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SECTION 1

DIVISION ALGORTHM. Given positive intergers a and b, b 0 and such that a = bq+r and 0r<b.

EUCLIDEAN ALGORITHM. If a and b are positive intergers and b 0 and we know that a = bq+r b=rq1+r1 r=r1q2+r2 and and and . . rk=rk+1qk+2+rk+2 and 0rk+2<rk+1 rt-1=rtqt+1 and (a,b)=rt 0r<b 0r1<r 0r2<r1

For sufficiently large k, say k=t,

It follows that the sequence of numbers b>r>r1>r2>eventually goes to 0. It also follows that there exists a linear combination of (a,b). THEOREM 4. If (a,b)=d, ax+by=d. PROOF: Go backwards using the Euclidean Algorithm. COROLLARY 1. If and only if d|ab and (d,a)=1 then d|b. intergers x,y such that

Exercises 1
1. Calculate (314,159) and (4144, 7696) a. 314=159+155 i. 159=155+4 ii. 155=38*4+1 iii. 4=3+1 iv. GCD=1 b. 7696=4144+3552 i. 4144=3552+592 ii. 3552=592*6 iii. GCD=592 2. Calculate (3141, 1592) and (10001,100083) a. 3141=1592+1549 i. 1592=1549+43 ii. 1549=43(36)+1 iii. 43=1*43 iv. GCD=1 b. 100083=10001*10+73

c. 10001=73*137 d. GCD=73 3. Find x and y such that 314x+159y=1 a. 1=4-1*3 b. 1=4-1(155-38*4) c. 1=39*4-155 d. 1=39*(159-155)-155 e. 1=39*159-40*155 f. 1=39*159-40*(314-159) g. 1=79*159-40*159 h. x=79, y=-40 4. Find x and y such that 4144x+7696y=592 a. 592=3552-592*5 b. 592=[592(6-5)] c. 592=[4144-3552](1) d. 592=[4144-7696+4144] e. 592=2*4144-1*7696 5. If N=abc+1(N,a)=(N,b)=(N,c)=1 a. Proof by contradiction: i. Assume N=abc+1. We must prove (N,a)=(N,b)=(N,c)=1. Proceeding
by contradiction, suppose (N,a)=(N,b)=(N,c)=d such that ii. d1 iii. Then we know, d | N and d | abc. Thus, from our assumption, we see that d | 1, a contradiction. b. Proof :

i. Let d = (N, a), e = (N, b), and f = (N, c). Since d = (N, a), we see that d | N and d | a. Since d | a, we see that d | abc. Then d | (N - abc). Thus, d | 1. Then d = 1. Since e = (N, b), we see that e | N and e | b. Since e | b, we see that e | abc. Then e | (N - abc). Thus, e | 1. Then e = 1. Since f = (N, c), we see that f | N and f | c. Since f | c, we see that f | abc. Then f | (N - abc). Thus, f | 1. Then f = 1. Thus, (N, a) = (N, b) = (N, c) = 1. 6. Find two different solutions of 299x+247y=13 a. 13=52-39 b. 13=(52)-(247-52*4) c. 13=(299-247)-(247-(299-247*4)) d. 13=(299-247*2+299*4-247*4 e. 13=299*5-247*6 i. (x,y)=(5,-6) 7. Prove that if a|b and b|a a=b or a=-b. a. Direct Proof: i. Assume a|b and b|a and that a,b,x,y Z. It follows that a=bx and b=ay. Since a=bx b=(bx)y. Since b|b1=x(y) ii. Case 1: x=-1, y=-1 s.t. xy=1 1. It follows that a=b(-1)=-b and further that b=a(-1) = -a iii. Case 2: x=1, y=1, s.t. xy=1

1. It follows that a=b and further that b=a. iv. Thus a|b and b|a implies that a=b or a=-b. 8. Prove that if a|b and a>0 then (a,b)=a. a. Assume a|b and a>0 and that a,b,m Z. It follows that b=am. b. Case 1: gcd(a,m)=1 implies that a and m have no common factors. It follows with this and the statement a|b that (a,b)=a. c. Case 2: gcd(a,m)=c1 implies that cx=a and cy=m s.t. c<a, c<m. While c|b it still stands that since c<a, (a,b)=a. 15. a. If x2+ax+b=0 has an interger root show that it divides b. b. a. If x2+ax+b=0 has an rational root show that it is an integer.

