluids the cuttings will move outwards to the lower velocity layers, thus slowing their net velocity. If the profile is flatter (higher pseudoplasticity) the cuttings will tend to stay in the same position in the fluid for more efficient transportation.

If the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces exceeds a certain value (N Re 3,000 - 4,000) then the fluid flow will become turbulent. The magnitude of the transition point is controlled (proportionately) by the fluid’s ability to react to the rate of the imposed shear (pseudoplasticity).

Inhibiting invasion of fluid into a permeable zone is essential to protect the formation and facilitate higher quality well data. The viscosity of the fluid can be utilised to limit fluid loss (in addition to or in place of a filter cake). A thick fluid consistency will have a high resistance to flow along the permeation channels limiting the ability of the fluid to invade. However in the reservoir section, this fluid must be removed for maximum recovery of the hydrocarbons.

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Therefore the invading fluid, with its high resistance, needs to thin rapidly on the application of a greater force acting towards the borehole and flow easily out of the formation. The shear rates on entering a typical permeable sand formation are in the range of 0·01 to 0·5 sec -1 .

When the cuttings laden fluid reaches the surface, it must be rapidly processed to limit recycling of the drilled material. Due to the design of the fluid so far settling of the cuttings would take too long. Solids removal equipment utilise inertia, momentum and acceleration differences (due to mass differences between the fluid and the particles) to facilitate liquid/solid separation. Fluid resistance to the movement of the solids should be at a minimum. The processing equipment shear rate usually corresponds to the range of 200 to 5,000 sec -1 .

IDEAL MODEL

Analysing the viscosity requirements of the drilling fluid leads to an ideal model being:

Above 200 sec -1

-

minimum viscosity.

200 - 5 sec -1

-

a controlled viscosity inversely proportional with shear rate.

5 - 1 sec -1

-

a very high viscosity, easily thinning with an increase in the shear rate.

Below 1 sec -1

-

an ultra high viscosity, rapidly thinning with an increase in the shear rate.

OPTIMUM MODEL

Common drilling fluids do not behave on such an exacting basis. However most behave as pseudoplastic fluids. What is required is a best match viscosity profile to the ideal model established; an optimum model.

Figure 6.1.6 : Optimum viscosity model for a drilling fluid

Figure 6.1.6 : Optimum viscosity model for a drilling fluid

The optimum model is a viscosity profile where the viscosity at the higher shear rates is thinner and at the lower shear rates is ever increasing with a reduction in shear, without any hysteresis between the increasing and decreasing shear rate curves. This describes a fluid with rheological profile termed non- thixotropic, pseudoplastic.

This model forms the basis for the specification for the drilling fluid

rheology. Each hole section will have a specification that addresses the individual needs of the drilling operation and resultant product.

1.3.4 RHEOLOGICAL MODEL

Historically three methods have been commonly used to describe the viscous behaviour of a drilling fluid; the Marsh Funnel Viscosity, the Bingham Plastic Rheology Model and the Power Law Rheology Model.

MARSH FUNNEL VISCOSITY (MFV)

The Marsh Funnel Viscosity test measures the time taken for a unit volume of drilling fluid to flow through a standard tube section. The test has a number of limitations. It generates a high shear rate, in the range of 2,000 to 20,000 sec -1 , and provides only a single data point. Due to the complexity of drilling fluid composition it is not possible to extrapolate this data to other ranges of shear. Thus the MFV cannot be used to evaluate performance in those regions of the circulating system. In addition the primary controlling parameters vary throughout the test

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making detailed analysis highly complicated. However due to the simplicity and robustness of the Marsh Funnel it remains the most useful tool for quick, routine monitoring for change.

COAXIAL DIRECT READING VISCOMETER (VG METER, VISCOMETER OR RHEOMETER)

The VG meter is used to provide multiple data points to allow for more detailed analysis of the drilling fluid’s viscosity profile. The outer rotating sleeve speed can be varied to produce different shear rates in the annulus around the bob. Shear stress is measured by the deflection of the dial attached to the bob which is held by a spring of known resistance. The instrument configuration is such every 1° of deflection is 5·11 cP/sec -1 .

Figure 6.1.7 : Co-axial viscometer

Figure 6.1.7 : Co-axial viscometer

BINGHAM PLASTIC MODEL (PV & YP)

The Bingham Plastic Model describes a fluid which is Newtonian and has an initial yield stress. Mathematically the model can be represented as:

t = PV(g) + YP

The slope of the line (Newtonian viscosity region) is called the Plastic Viscosity (PV) and the intercept with the y axis (initial yield stress) is the Yield Point (YP). The model descriptors are calculated from two readings taken at 1,022 and 511 sec -1 (to give the data directly in viscosity units).

PV = [600 rpm Reading] - [300 rpm Reading] YP = [300 rpm Reading] - [PV]

As can be seen in Figure 6.1.8, the model does approximate the typical drilling fluid viscosity profile in the medium shear rate ranges and therefore can be used for interpretation in this region. The predominant factor affecting this part of the viscosity profile is the concentration of solids in the drilling fluid. The PV is a useful indicator of resistance in the drill string. The model deviates significantly in the lower shear rate range, corresponding to the annular regions. The YP is not a usable descriptor for interpretation of performance.

Figure 6.1.8 : Rheology model fits for common drilling fluid viscosity profile

Figure 6.1.8 : Rheology model fits for common drilling fluid viscosity profile

As MFV and PV are applicable for only medium and high shear rate ranges they are useful for a quick look evaluation but cannot be used to predict performance at the lower shear rates of the annulus region.

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POWER LAW MODEL (N & K)

The Power Law Model describes a fluid which is Non-Newtonian (Pseudoplastic) with no initial yield stress. Mathematically the model can be represented as:

t = K(g) n

or

m = K(g) n-1

When plotted on a log-log graph of viscosity versus shear rate it yields a straight line. The Flow Index ‘n’is the slope of the line (degree of pseudoplasticity). The Consistency Factor ‘K’is the vertical displacement of the line (thickness or consistency). The model descriptors are calculated from readings taken at 511 and 5.11 sec -1 . (one corresponding to the drill string and the other to the annulus).

n

= (Log [300 rpm Reading] - Log [3 rpm Reading])/2

K

= 5·11 x [300 rpm Reading] / 511 n

As can be seen in Figure 6.1.8 the model does approximate the typical drilling fluid viscosity profile at the lower shear rate ranges and therefore can be used for interpretation in this region. A lower ‘n’indicates a larger viscosity change with variations in shear and is primarily influenced by the type of viscosifier. ‘K’is the consistency of the fluid and is primarily influenced by the concentration of the viscosifier.

1.3.5 MODEL DESCRIPTION

The Power Law Model of rheology can be used to describe the key annular region parameters of the optimum model:

• sufficient carrying and suspension ability to remove the cuttings.

• a rate of viscosity change with shear variation sufficient to maintain effective hole cleaning. The PV of the Bingham Plastic Model is used when calculating pressure losses in the drill string.

DRILLING FLUID RHEOLOGY SPECIFICATION

Using a ranked list of objectives the design engineer must then determine what will be the ‘fit- for-purpose’rheology required. This, of course, will be influenced by many variables; including hole sizes, formations, data requirements, cementation requirements, rig equipment etc. However the two over-riding factors will be the transportation efficiency required and the cuttings settling rate when the fluid is acquiescent (not moving). Once these have been determined, ranges for the Power Law indices ‘n’and ‘K’can be derived.

