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Anna Strambo Pamela Linwood Gerard Dorrity

CHARGE
English for Electronics and Telecommunications
with Computer Overview
TECHNICAL DICTIONARY

CON LETTURE DI APPROFONDIMENTO PER LINDIRIZZO

ELETTRONICA E TELECOMUNICAZIONI

Anna Strambo Pamela Linwood Gerard Dorrity

CHARGE
English for Electronics and Telecommunications
with Computer Overview
CON LETTURE DI APPROFONDIMENTO

internet: www.petrini.it e-mail: linguestraniere@petrini.it

Coordinamento editoriale: Anna Moretta

Si ringraziano i professori G. Carnevale Carlino, P. Citarda, G. Korwin, R. Magnaguagno, S. Ovazza, P. Pezzali, A. Scarpari, R. Sempio, B. Varotto, L. Vettore per gli utili suggerimenti.
Propriet letteraria riservata 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA Novara 1 edizione: gennaio 2008 Printed in Italy
Le fotografie di copertina sono state fornite da: George Diebold Photography, Gettyimages; Satellite communication Antenna, Construction Photography/Corbis; Shanghai Maglev Train Station, Xiaoyang Liu/Corbis; Robotic Handshake, William Whitehurst/Corbis Le fotografie di questo volume sono state fornite da: DeA Picture Library; Lucidio Studio Inc./Corbis; P. Souders/Corbis; Bettmann/Corbis; M. Monetti; T. Kitamura/AFP/Grazia Neri; A. Cooper/Corbis; Creasource/Corbis; G. Schuster/Zefa/Corbis; J. Ayissi/AFP/Grazia Neri; DeA Picture Library/A. De Gregorio; H. Gal/Corbis; Schenectady Museum, Hall of Electrical History Foundation/Corbis; W. Whitehurst/Corbis; Ch. Doyle/Photonica/Getty Images/L. Ronchi; L. Williams/Zefa/Corbis; S. Stulberg/Corbis; DeA Picture Library/Photo 1; R.H. Wetmore II/Stone/Getty Images/L. Ronchi; R. Ressmeyer/Corbis; Reuters/Contrasto; R. Chapple/Taxi/Getty Images/L. Ronchi; Y. Arthus-Bertrand/Corbis; Visuals Unlimited/Corbis; DeA Picture Library/Getty Images/L. Ronchi; M.S. Yamashita/Corbis; A. Francekevich/Photographers Choice/Getty Images/L. Ronchi; V. Lombardo/Photographers Choice/Getty Images/L. Ronchi; K. Kittle/Corbis; W. McNamee/Corbis; Yogi, Inc./Corbis

Leditore ha controllato fino alla fase di prestampa del corso che i siti internet citati avessero contenuti compatibili con le finalit educative del testo. LEditore dichiara la propria disponibilit a regolarizzare eventuali omissioni o errori di attribuzione. Nel rispetto del DL 74/92 sulla trasparenza nella pubblicit, le immagini escludono ogni e qualsiasi possibile intenzione o effetto promozionale verso i lettori. Tutti i diritti riservati. Nessuna parte del materiale protetto da questo copyright potr essere riprodotta in alcuna forma senza lautorizzazione scritta dellEditore. Fotocopie per uso personale del lettore possono essere effettuate nei limiti del 15% di ciascun volume/fascicolo di periodico dietro pagamento alla SIAE del compenso previsto dallart. 68, comma 4, della legge 22 aprile 1941 n.633. Le riproduzioni ad uso differente da quello personale potranno avvenire, per un numero di pagine non superiore al 15% del presente volume/fascicolo, solo a seguito di specifica autorizzazione rilasciata da AIDRO Corso di Porta Romana, 108 20122 Milano e-mail segreteria@aidro.org e sito aidro@iol.it; www.aidro.org Eventuali segnalazioni di errori o refusi e richieste di chiarimenti sulle scelte operate dagli autori e dalla Casa Editrice possono essere inviate allindirizzo di posta elettronica della redazione.

