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# Tobias Knopp

## DLR Gottingen, AS-NV

The Riemann problem and the shock tube problem
for the Euler equations
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Shock tube problem
Special Riemann problem with zero initial velocity

U +
x

F(

U) =

0
U(x, 0) =
_

U
L
if x < 0

U
R
if x > 0
t
x
Rarefaction
fan
contact Shock
Diaphragm
pressure
high
pressure
low
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
General Riemann problem for Euler eq.
Structure of the solution

## initial discontinuity at (x, t) = (0, 0) breaks up into 4 regions

of constant state

## In the x t-plane, these 4 regions of constant state are

divided by 3 characteristic waves
x
t
shock or
rarefaction fan
discontinuity
contact
rarefaction
or
shock
fan
U U
U U
1
2 3
4
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Nonlinear hyperbolic system. Denition

state
R
3
set of all admissible values for (, u, E) R
3
.

U +
x

F(

U) = 0 .
strictly hyperbolic, i.e., for any state

U
state
, the Jacobian
A(

U) =

U
, (A(

U))
ij
=
F
i
x
j
(1 i , j 3)
has m distinct eigenvalues
i
(

## U) which are assumed to be ordered

1
(

U) <
2
(

U) <
3
(

U)
With each eigenvalue
i
(

## U) we associate a right eigenvector r

i
(

U)
A(

U) r
i
(

U) =
i
(

U) r
i
(

U)
and a left eigenvector

l
i
(

## U) (i.e., an eigenvector of (A(

U))
T
)

l
i
(

U)
T
A(

U) =
i
(

U)

l
i
(

U)
T
with (as eigenvalues are distinct)

l
i
(

U)
T
r
j
(

U) = 0 i = j

## one characteristic wave for each eigenvalue

the
2
= u characteristic wave is always a contact
discontinuity
x
x
x
x
t
t
t
t
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Characteristic wave pattern for Euler eq.

the
2
= u characteristic wave is always a contact
discontinuity ( u and p continuous, but discontinuous)

the
1/3
= u a characteristic wave is either a shock
(piecewise constant discontinuity) or a rarefaction wave
(continuous, piecewise smooth)
x
x
x
x
t
t
t
t
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Characterization of elementary waves

i
(

U
l
) > S
i
>
i
(

U
r
)

i
(

U
l
) = S
i
=
i
(

U
r
)

## fan-like divergence of characteristics at a rarefaction

i
(

U
l
) <
i
(

U
r
)
x
t
rarefaction
shock
contact
U
U
U
U
1
2
3
4
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Characterization of elementary waves (cont.)

## change in wave speed

i
between states

U
l
and

U
r

Rankine-Hugoniot cond.:

U
r
=

U
l
+ r (

U
l
) + O(
2
)
= consider change in
i
(

U) in direction of r
i

The
i
-characteristic eld is genuinely nonlinear if

i
(

U) r
(i )
(

U) = 0

U
state
= characteristic speed is not constant across the wave

The
i
-characteristic eld is linearly degenerate, if

i
(

U) r
(i )
(

U) = 0

U
= characteristic speed is constant across the wave (as in a
linear system with constant coecients)

i
(

U) =
_

i
u
1
,

i
u
2
,

i
u
3
_
,

i
(

U) r
(i )
=
3

j =1

i
u
j
r
(i )
j
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Genuinely non-linear and linear degeneracy
The
2
-characteristic eld is lin. degenerate:
2
= u = u
2
/u
1

2
(

U) =
_

2
u
1
,

2
u
2
,

2
u
3
_
=
_

u
1
u
2
u
1
,

u
2
u
2
u
1
,

u
3
u
2
u
1
_
=
_

u
2
u
2
1
,
1
u
1
, 0
_
=
_

,
1

, 0
_
=

2
(

U) r
2
(

U) =
_

,
1

, 0
_

_
1, u,
1
2
u
2
_
T
= 0
The
1
,
3
-characteristic elds are genuinely non-linear.
x
nonlinear t
genuinely
nonlinear
degenerate
genuinely
linearly
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Rarefaction waves
We seek a continuous self-similar weak solution of the form