These are the specifications which the fluids engineer will use to prepare and manage the rheology of the drilling fluid.

FIELD MONITORING

The essential factors in field management of drilling fluid rheology are:

• a quick recognition of any deviation from the specification.

• distinguishing the type and degree of non-conformance.

• identifying the probable cause of, and remedial action for, the change.

Therefore any monitoring procedure must produce a fair representation of the fluid in use against the optimum model established.

Neither of the two classic models fully represents the typical viscosity profile of a field used drilling fluid. More complicated models exist, however their interpretation is correspondingly more complex and other factors, such as instrument error and well irregularities, negate their practical use.

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The dial readings from the viscometer plotted directly onto a log-log graph give a visual representation of the viscosity profile of the drilling fluid. This representation can be easily compared against the fluid’s specification. Without calculation, the fluid can be qualitatively, and fairly reliably, assessed for its capacity to do the job. In addition, errors in reading the instrument are quickly spotted as the resultant graph will not be smooth. Quantification of performance using the graph derived data will be more accurate.

The key benefit of this system of rheology monitoring is the simplicity for field application of a very sophisticated, and relatively accurate representation of performance against the specification model. This is particularly useful when troubleshooting problems. The specific short falls can be easily identified and readily explained to anyone. Also when the fluid is blamed for an operational deficiency, its performance in that region of shear rate can be clearly and visibly assessed.

FIELD APPLICATION

Product Performance

Having identified the optimum model of viscosity required, then available viscosifiers can be evaluated functionally for performance and then economically to select the most fit-for-purpose material.

Using the plot, functional efficiency is evaluated against the optimum model. A material’s strong and weak points can be properly compared with other materials. After eliminating poor performance material the remaining contenders can be economically evaluated by comparing the cost to prepare a fluid with a specific consistency.

Problem Analysis

Figure 6.1.9 : Direct viscosity plot

Figure 6.1.9 : Direct viscosity plot

When a change in viscosity is identified (say through a change in MFV) the specific region of variation can be easily identified and assessed. This will direct the engineer to the right area for remedial action. Having identified the area for corrective treatment, and having an evaluation of materials available he can formulate an effective treatment.

Pilot Testing

The engineer can pre-test the potential impact of a treatment by pilot testing and comparing the two plots. This will also give him an assessment of how much material will be needed to return the fluid to specification.

1.3.6

CONCLUSION

The MFV is useful to monitor for change. The Bingham Plastic and Power Law Models should only be used as a quick look analysis. They should not be used as specification parameters, performance indicators nor as the basis for assessing non-conformance or recommending remedial treatments.

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The direct plot of the fluid viscosity versus the shear rate is a more reliable drilling fluid management tool.

• It provides a specification the drilling fluid that targets operational performance.

• Rheology modifiers can be logically chosen based upon true performance and economics.

• Non-conformance can be properly assessed and remedial treatments verified.

The more readings that can be taken (i.e. Fann 6 or 9 speed) the more accurate will be the evaluation.

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1.4.1 INTRODUCTION

Managing the effective use of available hydraulic energy to assist hole excavation is a key factor in drilling optimisation.

IMPACT FORCE (I.F.)

The bit nozzles provide a high energy jet to:

• inject fluid into the microfractures to equalise pressure around, and apply hydraulic lift to, the cuttings.

• flush away the newly made cuttings from the drilling face.

• blast the bit teeth and cutters to keep them clean.

• circulate heat away from the high energy areas of the bit (cutters and bearings)

Maximising the Impact Force (I.F.) and Crossflow Velocity are the key factors in optimising bit hydraulics.

EQUIVALENT CIRCULATING DENSITY (E.C.D.)

Energy is consumed in circulating the fluid up the annulus. This manifests itself as an additional pressure effect on the bottom of the hole. This pressure could exceed the strength of a weak formation resulting in a fracture and loss of integrity.

MANAGING ANNULAR VELOCITIES

A minimum velocity is required for efficient cuttings removal and a maximum velocity is set to avoid erosion of weak formations.

CALCULATION ACCURACY

The pressure drop calculations for the bit nozzles are normally accurate. Calculated pressure drops in the drill string are also generally within acceptable limits. However calculating pressure drops in the annulus are subject to many indeterminable variables, such as hole size, wall roughness and downhole fluid viscosity.

1.4.2 OPTIMISATION THEORY

OBJECTIVE

To optimise the application of input hydraulic energy at the bit to assist hole excavation whilst maintaining the other circulation criteria.

CONTROLLING FACTORS

Minimum & Maximum Flow Rate

The maximum flow rate is dictated by two factors:

• avoiding hole erosion,

• controlling the total pressure in the annulus acting on the formation at its weakest point.

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Up to a certain shear rate the viscosity of the fluid can control the fluid flow to discrete laminae moving in one direction (Laminar Flow). Above this shear rate, excess internal friction begins to create random disorder causing eddies to develop (Transitional Flow). At higher shear rates greater disruption occurs (Turbulent Flow). In practice it is considered that this transition is demarcated by a Reynold’s Number (N Re ) of 3,000.

It is desirable to keep the fluid in laminar flow in the annulus as an essentially non-moving layer against the borehole wall will act as a protective barrier against erosion. In turbulent flow, the random action of the fluid disrupts this layer and impinges directly upon the formation.

Therefore the maximum flow rate should be less than transition to turbulent flow (Critical

Velocity; V c ).

The loss of energy in circulating the fluid up the annulus manifests itself as a pressure drop (P a ) which acts on the bottom of the hole; in addition to the pressure due to the Hydrostatic Head of the column of the fluid (P m ). The total effective pressure (ECD) should not exceed the pressure at which the formation fractures and takes fluid ingress (Equivalent Maximum Mud Gradient or Leak Off Pressure). This limit will be derived from offset well experience or a Leak-Off Test. In certain circumstances, such as deep, slim and high pressure drilling, the maximum circulation rate may be governed by an ECD ceiling.

The minimum flow rate will be determined by the required hole cleaning efficiency.

As a rule of thumb the minimum V a should be >2 times the V s. Refer also to the Well Engineers Notebook, page E-5.

Surface Pressure Limitations

The surface equipment of the rig has a maximum working pressure rating. Normally the contractor does not like to exceed 85% of this as maintenance requirements dramatically increase.

Thus there is a maximum pressure that can be applied to the circulation of the drilling fluid.

Friction Losses in the Circulating System

Energy is consumed in overcoming frictional resistance to moving the fluid around the circulation system. The drilling fluid design should target reducing these losses to an acceptable range that allows sufficient energy to be available to assist drilling progress.

Input data inaccuracies preclude individual assessment of these pressure losses. In addition they are all non-productive. Therefore, for the purposes of optimising energy application at the bit they can be regarded as a single entity.

Minor changes in a drilling assembly will not normally have a significant effect on P s , the system losses (ie all the downhole pressure losses with the exception of those across the bit). However adjustment for some downhole tools, such as turbines or mud-motors, can be made with the manufacturer’s data.

Bit Nozzles - Total Flow Area

Having determined the limitations and controlling factors, the complete circulating system can then be evaluated to select the bit nozzles that maximise the amount of energy that can be directed to the bit.