Stampa: AGF - Italia Peschiera Borromeo (MI)


I 2008 II 2009 III 2010 IV 2011 V 2012 VI 2013

Edizione: Anno:

Presentazione
On Charge un corso di inglese per il triennio degli Istituti Tecnici Industriali e per gli Istituti Professionali con specializzazione in Elettrotecnica, Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni. disponibile in due versioni blu e rossa con letture di approfondimento diverse per i due indirizzi. Il corso rivolto a studenti che abbiano una conoscenza generale della grammatica e del lessico di base inglesi. Tale livello di conoscenza corrisponde di norma allinizio del triennio di studi superiori. Grazie allutilizzo di materiali aggiornati e stimolanti e alla presenza di attivit diversificate, On Charge si propone di aiutare gli studenti a raggiungere una padronanza operativa del linguaggio tecnico e, nello stesso tempo, a rafforzare le abilit di comprensione scritta e orale acquisite negli anni precedenti. Lo Students Book articolato in 4 sezioni Electricity, Electronics, Computer Overview, Telecommunications ognuna delle quali costituita da un numero variabile di unit, per un totale di 24. Si cercato di seguire un criterio progressivo per quanto riguarda la complessit delle strutture linguistiche e del lessico, mentre per quanto riguarda gli argomenti, le unit sono indipendenti e permettono una trattazione flessibile a seconda delle necessit della classe o di eventuali percorsi pluridisciplinari. Le unit sono strutturate nel modo seguente: Getting Started attivit e/o brevi testi introduttivi tramite i quali gli studenti possono mostrare le loro conoscenze tecniche pregresse e/o le loro capacit di intuizione e anticipazione rispetto ai contenuti dellunit. Focus on Content testi base di contenuto tecnico che stimolano lapprendimento della grammatica e del lessico specifico attraverso la presentazione di argomenti gi noti agli studenti nella loro lingua madre. Focus on Vocabulary attivit ed esercizi di potenziamento linguistico che fanno riferimento al testo del Focus on Content e ai testi eventualmente presenti nel Getting Started. Focus on Skills testi di varia tipologia e provenienza a carattere pi divulgativo e presentati in forma di letture e di ascolti. Il loro scopo stimolare lutilizzo autonomo delle strutture e del lessico appresi e/o potenziati attraverso attivit di produzione orale e scritta. Grammar Extension tabelle grammaticali e/o brevi spiegazioni relative a strutture presenti nei testi dellunit e accompagnate da esercizi. I rimandi alla Grammar Section che si trova a fondo libro, forniscono agli studenti integrazioni e esercizi supplementari. Check your progress rubrica di chiusura dellunit che permette agli studenti, tramite attivit di tipologia varia, una prima autovalutazione di quanto appreso dal punto di vista grammaticale, lessicale e contenutistico.
On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

III

PRESENTAZIONE

Al termine delle 24 unit vengono introdotte 15 schede incentrate sulle abilit essenziali in campo professionale (job skills) e nello studio (study skills). Parte integrante e assoluto punto di forza del testo sono i Reading Supplements, presenti in due versioni diverse per lindirizzo elettrotecnico e per lindirizzo elettronico e delle telecomunicazioni. Si tratta di 23 letture per ciascun indirizzo, corredate da esercizi di comprensione e di lessico, che si configurano come materiale extra da utilizzare in classe o a casa: loro caratteristica fondamentale la trattazione di argomenti di estrema attualit che approfondiscono temi collegati al testo. On Charge completato da una Grammar Section, con agili note grammaticali che affiancano e integrano le Grammar Extensions delle unit e una serie di esercizi utili per lavori di revisione e recupero, e da un Glossary finale che raccoglie i vocaboli tecnici pi significativi delle unit fornendone una breve spiegazione in lingua e il traducente italiano. Data la grande importanza della corretta pronuncia di sigle e termini specialistici, talvolta difficilmente reperibili sui dizionari ma fondamentali per una efficace comunicazione fra tecnici nel mondo del lavoro, On Charge mette a disposizione un dizionario tecnico su cd-rom con i lemmi speakerati e tre cd audio per la classe su cui sono registrate non solo le attivit di listening propriamente dette, ma anche i testi tecnici della sezione Focus on Content di ogni unit: gli studenti avranno cos lopportunit di ascoltare testi letti da differenti voci madrelingua. Per i docenti disponibile il Teachers Book, che contiene le soluzioni degli esercizi con alcuni suggerimenti operativi e i tapescripts delle attivit di listening, 24 tests di valutazione fotocopiabili uno per unit (disponibili anche in versione word sul primo dei cd audio classe, per una pi autonoma gestione da parte dei docenti), 10 schede per simulazioni della Terza Prova desame e alcuni projects tecnico-pratici di varia difficolt da svolgere singolarmente o a gruppi e da presentare in lingua inglese di fronte alla classe.