Section 2: Unique Factorization


Definition: A prime is an interger that is greaterthan 1 and has no positive divisors other than itself and 1. Definition: An interger that is gretater than 1 but is not prime is called a composite precisely because it is a combination of primes. Note: 1 is neither prime nor composite but do refer to it as a unit. It follows that the set of intergers can be divided into three classes: primes, composites, and a unit. Lemma 1: Every interger n, n>1 is divisible by a prime. Proof: Consider the set of divisors of n that are less than n but greater than 1. It is either empty or nonempty. Case 1: The set is empty, then n is prime by definition, thus n has a prime divsoritself. Case 2: The set is nonempty, then the least-interger principle states that it has a smallest element, say d. If d had a disor greter than 1 and less than d, then so would n, but this is impossible because d was the sallest such divisor. Thus di is prime and n has a prime divisor, namely d. Lemma 2: Every interger n, n>1 can be written as aproduct of primes. Proof: From Lemma 1, we know that there is aprime p1 s.t. p1|n. That is n=p1n1 where 1n1<n. If n1=1, then we are done: n=p1 is an expression of n as aproduct of primes. If n1>1, then from Lemma 1 again there is a prime that divides n1. That isn1=p2n2 where p2 is a prime and 1n2<n1. If n2=1, then Lemma 1 once again states that n2=p3n3 where p3 is a prime and 1n3<n2. If n3=1, then we are done. If not we continue. We will sooner or later come to one of the ni=1 because n>n1>n2> and each n, is positive; such a sequence cannot continue forever with intergers. For some k, we will have nk=1 in which case n=p1p2p3.pk is the desired expression of n as a product of primes. Note that the same prime may occur several times in the product. Theorem 1 (Euclid). There are infinitely many primes. Lemma 3: If n is compositie, then it has a divisor d such that 1<dn1/2.

Lemma 4: If n is composite then it has a prime divisor less than or equal to n1/2. Lemma 5: If p|ab, then p|a or p|b. Lemma 6: If p|a1a2....ak, then p|ai for some i, i=1,2,3.,k. Lemma 7: If q1, q2,.,qn are primes, and p|q1q2.qnthen p=qk forsome k. Theorem 2: The Unique Factorization Theorem: Any positive interger can be written as a product of primes in one and only one way. Canonical representation of a positive integer Every positive integer n > 1 can be represented in exactly one way as a product of prime powers:

where p1 < p2 < ... < pk are primes and the i are positive integers; 1 is represented by the empty product. This representation is called the canonical representation of n, or the standard form of n. For example 999 = 3337, 1000 = 2353, 1001 = 71113 Note that factors p0 = 1 may be inserted without changing the value of n (e.g. 1000 = 233053). In fact, any positive integer can be uniquely represented as an infinite product taken over all the positive prime numbers,

where a finite number of the ni are positive integers, and the rest are zero. Allowing negative exponents provides a canonical form for positive rational numbers. Proof: The proof uses Euclid's lemma (Elements VII, 30): if a prime p divides the product of two natural numbers a and b, then p divides a or p divides b (or perhaps both). The article has proofs of the lemma. [edit] Existence By inspection, each of the small natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... is the product of primes. This is the basis for a proof by induction. Assume it is true for all numbers less than n. If n is prime, there is nothing more to prove. Otherwise, there are integers a and b, where n = ab and 1 < a b < n. By the induction hypothesis, a = p1p2...pn and b = q1q2...qm are products of primes. But then n = ab = p1p2...pnq1q2...qm is the product of primes. Uniqueness Assume that s > 1 is the product of prime numbers in two different ways:

We must show m = n and that the qj are a rearrangement of the pi.