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1.4.3 OPTIMISING PROCESS

GRAPHICAL METHOD

A graphical process for optimising bit hydraulics is:

1) Determine the operating limits:

• Maximum pump rate based upon maintaining laminar flow in the annulus or limiting the ECD.

• Minimum pump rate to ensure adequate hole cleaning.

• Maximum allowable surface pressure.

2) Determine the available pressure drops at the bit versus the pump rate:

• At the end of a bit run, record the circulating pressures (P t ) at three pump rates (Q); these should be spread across the working range for the hole (also applicable to the Well Control Worksheet).

• For each flow rate calculate the pressure drop across the bit nozzles or TFA (P b )

• Subtract P b from P t to determine the remaining ‘system’pressure loss (P s ).

• confirm the actual nozzles when the bit is recovered.

3) Create a graph with the operating limits:

• On log-log paper draw a boundary line at the minimum and maximum (annular velocity) pump rates.

• Draw a boundary line for the maximum allowable surface pressure.

• Plot the total circulation pressures (P t ) against pump rates.

• At the intercept with the maximum surface pressure draw a boundary line for the maximum pump rate; if lower than the previous maximum allowable (annular velocity) flow rate.

4) Create a plot of the ‘system’pressure losses versus pump rate.

• Plot the determined P s against the respective circulation rates.

• Draw a line through the ‘system’losses inside the operating limits.

• This line can be subsequently interpolated/extrapolated for any circulating rate.

5) Plot the design criteria line:

• Maximum I.F. occurs when DP s = ±0·5DP t

6) Determine the optimum pump rate.

• Intercept of the ‘system’pressure loss with the design criteria line.

• If the intercept is outside of a boundary limit then review the limit, drilling fluid properties or design criteria and determine the required pump rate as appropriate for the operation.

7) Calculate the total flow area to achieve the optimum or available pressure drop at the bit.

• Subtract P s at the optimum required flow rate from the maximum allowable surface pressure.

• Use the Well Engineer’s Notebook, page E-3, to calculate the total flow area required through the nozzles.

8) Determine the nozzles required to approximate the flow.

• Use the table on page E-4 of the Well Engineers Notebook to choose the nozzles which give a flow area closest to the calculated area.

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• If the nozzles are below a minimum size (to avoid plugging off) then re-examine the flow properties to increase the transition flow rate (V c ) to allow an increase in the pumping rate or reduce P s .

• Alternatively blanking off one nozzle can allow smaller flow areas with larger jets.

CALCULATION METHOD

The Well Engineers Notebook (page E-3/4) contains all the necessary equations for optimising bit hydraulic horsepower or jet impact force by means of calculations.

1.4.4 ROUTINE MONITORING

Periodic monitoring is restricted to analysing the ECD to ensure well integrity and maintain pressure control.

As stated previously annular pressure drop calculations are inappropriate due to input data inaccuracy. The most practical method to determine the ECD is to calculate the drill string and bit hydraulics and subtract them from a reasonably accurate standpipe pressure (choke gauge). Direct calculations should only be used in critical cases and must be properly calibrated against measured total annulus pressure losses.

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1.5.1 INTRODUCTION

An unstable borehole can pose major problems for the drilling, and subsequent, operations:

• Fill on trips increasing the drilling time and reducing bit life.

• Swelling formations producing tight hole.

• Hole washout compromising cementation.

• Caving formations that may result in stuck pipe.

There are many symptoms but there only a few causes of borehole instability. The key to effective problem solving is identification and treatment of the source, not the effect. Details of the various preventative or remedial actions are covered in subsequent Subtopics.

1.5.2 HOLE EROSION

CAUSE

Hole erosion results from the hydraulic impact on formations with poor inter-grain cementation. Generally it is caused by turbulent fluid flow in the annulus or excessive circulation in one place with the bit off bottom.

IMPACT

The annular fluid velocity will be reduced in enlarged hole sections. If the drilling fluid is not highly pseudoplastic, the cuttings can concentrate in this area. Eventually they may form a ‘mud ring’or ball of agglomerated cuttings, which in severe cases can lead to hole pack-off and stuck pipe.

Many logging tools require contact with the borehole wall. If the washout is irregular the tool contact will be intermittent giving poor data. If the hole is excessively large the tool may not even contact the wall. Ledges may cause the logging tools to hang-up.

During well killing operations if a gas bubble encounters a washout it will expand laterally and the height will reduce proportionately, changing the hydrostatic pressure. If it re-enters a near gauge portion, the opposite will happen. Choke control will need to be accurate and rapid to maintain the bottom hole pressure constant.

Ledges may hold up casing, particularly in deviated holes. Good cementing practice requires turbulent flow to ensure proper drilling fluid removal. Large washed out sections may cause the flow to become laminar and induce channelling or poor drilling fluid removal. Eddies in the flow may cause entrapment of drilling fluid pockets in the cement.

PREVENTION

Keep the flow regime laminar, where possible. Maintain highly pseudoplastic rheology

(n<0·5); the critical Reynold’s Number is inversely proportional to the flow Index ‘n’.

High low shear rate viscosity has been successfully used to resist movement of loose

formation grains. Along with the reduced flow rate requirements this makes an excellent fluid for unconsolidated formations.

Minimise circulating off bottom. Always reciprocate the pipe a full kelly length. When

circulating bottoms up, remove one or two pipe joints half way through so as to relocate the

impact area.

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In silty formations examine the possibility of water sensitive clays causing further

destabilisation. If suspected, test with small treatments of inhibiting chemicals or polymers.

Use of K + to combat such instability has proven detrimental in some areas. Lattice collapse is thought to lead to mechanical instability. One such area is in the northern region of the Malay Basin.

CURE

None. Once the problem has manifested itself the only action is careful planning for subsequent activities.

1.5.3 SWELLING SHALE

CAUSE

Swelling shale is the plastic deformation into the wellbore of high water content shales. This often occurs in the younger formations in the upper hole sections. It is the result of water imbibition by a smectitic shale. In deep, older, formations it is caused by entrapped fluids (abnormal pressure).

IMPACT

The annular diameter is reduced. The drill string, logging tools and casing may not easily pass through. Increased annular friction pressure losses may raise the ECD above the fracture pressure for a lower

PREVENTION

Ensure that the fluid pressure gradient is higher than that of the formation.

For the younger clays, evaluate an inhibitor to mitigate water imbibition effect. Cl - , Ca ++ and PO 4 --- generally prove effective. The reaction rate of K + is too slow. Encapsulating polymers are ineffective in stopping water imbibition over a long period; though they may assist in maintaining cuttings integrity.

CURE

If the problem is not underbalanced drilling fluid density, apply an inhibitor. Increase

dosage gradually and observe reaction. If no effect is noted, a long chain encapsulating polymer may assist in the short term.

The problem is most easily handled if water imbibition is controlled from the outset. Once it has started it is generally very difficult to control or reverse.

1.5.4 SPALLING SHALE

CAUSE

Spalling shale is caused by the formation pressure exceeding the drilling fluid hydrostatic pressure; P f > P m The rock’s low permeability resists pressure equalisation. If the differential is higher than the tensile strength the rock will fail by ‘exploding’into the wellbore. The spalled pieces are often long and twisted; like shrapnel.