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On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

Table of contents
SECTION 1 ELECTRICITY
UNIT 1 Basic electricity (1)
The atom and current electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atomic and sub-atomic particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: Logical connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 6 9

UNIT 2 Basic electricity (2)


Electric charges and static electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How photocopiers work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: The passive (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 14 17

UNIT 3 Materials and their electrical properties


Conductors, insulators, semiconductors and superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superconductors the key to energy efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: Comparative and superlatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20 22 25

UNIT 4 Magnetism and Electromagnetism


The principles of magnetism and electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maglev vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: Verb patterns (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28 30 33

UNIT 5 Measuring electricity


Electrical measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Units of Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: Relative pronouns (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36 38 41

UNIT 6 Current and circuits


DC and AC circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Danger! Electric shock! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: Noun strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44 46 49

UNIT 7 AC and DC generators


The generation of current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy production which way forward? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: The passive (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52 54 57

UNIT 8 Electric motors


Types and features of DC and AC motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Robotics and automation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: Present tenses in time and conditions clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60 62 65

UNIT 9 Batteries
Types of battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel Cells: The Clean Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: The passive (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

68 70 73

Table of contents
SECTION 2 ELECTRONICS
UNIT 10 Basic electronics
Passive components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curious facts about Vacuum Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: Defining and non-defining relative clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76 78 81

UNIT 11 Transistors
The 20th centurys most important invention? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Birthplace of the Transistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: Quantifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84 86 89

UNIT 12 Logic gates


Digital logic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intel company history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar Extension: The Simple past ...........................................................

92 94 97

UNIT 13 Ics Integrated circuits


Microchips and their characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Robotics and automation (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Grammar Extension: Special comparative forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

UNIT 14 Microprocessors
What is a microprocessor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Nanotechnology: dream or reality? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Grammar Extension: Verb patterns (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

SECTION 3 COMPUTER OVERVIEW


UNIT 15 Basic IT (1)
Computer systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Robotics and automation (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Grammar Extension: Uncountable nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

UNIT 16 Basic IT (2)


Computer languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Virtual Worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Grammar Extension: Opposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

UNIT 17 Networks
How networks communicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Social networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Grammar Extension: Verb patterns (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

UNIT 18 The Internet


Web browsers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 How much does the Internet weigh? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Grammar Extension: Special passive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

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On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

SECTION 4 TELECOMMUNICATIONS
UNIT 19 Communications modes (1)
Transmission lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Wireless communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Grammar Extension: Present perfect vs Simple past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

UNIT 20 Communications modes (2)


Features and applications of optical fibres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Grammar Extension: to + base form; for + ing form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

UNIT 21 Radio and television communications


From transmitter to TV screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Plasma vs liquid crystals: know the facts before you buy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Grammar Extension: Conditional sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

UNIT 22 Telephones, faxes and modems


How telephones work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Fax machines and modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Grammar Extension: Using modals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

UNIT 23 Antennas
What antenna do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Types of antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Grammar Extension: Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

UNIT 24 Artificial satellites and satellite communications


Types of artificial satellites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Communication architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Grammar Extension: Using impersonal language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

JOB SKILLS/STUDY SKILLS


Letters requesting information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters confirming orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters of complaint and apology . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Writing a report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Describing companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Describing charts (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Describing charts (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

194-209 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201


Reading job ads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Writing a curriculum and a letter of application . Managing job interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internet English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading mathematical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the pronunciation of words . . . . . . . . . Using a dictionary (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using a dictionary (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209

READING SUPPLEMENTS
Grammar Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235-253

211-233

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254-258

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

VII

UNIT

SECTION 1 ELECTRICITY

1 Basic Electricity (1)


GETTING STARTED

Two atoms bump into each other.


I think I lost an electron! Are you sure? Im positive!