U(x, t) =
_

U
L
,
x
t

k
(

U
L
)
v
_
x
t
_
,
k
(

U)
L

x
t

k
(

U
R
)

U
R
,
x
t

k
(

U
R
)
If

U(x, t) = v(x, t) solves
t

U + A(

U)
x

U =

0, then

_
x
t
2
_
v

_
x
t
_
+
_
1
t
_
A
_
v
_
x
t
__
v

_
x
t
_
= 0
Then by setting = x/t, we obtain
( A(v()) I ) v

() =

0
so that either v

() =

0, i.e.,

U is constant (

U =

U
l
or

U =

U
r
), or
there exists an index k 1, . . . , m such that
v

() = () r
k
(v()) ,
k
(v()) =
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Rarefaction waves (cont.)
We consider v

() = ()r
k
(v()) ,
k
(v()) =
Dierentiation of the second equation with respect to

k
(v()) v

() = 1.
Substitution into the rst equation gives
1 =

k
(v()) v

() = ()

k
(v()) r
k
(v())

## If the kth characteristic eld is linearly degenerate

k
(v()) r
k
(v()) = 0, then we cannot solve for v.

## If the kth eld is genuinely nonlinear, we use the

normalization

k
(

U) r
k
(

U) = 1 and then () = 1.
Then we can solve for v provided
k
(

U
l
) <
k
(

U
r
)
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Riemann invariants

x =
k
(v(x/t))t

## The wave speed

k
(v) is constant along each ray
= The characteristic curves are straight lines
x
t
U
L
U
R
=
k
(
U
L
)
x
t
t

x
=
k
U
R
( )
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
k-Riemann invariants
A k-Riemann invariant is a smooth function w :
state
R,

U w(

U) with

w(

U) r
(k)
(

U) = 0 ,

U
state
There exist (locally) (m 1) k-Riemann invariants w
1
, . . . , w
m1
whose gradients are linearly independent, which are independent of
the set of independent variables chosen.
If the
k
-characteristic eld is linearly degenerate, then
k
is a
k-Riemann invariant.
The 2-Riemann invariants may be computed from

w(

W) r
2
(

W) = 0
_
w

,
w
u
,
w
p
_

_
_
1
0
0
_
_
= 0
i.e., two linear-independent 2-RI are w
1
(

U) = u, and w
2
(

U) = p
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
k-Riemann invariants (cont.)

constant.

## The two Riemann invariants of a k-rarefaction are

w
1
(

W) = s = c
v
ln(p) c
p
ln()
w
2
(

W) = u +
2a
1
= (const) for x = (u a)t
resp. w
2
(

W) = u
2a
1
= (const) for x = (u + a)t

physical system

## For diverging characteristics, s = 0 (for each point (x, t), its

prior history and its future is uniquely determined)

For shocks, s > 0: for (x, t) on the shock, its prior history is
not known (did the point run from the left into the shock or
from the right)
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Isentropic relations for ideas gases
s = c
v
ln(p) c
p
ln() = c
v
ln(p) c
v
ln(

) = c
v
ln
_
p

_
s = c
v
ln(e) R ln()
= c
v
ln(c
v
T) (c
p
c
v
) ln() = (const) + c
v
ln
_
T

1
_
Then for isentropic processes s = 0
p = (const)

T = (const)
1
a = (const)
(1)/2
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Rarefaction waves for Euler eq.
Here
1
wave: Recalll the 1-Riemann invariant
u +
2a
1
= (const) f ur x = (u a)t
Using x = (u a)t and hence a = u x/t we get
u +
2
1
_
u
x
t
_
= u
L
+
2a
L
1
= u
R
+
2a
R
1
Solving this equation for u gives the solution for u in the expansion
u(x, t) =
2
+ 1
_
x
t
+
1
2
u
L
+ a
L
_
=
2
+ 1
_
x
t
+
1
2
u
R
+ a
R
_
a(x, t) = u(x, t)
x
t
p = p
L
_
a
a
L
_
2/(1)
= p
R
_
a
a
R
_
2/(1)
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Shock tube problem for Euler eq.
Special Riemann problem with zero initial velocity