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IMPACT

Apart from hole enlargement, covered above, spalling can have a major impact on drilling. Large pieces can quickly build up in the annulus and can pack-off around the larger diameters (i.e. stabilisers and bit); blocking circulation and sticking the pipe .

PREVENTION

underbalanced drilling is being undertaken, the borehole pressure should always be higher than the formation pressure. If not, then a kick would result if a porous and permeable zone is penetrated.)

Ensure that the fluid pressure gradient is higher than that of the formation. (Except when

CURE

Raise the drilling fluid density. Examine the cuttings on the shakers for confirmation of the effect of the treatment. Be aware, however, of the fracture pressure limit.

1.5.5 SLOUGHING SHALE

CAUSE

Sloughing shale is caused by brittle failure resulting from differential rock stress. This can be due to tectonic activity or deviation of the well bore from vertical. The rock can fail in either tension or compression depending upon the orientation of the stresses to the wellbore wall. The sloughed pieces tend to be slivers or flat shapes for tensile failure and block shapes for compressive failure.

IMPACT

Comparable with spalling shale.

PREVENTION

The drilling fluid hydrostatic cannot fully oppose the maximum rock stress. However

maintaining a positive pressure overbalance against the formation pressure will help to hold the failed rock pieces in place.

Wellbore fluid communication with the pore fluid will raise the near wellbore pore

pressure and negate the differential effect. Pore isolation techniques such as TAME (Thermally Activated Mud Emulsion) or IOES (Invert Oil Emulsion Systems) will maintain the differential effect.

In some formations water imbibition can accelerate destabilisation. If suspected, test with small treatments of inhibiting chemicals, generally Cl - and K + .

CURE

The problem is most easily handled if a positive overbalance is maintained from the outset. Once sloughing has started it can be very difficult to control or reverse.

Slowly raising the fluid density can maintain a positive differential for a longer period.

Apply pore isolating techniques; TAME or IOES.

If the problem is not underbalanced pressure, apply an inhibitor. Increase dosage

gradually and observe reaction. If no effect is noted a long chain encapsulating polymer may assist in the short term.

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1.5.6 SALT FORMATIONS

CAUSE

Salt formations can cause problems as a result of wellbore instability through plastic deformation or dissolution by undersaturated water based fluids.

EFFECT

Plastic deformation results in a reduced wellbore size while dissolution causes hole washout.

PREVENTION

Sufficient fluid density to resist plastic flow; for the period needed to drill and case off the section.

Use a saturated salt water based drilling fluid or an inert IOES.

CURE

If the problem is not severe, use the preventative measures above.

Plastically deformed salt can be washed out with an undersaturated brine.

There is no cure for washed out salt sections – these cannot be replaced.

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1.6.1 INTRODUCTION

The vast majority of formations drilled are marine, clastic (sedimentary) formations. The bulk of these are mudstones and shales, which are predominantly composed of clay. Therefore it is helpful to know something about the basic chemistry, composition and reactive nature of these minerals.

1.6.2 CLAY TYPES

GENERAL COMPOSITION

The normally encountered clays are similar in composition and structure. They are formed by the weathering of igneous minerals. They are then transported by the streams and rivers and deposited in lakes, swamps and the seas. Burial compacts them into sedimentary rocks.

Each clay lattice is made up of two sheets of silica tetrahedra with a central sheet of alumina

octahedra. The tips of the tetrahedra point towards the centre of the lattice, and with one of the hydroxyls of the octahedral sheet form a common layer. The lattices are continuous in the x and

y directions (horizontal plane) and are stacked one above the other in the z direction (vertical).

The O -- layers of each tetrahedra base are adjacent to O -- layers of the neighbouring lattice, with the consequence that there is a weak bond and an excellent cleavage plane between them. In between the lattices, bound water is oriented such that the two hydrogens face each layer of oxygens.

Differences between the various clays encountered are primarily due to substitution of the aluminium in the central octahedral layer and silica in the outer tetrahedral layers by other multivalent cations. This creates a charge imbalance which is compensated by adsorbed exchange of cations in the interlattice zone. Chlorite is the

exception in that the interlattice zone is filled with

a further molecular sheet structure.

Figure 6.1.10 : Clay lattice building blocks

Figure 6.1.10 : Clay lattice building blocks

DIAGENESIS

Diagenesis is the sequence of increasing modification (diagenesis), through this substitution and exchange.

Feldspar

Smectite Mixed Layer Clay (a smectite to illite graduation) Illite

(source mineral for weathering)

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Muscovite

Conversion to the next clay group in the sequence is catalysed by increasing input energy from the depth of burial and geothermal heat. The sequence is marked by a reduction from high reactivity, to water and ion exchange, to inert interlattice activity. This is a result of the ever decreasing interlattice separation and the binding effect of the Potassium (K + ), which ‘fixes’adjacent clay platelets into their most stable condition.

Drilling Fluids

Figure 6.1.11 : Clay diagenesis cycle

Figure 6.1.11 : Clay diagenesis cycle

Smectite (Montmorillonite, Bentonite)

Slight substitution in the clay lattice results in about 0·66 anionic (-ve) charge of per cell unit. This is balanced by exchangeable cations (+ve) adsorbed between the unit layers.

Figure 6.1.12 : Smectite clay structure

Figure 6.1.12 : Smectite clay structure

A main feature of the smectite group is the

wide interlattice gap and weak bonding. Water and other polar molecules can enter between

the unit layers and cause the lattice to expand

in the z direction. The interlattice dimension

varies from 9·6 Å to complete separation.

The interlattice cations are loosely bound and can be readily exchanged; with the replacement power ranking of Li<Na<K<Ca<Mg<Al.

The two main exchangeable cations are Na + and Ca ++ . The multivalent cation smectite is less reactive with water. Calcium more readily exchanges with sodium than sodium replaces calcium. This phenomenon is used in drilling fluid design for stabilising smectite clay sections.

The Potassium ion is unique in that its hydrated size, and co-ordination properties, fit exactly into the basal oxygen sheet of the tetrahedral layer. When exchanged for the other cations the interlattice distance

decreases to the minimum height, the potassium is very difficult to remove and the lattices are essentially fixed. This is the final stage in the diagenesis of smectite to illite.

This phenomenon is used to stabilise clays that have been exposed to sufficient pressure and temperature for diagenesis, but where the original depositional environment was deficient in potassium (i.e. lacustrine).

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Illite

Illite is a transitional stage in the diagenesis of smectite to muscovite. The lattice structure is the same as smectite except that there is a higher degree of substitution of Al +++ for Si ++++ . The charge deficiency is increased to 1·3 – 1·5 per unit cell, mostly in the silica sheets and therefore closer to the surface. K + is the fixed interlattice cation.

Because of these differences, the illite lattices are relatively fixed in position, so that polar ions cannot enter readily between them and cause expansion. Thus they are not very sensitive to water.

The traditional shale classification (after Mondshine) shown in Table 6.1.6 clearly shows the diagenetic trend. With increasing burial, the water content

Figure 6.1.13 : Illite-Muscovite clay structure

Figure 6.1.13 : Illite-Muscovite clay structure

decreases, the density increases, the salinity rises and the amount of reactive (high Cation Exchange Capacity) clay decreases. Exceptions are formations with abnormal pressures (high water content and porosity) and where the original deposition environment was deficient in potassium (high CEC).