A neutron walks into a bar and asks the barman:


How much is a beer?

For you, no charge.

e costo: fre sa, onere, e ; sp o 1 ss re s. g din t d ] , prezzo l n e o d charge [ si is o m c d ri ito; a a ca o ll of , gratu rward, spese a imb fo acking, charges for p issioni m o n m o ; c o ri arges, h c destinata erto k n a b conto ap of, t, (amer.) compreso n u o in c c e a b rico: to a c in 2 bancarie d ) ilit i n negozio responsab on in la i, d (presso u e n to; pers la direzio o incarica nza, cura: ri assumere a n io z n , fu eglia official in sponsabile 3 sorv eglianza di, rv re so o tt la e sotto : to , add s , essere . 4 (dir.) accusa . o s. in e u lc to b was q i e d h qlcu.; lle cure aff idato a ainst s.o., accusare estato sotto arr ag bring a a of murder, fu r.) carica. n tt o le e d e ., arrest 5 (mil io id ic m o accusa di

1 These two stories are based on the double meaning of the words positive and charge.
a Look at the two extracts from a bilingual dictionary and underline the appropriate translations. b Can you explain why the stories are funny?

pos-it-ive [pz t v] agg. 1 positivo: a attitude towards lif e, un atteggiamento positivo, ottimistico nei conf ronti della vita; a reply, una risposta affermativ a; a result, un risultato positivo 2 effettivo ; concreto: he is a nuisance, proprio un secc atore, un vero seccatore 3 preciso, definitivo : I gave you instru ctions, ti ho dato istruzioni pr ecise (dir.) evide nce, prova diretta, positiva 4 convinto, certo 5 (elettr., mat.) positivo: p. ele ctricity, elettricit positiva.

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

2 The words and expressions in the box are similar to their Italian equivalents. In pairs, use them to label the two figures.

neutron 1.

neutron chemicals nucleus cell proton positive terminal electrons orbit conducting wire
4.
Bohrs model atom

2.

3.

5. 6.
negatively charged casing electron flow

8.
Electrons flowing in a circuit

7.

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

SECTION 1 ELECTRICITY

Focus on content
3 Listen and read.

The atom and current electricity


All matter is made up of atoms but, as we cannot see them under the most powerful microscope, scientists construct models to explain and predict their behaviour. In 1913 a Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, proposed a very simple model of the atom. In this model small electrons with negative electrical charge move in orbits around a central nucleus containing positively charged particles called protons and particles without charge called neutrons. In a normal atom the negative charges on the electrons are exactly balanced by the positive charges on the nucleus: we say that an atom in this state is neutral. The electrons which go round the nucleus stay there because opposite charges attract, that is, a proton and an electron exert a force on each other which pulls them together. The electrons are confined to orbits at fixed distances from the nucleus: each orbit corresponds to a specific amount of energy carried by the electrons in it. If an electron gains or loses energy, it can jump to the next orbit away from the nucleus or towards it. The force of attraction of the nucleus gets weaker with distance, so the electrons in the most
Atomium, Brussels

Focus on vocabulary
5 The verbs in the box all appear in the text above.
Use them in the correct form to complete these sentences.
accumulate connect construct predict propose a There are plans to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a new bridge across the river. b It is difficult to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the effects of that accident. c He has . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . an interesting solution to our problems. d A solar panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . energy from the sun. e A conducting wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the casing to the terminal. a b c d e f g

6 Below are some more words from the text which


are similar to Italian. Find their opposites choosing from the words in the box.
attached complex generic internal lack peripheral repulsion simple central specific attraction external detached excess
..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... .....................................................................

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

UNIT 1 Basic Electricity (1)

external orbits can easily be detached from the atom, either by collision or by an electric field. The detached electrons are called free electrons. All materials contain some free electrons. They move among the atoms at random, but this movement is normally equal in all directions. Therefore, no electrons are lost or gained by any part of the material. However, it is possible to make the electrons flow in a uniform direction, creating what we call an electric current. Niels Bohr A typical example of an electric current is that of a dry cell. Because of the internal chemistry of the cell, the outer casing accumulates an excess of free electrons, while the centre terminal has practically no free electrons. If we connect the casing and the terminal with a conducting wire, electrons will flow along the wire from the casing to the terminal, since they are attracted towards areas with a net positive charge.