By Euclid's lemma p1 must divide one of the qj; relabeling the qj if necessary, say that p1 divides q1. But q1 is prime, so its only divisors are itself and 1. Therefore, p1 = q1, so that

Reasoning the same way, p2 must equal one of the remaining qj. Relabeling again if necessary, say p2 = q2. Then

This can be done for all m of the pi, showing that m n. If there were any qj left over we would have

which is impossible, since the product of numbers greater than 1 cannot equal 1. Therefore m = n and every qj is a pi.

Definition: Prime power decomposition is where numbers are broken down in terms of their prime factors and numbers are written as products of prime factors including the use of index form.

Section 3: Linear Diophantine Equations


In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is an indeterminate polynomial equation that allows the variables to take integer values only. Diophantine problems have fewer equations than unknown variables and involve finding integers that work correctly for all equations. In more technical language, they define an algebraic curve, algebraic surface, or more general object, and ask about the lattice points on it. The word Diophantine refers to the Hellenistic mathematician of the 3rd century, Diophantus of Alexandria, who made a study of such equations and was one of the first mathematicians to introduce symbolism into algebra. The mathematical study of Diophantine problems Diophantus initiated is now called "Diophantine analysis". A linear Diophantine equation is an equation between two sums of monomials of degree zero or one. While individual equations present a kind of puzzle and have been considered throughout history, the formulation of general theories of Diophantine equations (beyond the theory of quadratic forms) was an achievement of the twentieth century.

The equation ax+by=c has an interger solution if and only if (a,b)|c. Lemma 1. If x0,y0 is a solution of ax+by=c, then so is x0+bt, y0-at forany interger t. Proof: We are given that ax0+by0=c. Thus

a(x0+bt)+b(y0-at)=ax0+abt+by0-bat =ax0+by0 =c So x0+bt, y0-at satisfies the equation too. Examples of Diophantine equations In the following Diophantine equations, x, y, and z are the unknowns, the other letters being given are constants. This is a linear Diophantine equation (see the section "Linear Diophantine equations" below). For n = 2 there are infinitely many solutions (x,y,z): the Pythagorean triples. For larger integer values of n, Fermat's Last Theorem states there are no positive integer solutions (x, y, z). (Pell's equation) which is named after the English mathematician John Pell. It was studied by Brahmagupta in the 7th century, as well as by Fermat in the 17th century. The ErdsStraus conjecture states that, for every positive integer n 2, there exists a solution in x, y, and z, all as positive integers. Although not usually stated in polynomial form, this example is equivalent to the polynomial equation 4xyz = yzn + xzn + xyn = n(yz + xz + xy).

Exercises 3
1. Find all integer solutions a. x+y=2 x=2-t and y=2-t b. 3x-4y=5 x=[5+4t]/3 and y=[3t-5]/4 i. 3|5+4t when t=1,4,7,.3n-2 ii. 4|3t-5 when t=3,7,114n-1 2. Find all itnerger solutions a. 2x+y=2, y=2-2t and x=[y-t]/2 3. Find 5 ways to use 100 coins to get 4.99 with pennies, dimes, and quarters. a. p+10d+25q=4.99 4. 51x+85y=1037 a. Does (51,85) exist? i. (51, 85)=17 b. Does 17|1037? i. Yes 17(61)=1037 c. 17=51-34*1 i. =51-[85-51]*1 ii. =51*2-85(-1) d. 1037=51(122)+85(-61) e. =51r+85s f. It follows that this is a Diophantine equation and is in fact solvable, therefore.

i.

SECTION 4: CONGRUENCES
We say that a is congruent to b modulo m (a b(mod m)) m|(a-b). Theorem 1. a b(mod m) there exists an interger k such that a=b+km. Proof: Suppose that a b(mod m). Then, form the definition of congruence,m|(a-b). From the definition of divisibility , we know that since there is an interger k such that km=a-b then a=b+km. Conversely, suppose that a=b+km. Theorem 2. Every integer is congruent (mod m)