Table 6.1.6 : Shale classification

 

This classification can be used to broadly categorise shales into different inhibition requirements, as shown in Table

   

Water

Density

Salinity

CEC

 

Texture

 

content

 

%

g/cc

 

g/l

meq/100g

 
 

1 70-25

1.2-1.5

>20

20-40

 

Soft

 

2 25-15

1.5-2.2

20-60

10-20

 

Firm

 

3 15-5

2.2-2.5

40-100

3-10

 

Hard

6.1.7.

 

4 5-2

2.5-2.7

60-330

0-3

 

Brittle

 

5 10-2

2.3-2.7

40-250

5-20

Firm-Hard

   

Table 6.1.7 : Shale inhibition requirements

   

Instability Mechanism

 

Stabilising Requirements

 

1

Rapid hydration, swelling and dispersion

Chemical change

2

Hydration, slight swelling, spalling

Isolation from water, chemical retarding.

3

Slight hydration, spalling, tectonic stress

Isolation, differential pressure

4

Tectonic stress

 

Differential pressure

5

Hydration, spalling

 

Isolation from water, chemical diagenesis

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

CHLORITE

Chlorite is a mixed layer clay derived from the different source minerals. The structure is basically the same as the other clays except that in between the mica layers is a free floating alumina octahedral ‘brucite’layer. The deficiency charge on the talc layers is balanced by the excess charge on the brucite sheet. The bonding between the sheets is partly electrostatic and partly due to adjacent sheets of oxygen and hydroxyl ions. The fixed nature of the structure precludes adsorption of dipolar molecules.

Thus it is non-reactive to water.

KAOLINITE

Kaolinite has a slightly different structure. It is a two layer type which is equi-dimensional in the x and y directions. The charges within the lattice are balanced. Hence there are no adsorbed interlattice ions and it is non-expanding.

Thus it is non-reactive to water.

Drilling Fluids

Figure 6.1.14 : Chlorite clay structure

Figure 6.1.14 : Chlorite clay structure

Figure 6.1.15 : Kaolinite clay structure

Figure 6.1.15 : Kaolinite clay structure

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Drilling Fluids

TTOOPPIICC 11 77

IINNHHIIBBIITTIIOONN

1.7.1 INHIBITING CHEMICALS

INTRODUCTION

There are three approaches to stopping the clay formations deteriorating upon contact with the drilling fluid:

• slow down the clay-water reaction or render the clay inert (inhibiting chemicals).

• limit the penetration into the shales (polymers, asphaltenes and polyglycols)

• render the drilling fluid inert (invert oil emulsion systems)

In the younger shales the main destabilising mechanism is dispersion of the clay lattices by penetration of water into the interlattice zone. Limiting water penetration in these formations is difficult due to their rapid reaction rate. Using IOES is generally not economic due to the large volumes required and the potential for downhole losses. The main stabilising mechanism is the use of inhibitive chemicals.

CATION EXCHANGE

General

The interlayer cations, which control the dispersion of clay lattices, are exchangeable. Many factors influence this reaction.

The replacing power of the common cations is Na + <K + <Ca ++ <Mg ++ <NH 4 + . The exchange is stoichiometric and the laws of mass action hold. Increased concentration of the replacing cation results in greater exchange. The ease of release depends not only on the ion, but also upon the other ions filling the remainder of the exchange positions. Replaceability varies with the nature of the anions present in the solution; Ca ++ in the hydroxyl form is more available for exchange than the sulphate variety. The pH dramatically affects the reaction. Fixation of the exchange cations varies with the size of ions of the same valence. For ions of equal valence, those that are the least hydrated have the greatest energy of replacement. K + fits into the basal oxygen sheet and remains fixed. The internal clay structure also plays an important role.

With so many influencing factors, predicting the response of a particular shale is potentially unreliable. In exploration drilling the estimate will generally be reliant upon experience in surrounding areas. In development drilling, cores (albeit sidewall cores) are available and should be tested to determine the most effective solution. Recovered cuttings cannot be used as they will have already undergone some alteration.

Chloride

Highly ionic solutions, particularly those with monovalent anions severely reduce the rate of water imbibition by smectite clays. The most common, and most economical, is chloride (Cl - ); usually as common salt, NaCl. In offshore applications this is readily available (and free) from the sea water (20,000 mg/l).

Calcium

The Ca ++ smectite is considerably less reactive to water than the Na + variety. Ca ++ preferentially replaces Na + . Common sources of calcium are: CaCl 2 , Ca(OH) 2 [lime] and CaSO 4 .2H 2 O [gyp].

Calcium drilling fluids are more difficult to run as most common additives adversely react with divalent ions; there are some tolerant materials available. High calcium systems, in conjunction

W181 – Preparation for the Wellsite

Drilling Fluids

with high temperatures and hydro-aluminium silicates (clays), can form a type of cement, rendering the drilling fluid irretrievably solid.

Magnesium

Mg ++ reacts similarly to Ca ++ . However many more additives are adversely sensitive to Mg ++ .

Potassium

A primary agent in the diagenesis of smectite to illite/muscovite. The process is normally slow

(geological time) and requires high energy (pressure and heat). However in some cases (K + deficient deposition environments) the reaction does progress fast enough to be beneficial. Commonly K + is provided by KCl.

K + activity can be negated by high concentrations of Na + . K + varieties of common fluid additives, such as KOH and K 2 CO 3 , are available. When using sea water, ensure sufficient K + concentration to exceed that of the Na + .

Once fashionable were Potassium-Lime/Gyp systems. It was theorised that first the Ca ++ would convert the reactive Na + smectite to the low reactive type and then the slower reacting K + would then convert the smectite to sub-illite. Exchange chemistry indicates that this cannot happen.

KOH has been promoted as a stabiliser for reactive clays. However, the OH - radical is the prime clay dispersive element; therefore this reaction is dubious.

Phosphate

Complexing of the phosphate anion with the exchangeable cations can preclude cation exchange and water imbibition. The most commonly employed forms are PO 4 - or P 2 O 7 - . Bit balling additives are phosphate surfactants. Most phosphates have a temperature limit of 65°C; though Na 2 HPO 2 can be used up to ±200°C.

Other Compounds

Periodically other chemicals are investigated or promoted. The reactions, and any side effects, should be thoroughly investigated before field testing.

1.7.2 INHIBITING POLYMERS

In the more competent shales the naturally low permeability resists ingress of water, within the

time frame of drilling the section, and the shales are usually composed of the less reactive Illite. The main destabilising mechanism is differential tectonic stress.

The drilling fluid cannot permanently protect the formation against this deterioration. However it can mitigate the effect by providing a restraining differential pressure to hold the failed pieces in place. To maintain this protection until casing point the fluid must resist pressure equalisation into the shale for that length of time.

Cuttings from these formations also need protection from the annular environment. They are subjected to considerable force and abrading action in their journey. Maintaining them at the largest possible size facilitates easier and earlier removal at the surface. This protection must be rapid as the cuttings are being attacked immediately they are released from the bottom of the hole.

ENCAPSULATING POLYMERS

Coating the exposed clay edges at the well bore wall with high molecular weight polymers to slow down or try and repel the water is not effective. Such materials are too large to effectively stop pressure transmission.