4 Answer the following questions:


a b c d Who was Niels Bohr? What is the structure of Bohrs atom? When do we say that an atom is neutral? What happens if an electron gains or loses energy? e When can an electron become a free electron? f How do free electrons move in a material? g How can we create an electric current in a dry cell?

OVER TO YOU
8
Complete these descriptions.

7 Choose some of the words in exercise 6 to


complete the following sentences.
a The electrons in the most . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . orbits are not easily detached from the atom, because the force of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of the nucleus is very strong. b The movement of free electrons is equal in all directions. This means that there is no . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of electrons in any part of the material. c Bohrs model of the atom is still used today because it is not very . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

a The structure of an atom. In an atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is a central nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . up of protons and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . move in orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . it. The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of electrons in a normal atom is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to the number of .................................... b How we obtain current electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . electrons normally move at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . among the atoms of a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , but if we make them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in a uniform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we obtain an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . current.

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

SECTION 1 ELECTRICITY

Focus on skills
9 A Before reading the text, read these statements. Do you think they are true (T) or false (F)? Discuss them with a partner.
T 1 Protons and neutrons are composite particles of matter. 2 Protons are made up of quarks. 3 There are different types of quarks. 4 Gluons orbit around the nucleus. F

C Some words are highlighted in the text. Write them next to their translation.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
....................................... ....................................... ....................................... ....................................... ....................................... ....................................... ....................................... ....................................... .......................................

rimbalza prova e` dovuto a decadere colpiti gusti lega, tiene insieme per quanto riguarda acceleratori di particelle

B Now read and check your answers.

Atomic and sub-atomic particles


You Ask. We Answer.
What does matter really consist of?
(Asked by Karen Johnson, 17, Gaysham Comprehensive School, Essex.)
quark

This is one of the central problems of physics. We know that an atom is constituted by a nucleus which contains neutrons and protons and by a cloud of electrons revolving around it. Is this the end of the story? No. Because protons and neutrons are not fundamental particles like electrons, but they have an internal structure, they are composite particles. They seem to be composed of what we call quarks. So far we know of six quark types (scientists call them flavors ): up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom. However, only two of these quarks (up and down) are stable, and will not decay . The heavier quarks arent found in nature and have only been observed in particle accelerators .

neutron

proton

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

UNIT 1 Basic Electricity (1)

D Answer the following questions:


a b c d What is the traditional description of an atom? Why is that description not good enough? Are all quarks found in nature? When do protons and neutrons reveal their internal structure? e What are gluons?

LEXICAL CHUNKS E Choose the correct word(s) to complete the sentences.


by for of (x2) on to up of a The movement of free electrons is responsible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . current flow. b An atom is composed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fundamental and composite particles. c A nucleus is made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quarks and gluons. d A lithium atom consists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three protons, three electrons and four neutrons e A cell is constituted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemicals, an outer casing and a terminal. f The position of an electron around the nucleus is due . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . its amount of energy. g These calculations are correct because they are based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . our measurements

The proton is made up of two up quarks and a down quark (uud), while the neutron consists of one up quark and two down quarks (udd). Proof of their existence is based on laboratory experiments. When protons and neutrons are struck with particles that truly are fundamental (like electrons, photons etc.) the protons and neutrons reveal their structure in the way the colliding particle rebounds . So, you may think the nucleus is made up of up and down quarks. But that is not true either. There are also gluons, which are the force that holds quarks together and are also responsible for the nuclear force that binds the nucleus together. Is that all? No, not yet. Apart from the quarks that constitute the nucleons (i.e. neutrons and protons) there also exists a sea of quarks, which continually appear and disappear: this is due to quantum fluctuations. So, a nucleus is quite a complicated thing. But you can say, as far as fundamental particles go , the nucleus is made up of quarks and gluons

A proton

(Answered by: Yasar Safkan, Ph.D., Software Engineer, Noktalar A.S., Istanbul, Turkey)

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

SECTION 1 ELECTRICITY

Focus on skills
10 MAKING A PHONE CALL A Complete the phone call using the expressions in the box.
youre welcome Id like some information Ill put you through to very kind of you Sarah Harper speaking are you interested in what can I do for you hold on * Hello, Ryman Electronics. Can I help you? Hello, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1) about your products. * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2), please, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3) Sarah Harper in the Sales Department. ** Sales department. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4). Hello, this is Michael Roberts of Evans Engineering. ** Hello, Mr Roberts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?(5). Well, I saw an advertisement for your products in Electronics Weekly and Id like to make some enquiries about them. ** Yes, of course. Which range of products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?(6). Mainly the HV300s. ** Well, I can send you a full catalogue and price list... Thank you. Thats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (7) ** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (8). Can I have your address, please? Yes, of course. Its...