U +
x

F(

U) =

0
U(x, 0) =
_

U
L
if x < 0

U
R
if x > 0
t
x
Rarefaction
fan
contact Shock
Diaphragm
pressure
high
pressure
low
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Shock tube problem for Euler eq. (cont.)
The states to the left and right of the shock

U
3
and

U
4

U
R
are
related by
a
2
3
a
2
4
=
p
3
p
4
+1
1
+
p
3
p
4
1 +
+1
1
p
3
p
4
u
3
= u
4
+
a
4

p
3
p
4
1
_
+1
2
_
p
3
p
4
1
_
+ 1
S = u
4
+ a
4

+ 1
2
_
p
3
p
4
1
_
+ 1
The states to the left and right of the contact

U
2
and

U
3
are
related by
u
3
= u
2
p
3
= p
2
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Shock tube problem for Euler eq. (cont.)
The states to the left and right of the expansion

U
1
=

U
L
and

U
2
are connected by
u(x, t) =
2
+ 1
_
x
t
+
1
2
u
1
+ a
1
_
a(x, t) = u(x, t)
x
t
=
2
+ 1
_
x
t
+
1
2
u
1
+ a
1
_

x
t
p = p
1
_
a
a
1
_
2/(1)
As u + 2a/( 1) is constant across the fan
u
2
+
2a
2
1
= u
1
+
2a
1
1
The we use the isentropic relations
u
2
= u
1
+
2a
1
1

2a
2
1
, a
2
= a
1
_
p
2
p
1
_
(1)/2
= u
2
= u
1
+
2a
1
1
_
1
_
p
2
p
1
_
(1)/2
_
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Shock tube problem for Euler eq. (cont.)
u
2
= u
1
+
2a
1
1
_
1 (p
2
/p
1
)
(1)/2
_
u
3
= u
1
+
2a
1
1
_
1
_
p
3
p
4
p
4
p
1
_
(1)/2
_
We solve this equation for p
1
/p
4
and obtain
p
1
p
4
=
p
3
p
4
_
1 +
1
a
1
(u
1
u
3
)
_
2/(1)
We nally substitute u
3
and get an implicit equation for p
3
/p
4
.
We set x p
3
/p
4
and solve for x using Newtons method
p
1
p
4
=
p
3
p
4
_

_
1 +
1
a
1
_
_
_
_
u
1
u
4

a
4

p
3
p
4
1
_
+1
2
_
p
3
p
4
1
_
+ 1
_
_
_
_
_

_
2/(1)
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV

L
= 1kg/m
3
,
u
L
= 0m/s
p
L
= 100000N/m
2

R
= 0.125kg/m
3
,
u
R
= 0m/s
p
R
= 10000N/m
2
Acoustic wave: u
1
a
1
= 3.74 10
2
m/s
Acoustic wave: u
2
a
2
= 2.22 10
1
m/s
Contact: u
3
= u
2
= 2.93 10
2
m/s
Acoustic wave: u
2
+ a
2
= 6.93 10
2
m/s
Shock wave: S = 5.54 10
2
m/s
Acoustic wave: u
1
+ a
1
= 3.35 10
2
m/s
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Test case 1: Shock tube problem

## largest decrease in p due to rarefaction

Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Test case 1: Shock tube problem

## jump in (a, and M) at contact discont.

Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV

L
= 1kg/m
3
,
u
L
= 0m/s
p
L
= 100000N/m
2

R
= 0.01kg/m
3
,
u
R
= 0m/s
p
R
= 1000N/m
2
Acoustic wave: u
1
a
1
= 3.74 10
2
m/s
Acoustic wave: u
2
a
2
= 3.55 10
1
m/s
Contact: u
3
= u
2
= 6.08 10
2
m/s
Acoustic wave: u
2
+ a
2
= 1.14 10
3
m/s
Shock wave: S = 8.87 10
2
m/s
Acoustic wave: u
1
+ a
1
= 3.74 10
2
m/s
Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Test case 2: Shock tube problem

## largest decrease in p due to rarefaction

Vorlesung, 31.5.2006
Tobias Knopp
DLR Gottingen, AS-NV
Test case 2: Shock tube problem

## jump in (a, and M) at contact discont.

Vorlesung, 31.5.2006