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Drilling Fluids

The limited success reported in the field is attributed to a mechanical binding effect from these highly adsorptive materials or to other mechanisms in the system, such as increased pseudoplasticity.

Table 6.1.8 : Comparative molecular sizes

Material

Size (Å)

Material

Size (Å)

Pore throat

10–50

Salts

1–5

Low m.wt.

5–50

High m.wt.

50–500

polymers

polymers

Bentonite

10,000

Barytes

>10,000

Encapsulating polymers can provide sufficient protection to the cuttings to allow them to be transported to the surface. Application is limited to the shales that produce actual cuttings during drilling (medium to hard). The soft shales mechanically disintegrate too easily, and every small particle of shale will take up polymer. This consumes expensive material for no benefit in keeping the particles together.

PAC (Poly Anionic Cellulose)

PAC is a modified CMC. It is a relatively long chain polymer that is Poly Anionically charged.

PHPA (Partially Hydrolysed Polyacrylate/Amide)

PHPA is a synthetic long chain copolymer based upon acrylic acid. The side chains are highly anionic.

HYDROPHOBIC POLYMERS

These materials are anionic asphaltene like substances. Application is limited to high temperature wells where they can soften and bond to the borehole walls. Like encapsulating polymers, they do not stop pore pressure penetration. Their limited success in certain areas is attributed to a mechanical binding effect.

BLOCKING AGENTS

TAME (Thermally Activated Mud Emulsion)

Outside of invert oil emulsion systems the only available material to effectively block the pore throats and stop pressure transmission are polyglycols.

These molecules are normally soluble in a drilling fluid at surface conditions. When the temperature passes a critical point, the polyglycols change to an insoluble phase; this transition is called the cloud point. The resultant micro-gels are large enough to block the shale pore throats and stop pressure transmission.

The transition temperature can be regulated with the choice of polyglycol and salinity of the base water to match the cloud point with the formation temperature. The polymer then penetrates the pore throat, heats up, comes out of solution and blocks further penetration.

1.7.3 INHIBITIVE SYSTEMS

DESIGN

Having decided to use an inhibiting system, selection then proceeds to satisfy all the criteria to drill the well.

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Drilling Fluids

Selection Criteria

In addition to those already discussed, other performance criteria are:

• Fluid Invasion

- Minimum petrophysical log interference

- Minimum reservoir impact

• Filter Cake

• Lubricity

Minimise differential sticking

Minimum drilling energy loss

The drilling fluid must also satisfy some common requirements, such as:

• Environmental

• Temperature

• Compatibility

• Contamination

• Ease of use

• No Lumping

• Rapid mixing

Non toxic and safe

Tolerant to the expected downhole & surface temperatures

No adverse reaction with other additives

Tolerant of expected contaminants

Minimum manpower

Maximum utilisation

Fast preparation in emergency

Selection Process

Each phase is analysed. The fluid properties are investigated to determine the performance levels required. Additives are compared against the models. The economics of the various products are then evaluated to select the optimum fluid for the well.

TYPICAL FORMULATIONS

The salt polymer systems follow the same basic make-up. Typical components are: hardness sequestrant, inhibiting salt, viscosifier, encapsulating polymer, filter cake polymer, hydroxide, defoamer, biocide, lubricant (high angle directional only), anti-scalant, corrosion protection, weighting material and oxygen scavenger.

Saltwater Polymer

Upper hole sections where hole stability is from type 1 and 2 shales and uncemented formations.

• Inhibiting Salt

- NaCl (low concentrations)

- CaCl2 (low concentrations)

- Phosphate (low concentrations) for bit balling.

• Pore Fluid Isolation

- Polyglycol

• Viscosifier

- Bentonite

- CMC Hi Vis (upper sections)

- Xanthan Gum (lower critical sections)

• Encapsulator

- PAC (type 2 shale only)

- PHPA (type 2 shale only)

• Filter cake

- Bentonite (uncemented formations)

- Stabilised starch

- CMC Lo Vis

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Drilling Fluids

pH

-

Caustic Soda (NaOH)

Salt Polymer

Type 2, 3 and 4 shales. Additives in addition, or alternative to, those listed for the saltwater- polymer system:

• Inhibiting Salt

- NaCl (up to saturation)

• Viscosifier

- Xanthan Gum

KCl Polymer

Type 5 shales. Additives in addition, or alternative to, those listed for the salt-polymer system:

• Inhibiting Salt

-

KCl

(

(10 to 15 % for sea water based)

3 to

7 % for freshwater based)

• pH Caustic Potash (KOH)

There are many individual variations depending upon the specific goals to be achieved, the conditions prevailing and the economics of the operation. The above are purely meant as typical guidelines.

ENGINEERING

The key to successfully drilling unstable ground is maintaining stable properties and composition.

In addition the system must be adaptable to variances from the original hypotheses. Unless

permanently converted , any potentially troublesome formation will revert to being problematic if the stabilising mechanism is diluted or removed. Most fluid designs are based upon what will probably happen, some on what might happen, but very few upon what will happen. Thus the engineer must be aware of changes in the formation and its relation to the drilling fluid. If a change is observed or if the fluid is not inhibiting the formation sufficiently he must adjust the right parameters accordingly.

A key requirement for effective management of the inhibitive drilling fluid is single function

additives. Individual properties can then be adjusted without interference to the other properties.

This is essential for maintaining overall efficiency.

Monitoring Performance

The key to proper engineering of the inhibited fluid is being able to recognise the indicators of a problem.

Penetration rate

The penetration rate can be an indicator of increased porosity in a shale section due to abnormal pressure.

Cuttings and Cavings

The cuttings being screened at the shakers are a primary indicator of what is happening downhole.

Class 1 shales

Poor quality cuttings.

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Drilling Fluids

Class 2 shales

Good sized, though soft, cuttings when properly inhibited.

Class 3 shales

Hard cuttings when properly inhibited.

Class 4 shales

Very hard. These generally cannot be broken with the finger nail.

Class 5 shales

Good firm cuttings when properly inhibited.

Shape and size

Long teeth rock bits and PDC’s give big cuttings, carbide buttons give small chips, diamonds give very small cuttings. The driller is a good reference on this subject. Long slivers indicate geopressure. Blocks indicate stress compressive failure, slivers or flat shape tensile failure.

Volume

An increase in the amount of cuttings could indicate a higher ROP, improved cutting inhibition, deterioration of the borehole , or a slug of poorly transported cuttings.

A

decrease could indicate increased borehole inhibition, increasing dispersion

of

the formation, or decreasing transport efficiency.

Hole Conditions

Tight hole and excessive torque indicate either that the hole is less than gauge, or poor cuttings removal. Reduced gauge can be due to swelling of water sensitive young clays or geopressured plastic formations, whilst poor cuttings removal is due to poor hole cleaning.

Background Gas

In abnormally pressured formations extra gas is contained in the larger porosity.

Bottoms up lag time

Any washed out or undergauge sections will affect the circulation time.

Drilling fluid Properties

Several drilling fluid properties can give an insight into the effect of the fluid on hole stability.

An increase in fine solids may indicate dispersion of the formation clays.

If KCl is being employed the take-up of K + by the formation can be interpreted by analysing plots of the K + and Cl - concentrations . If the K + is being consumed the plots will diverge with an increasing Cl - . If the plots are parallel then no K + is being taken out of the system.