B Now listen to the complete conversation and check your answers.

11 ROLE PLAY Act out a similar telephone conversation with your partner using the guidelines below.

Student A
You are on a 3-month language course in London and you have seen an advertisement for a computer course in Time Out magazine. Call the school and ask for some information about the courses: e.g How long... last? What time... ? How much... ? N.B. You would like to start as soon as possible. Your hotel fax number is 020-7981 9211. n al Educatio Internation best! at its
N MINISTR ATIO BUSINESS AD URISM TO & & IT TR AVEL COMPUTING ES G GUA MODERN LAN & FINANCE CY N TA ACCOUN STUDIES SECRETARIAL 00 980 1549 ll FREE on 08 For details ca , edale College or write to: Ev , ce ffi missions O The Central Ad 9FL 1N W on Street, Lond 24-26 Oxford

Student B
1. First you are the switchboard operator. Put the caller through to the director of studies. 2. Now you are the director of studies. Answer the callers questions using the information in the prospectus below. Then offer to send the caller a full prospectus with details of fees.

Evedale

College

24-26 Oxford Street, London W1N 9FL 0800 980 1549

Prospectus

Computing and IT Courses


DURATION: 2 months or 4 months
(New courses start on the first Monday of each month.)

TIMES: 3 times a week: Mon, Wed, and Fri


Choice of early afternoon course (2pm-5pm) or evening course (7pm-10pm)

Evedale
College

FEES: 2-month course 250; 4-month course 475

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara

UNIT 1 Basic Electricity (1)

Grammar Extension
Logical connectors
A These are logical connectors from the texts you have read. Match the pairs with the same meaning. Then write their Italian translation(s), choosing from those given in the box.
perci/quindi poich/siccome tuttavia/ma therefore since however but .tuttavia/ma ............................. so . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B Choose the correct connectors in these sentences.


1 Atoms cannot be seen even under the most powerful microscopes; but/therefore, physicists construct models of them. 2 Since/However the force of attraction of the nucleus gets weaker with distance, the electrons on the external edge of an atom are held in orbit rather loosely. 3 There are six quark types. However/So, only two of these quarks are stable and will not decay. 4 Electrons move in fixed orbits. But/Therefore, if they gain extra energy, they can jump to the next orbit away from the nucleus. 5 Electrons are attracted towards areas with a net positive charge. So/As, if we connect the casing and the terminal by means of a conducting wire, they will flow along the wire from the casing to the terminal.

C Form complete sentences using the connectors in the middle.


1 2 3 4 Im not very good at Maths Its raining hard Im picking Mr Gibson up at the station Its already 7 oclock as and so but a b c d I am the only one who knows him. I have to ask for my fathers help. I dont want to take a taxi. Peter is not here yet.

Check your progress


KEY WORDS How many of these words do you remember in English?
atomo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . attrazione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . carica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . corrente elettrica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . elettricit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . elettrone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . filo (elettrico) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fisica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fluire, flusso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . materia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . neutrone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nucleo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . orbita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . particella elementare/composta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . protone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TRANSLATION Translate this sentence into Italian.


a When the outer casing of a dry cell is connected to the centre terminal by means of a conducting wire, electrons will flow along the wire from the casing to the terminal, that is, from negative to positive.

Translate these sentences into English.


b In un atomo ci sono protoni, neutroni ed elettroni. Il nucleo costituito da protoni e neutroni, mentre (= while) gli elettroni si muovono in orbita attorno ad esso. c I gluoni sono particelle subatomiche. Ci sono sei gusti di gluoni; tuttavia solo i gluoni up e down si trovano in natura.

On Charge - Petrini 2008 De Agostini Scuola SpA - Novara