Property Control and Adjustment

An inhibited drilling fluid should be designed where each major property is controlled with a single function additive. The make up will generally be:

• Viscosifier

• Inhibiting Chemical

• Encapsulating Polymer

• Filtrate Reducing Agent

• Weighting Material

Replacement volume, for new hole drilled, should be with whole, prepared fluid. This will minimise variations to properties resulting from addition variations.

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Drilling Fluids

TTOOPPIICC 11 88

IINNVVEERRTT OOIILL EEMMUULLSSIIOONN SSYYSSTTEEMM

1.8.1 INTRODUCTION

A non aqueous fluid in contact with a water sensitive clay will not have the problem of

interaction and dispersion of the lattices. An immiscible liquid will have a capillary resistance to flow into the minute pore throats of the shale, thus resisting pore pressure penetration. Therefore a drilling fluid based upon an oil medium can resist borehole instability from both of these mechanisms.

1.8.2 THEORY

It is not practical to use an all oil drilling fluid. In any drilling operation there are numerous

sources of water; including released connate water. Encapsulated, high salinity water has an osmotic interaction with the shale. This reduces the desire to imbibe water. Thus the invert oil emulsion system (IOES) was developed.

The encapsulated water must be evenly disseminated and emulsified to resist coalescence. The emulsifier is a surfactant (a fatty acid soap) that makes the surface of the water droplet oil wet and repellent to water. {Oil in water emulsifiers work in the opposite way by making oil droplets water wet and repellent to oil.}

This barrier acts as a semi-permeable membrane. It is selective in allowing the passage of water without allowing any of the dissolved salts to pass. The clays in the formations being drilled contain interlayer water. The encapsulated water is made more saline than the connate water. By the process of osmosis it pulls water from the formation. This negates the desire of the newly drilled rock to ‘sponge’up fluid from the drilling fluid.

IOES have a low coefficient of friction due to the natural lubricating properties of the base oil. This can be advantageous in high angle wells. They are particularly efficient and cost effective on multi-well platforms and sites where the fluid can be reconditioned and reused.

IOES is not preferred on exploration wells as the oil interferes with visual hydrocarbon spotting, gas chromatography and a number of the normally used logging parameters.

The primary disadvantages with IOES is the cost of the base oil and the environmental impact.

1.8.3 ENGINEERING

BASE OIL

A primary restriction on the use of IOES is the potential health and environmental impact of the

base oil. Diesel, the traditional medium, is unacceptable due to the content of aromatic hydrocarbons. So called ‘Low Toxicity’mineral oil is also not preferred as it still has an unacceptably high impact on the environment.

Several modified vegetable and animal (fish) oils have been developed and are marketed under the name of ‘Pseudo Oil Base Mud’. Whilst apparently acceptable within the current legislative limits these are still oil base fluids and can have a range of impacts on the environment.

Before specifying an IOES all HSE factors must be evaluated; such as oxygen consumption on biodegradation, the toxicity of all breakdown products, nutrient blanketing and additive toxicity.

OIL/WATER RATIO

The desired ratio will depend upon the density, viscosity and the amount of water expected to be absorbed. If a lot of water is drawn then the salinity of a low water content drilling fluid would

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Drilling Fluids

be quickly reduced - the expected water intake per circulation should be no more than 0·5% of the water content of the drilling fluid.

Most oil systems operate comfortably in the range of oil/water ratio of 90/10 to 65/35; though some systems can be prepared to handle ratios as high as 35/65.

EMULSIFIERS

The encapsulating barrier of the emulsifier is the main protection against water contact with the shales. It must be strong enough the resist the differential pressure applied at the wellbore wall. The hydroxyl ion converts the fatty acid to the emulsifying surfactant. Lime, Ca(OH)2, is used; to be compatible with the CaCl2 salinity of the water phase.

SALINITY

Because of its higher attraction for water (activity) CaCl 2 is the preferred salt.

There are two schools of thought on the concentration required to drill a hole: balanced (Exxon promoted) and overbalanced (industry, incl. Shell, promoted) activity.

In the balanced activity system the engineer matches the desire to absorb water (activity) of the IOES to the activity of the formation. The main problems with this concept are:

• The activity is based upon measurements on the cuttings, which have already been exposed to the oil mud and stress relieved. Their activity has been modified.

• Over a long section of drilling the formation may change its activity. Which formation to balance?

In the overbalanced concept the IOES is run with a considerably higher salinity. The objective is to create a differential force towards the wellbore. This will provide an extra protection against any desire for the formation to imbibe fluid.

An important point to remember when making Ca Cl 2 additions is its natural water content, 72- 77% or 95-98%, and its hygroscopic nature. Old stocks should always be checked in the retort. The water content will affect both the oil/water ratio and the final solution salinity.

Determining Salinity Requirements

To ensure that the IOES has a higher activity it is essential to determine the actual activity of the formation.

Several methods of direct measurement have been proposed, however all use the already modified cuttings.

By analysing all of the influencing factors, an activity balance can be established.

To Formation Hydrostatic Head of the Drilling fluid Desire from Salinity of Connate Water Matrix Stress Relief of Formation

From Formation Pore Pressure Desire from Salinity of Drilling Fluid

The lowest IOES activity should balance or exceed the highest formation activity.

VISCOSIFIER

An emulsion has a base consistency; comparable to that of dispersed, fine, solids. Amine treated bentonite, called organophyllic clay, is the primary viscosifier for IOES. It provides a bentonite like viscosity.

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Drilling Fluids

FLUID LOSS

The bentonite filter cake is supplemented with amine treated lignite and other materials that decrease the cake permeability.

CONDITIONER

A term given to an additive (often Lecithin based) that oil wets normally water wet solids such as

barytes to disperse them in the continuous oil phase

THINNER

A chemical strips the amine from the organophyllic clay rendering it ineffective. The

disadvantage is that any other amine treated material is also stripped and subsequent additions

of viscosifier may be affected.

WEIGHTING AGENTS

These are as per water based drilling fluids.

Note that Barytes which has been recovered by a flotation process may be coated in a water wetting surfactant which could create problems in an IOES application.

1.8.4

MONITORING

Apart from the normal properties it is important to ensure that the IOES has an activity overbalance and emulsion stability.

The activity balance should be regularly updated for formation pressure and salinity changes.

The best method of evaluating the emulsion stability is by examining the filtrate from a High Temperature High Pressure fluid loss test. The filtrate should contain no oil. Otherwise the membrane has not been effective at this pressure overbalance. If water is observed, emulsifier must be added to reinforce the membrane.

A quick check of the emulsion stability can be made with the Emulsion Stability Meter. It uses

an imposed voltage potential to determine the resistance to coalescing the water droplets to pass the current. However it should only be used as an initial screening tool. Confirmation of stability must be made with the fluid loss test.

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TTOOPPIICC 11 99

CCOONNTTAAMMIINNAANNTTSS

Drilling Fluids

1.9.1 INTRODUCTION

A contaminant is an intruding element that adversely impacts upon the functions of the drilling

fluid. It could be an ion, drilled solids, temperature or even water. This Topic deals with chemical contaminants, their effect on water based bentonite and polymer fluids, identification tests and treatment guide-lines.

1.9.2 CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

SOURCES

The main chemical contaminants are:

• Divalent Cations

Calcium/Magnesium

• Monovalent Anion

Chloride

• Acid Gases

H 2 S, CO 2

The sources of the contaminant can be manifold and it is critical to the treatment decision that this be identified. If it is a short term event then remedial treatment may suffice. However, if it is likely to be a long term contamination then conversion to a more tolerant fluid type may be required.

Table 6.1.9 : Normal Sources of Contamination

 

Gypsum

CaSO 4 .2H 2 O

 

Seawater

NaCl

Formation

Anhydrite

CaSO4

Saltwater Flow

NaCl

Calcium

Formation

Chloride

Green

     
 

Cement

Ca(OH) 2

 

Salt Formation

Na/K/Mg.Cl

Accidental

Lime, Gypsum, Cement, CaCl 2

Accidental

NaCl, KCl,

Additions

Additions

CaCl 2

Magnesium

Formation

Mg.SO4,

Gases

Formation

H 2 S, CO 2

KCl.MgCl 2

EFFECTS

Contaminants have varying effects on different drilling fluid materials; due to composition and ionic variances. See Table 6.1.10

Flocculated bentonite will have a higher low shear viscosity and increased thixotropy. Precipitated polymers will be taken out of solution and their influence reduced.

IDENTIFICATION

Most contamination can be deduced from the routine density and Marsh Funnel tests and a simple pH measurement.

Solids increase the density and viscosity, water has the opposite effect. Gas drops the density, but raises the viscosity. Cement contains lime which raises the pH while the acid gases lower it.

In the event of formation or accidental contamination the Total Hardness test, which identifies

both Calcium and Magnesium, will suffice to differentiate it from Chloride contamination. It is used in preference, as chlorides cannot be treated out.

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Drilling Fluids

In some case the Calcium and Magnesium need to be further differentiated as some of the newer generation polymers are sensitive to only one. The supplier should advise on such idiosyncrasies.

H 2 S can be readily differentiated from CO 2 by a gas detector and its unique odour. However care should be taken with high pH fluids as the H 2 S may be in solution and not immediately detectable.

Carbonate treatment of Ca ++ and Mg ++ contamination can dramatically affect the pH/Alkalinity of the drilling fluid. This is covered more fully under property testing, but suffice it to say that alkalinity should always be tested when Carbonate ions have been used.

Table 6.1.10 : Generalised reactions to contaminants

Figure 6.1.16 : Contaminant identification

Figure 6.1.16 : Contaminant identification

Material

Ca/Mg

Cl

Acid Gases

Bentonite

Strongly flocculated

Mildly flocculated

Mildly

flocculated

Starch

No effect

No effect

No effect

CMC/PAC

Strongly precipitated

No effect

No effect

HEC

No effect

No effect

No effect

Guar Gum

Strongly precipitated

No effect

No effect

Polyacrylate/Amide

 

Rendered non-ionic (decreased viscosity) (no effect on encapsulation)

 

(PHPA)

Strongly precipitated

No effect

Xanthan

pH<11.0: No effect pH>11.0: Precipitated

No effect

No effect

1.9.3

TREATMENT

CALCIUM/MAGNESIUM

Short term contamination can readily be treated out with a sequestrant, see Table 6.1.11. The choice will depend on availability, application, environment and the resultant effect on the fluid.

Long term contamination requires a change to a tolerant drilling fluid. ‘Gyp’and ‘Lime’drilling fluids are very inefficient in terms of rheology, with high friction pressure losses and poor carrying characteristics. But their worst feature is the progressive Gel Strengths that can develop during trips (particular at elevated bottom hole temperatures), resulting in high surge and swab effects and excessive pump pressures to break circulation. This can, in part, be controlled with ‘thinners’(also called ‘deflocculants’); though their use should be limited because they effect the low shear part of rheology profile by reducing interparticle attraction.

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Modern polymer technology has developed products which are tolerant to high levels of Ca ++ and Mg ++ whilst providing good fluid properties for efficient operation, see Table 6.1.12.

Table 6.1.11 : Sequestrants for Treating Ca/Mg Contamination

Soda Ash

Na 2 CO 3

Rapid acting with increase in pH. Over treatment in bentonite systems causes fragile gels.

Bicarb

NaHCO 3

Moderate reaction. The acid radical buffers the increase in pH. More difficult to over treat.

   

---

 

Phosphate

PO 4

Fast reaction. Lowers the pH. Strong deflocculant for bentonite. Useful for polymer systems sensitive to pH and Ca ++ (such as Xanthan). Phosphate can contribute to stabilising reactive clays. Polyphosphates have a temperature limitation of 200 o C; while pyrophosphates will break down at 75 o C to the clay flocculating orthophosphate.

Table 6.1.12 : Polymers for Use in Ca/Mg Contaminated Fluids

Viscosifier

Xanthan is stable in most cases; excluding heavy cement contamination (high pH).

HEC is stable in all calcium/magnesium solutions.

Filter Cake

Starch is the most effective polymer for calcium and magnesium contaminated systems. Several synthetic polymers are available and HEC can provide some fluid loss control.

Clay

Ca ++ and Mg ++ are inhibitors for young, highly water sensitive, clays. K + has been used in conjunction with them, but the effectiveness in the presence of such a high concentration of other ions is unproved.

Stabiliser

CHLORIDE

There is no chemical treatment to remove the Chloride ion. Unless the contamination is a one off occurrence, the system must be converted to compatible products. Most polymers work effectively in salt solutions up to sea water concentration. Various products are discussed in the sections on salt polymer systems.

ACID GASES

H 2 S can be held in solution in the safe HS - and S -- form by maintaining the fluid’s pH above 9. Remedial treatment uses sequestering ions for H 2 S, these are Fe ++ and Zn ++ . Zinc compounds (as Carbonate or Chelate) are used as a pre-treatment and for moderate levels of contamination (<1,000 mg/l). A special form of sintered Fe 2 O 3 (sponge) is sometimes used; however it is a solid and creates surface processing problems.

In solution CO 2 is in the bicarbonate form. Calcium is used as the sequestrant.

OTHER

Borate (B 4 O 7 -- ) can be found in sea water. It can affect some polymers, but most particularly Guar Gum. Removal treatment is expensive, hence a change of polymer is recommended.

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1.9.4 TREATMENT CHEMISTRY

In the treatment of contaminants the objective is to remove the majority of the offending ion, without introducing new complications. It is desirable to match the amount of treatment and offending contaminant.

CALCIUM WITH SODA ASH (ANHYDRITE SOURCE)

Equation Ca+++ CO3-- =

(1g/l)

CaCO3 ? (precipitate) (2·5 g/l)

Carbonate constitutes 56·6% of Soda Ash; thus 2·83 g/l is required.

SODIUM BICARBONATE

Equation

Ca ++ +

(1g/l)

HCO 3 - =

CaCO 3 (precipitate) + H + (2,5 g/l)

Bicarbonate constitutes 72·6% of Sodium Bicarbonate: thus 2.1 g/l is required.

H2S WITH ZINC

Equation

S --

(1g/l)

+

Zn ++

=

3 gm/l will remove 500 mg/l.

H 2 S WITH IRON

Equation

3 gm/l will remove 200 mg/l.

S --

+

Fe ++

=

ZnS (precipitate) (x g/l)

FeS